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  1. 1. Chapter 21 South Africa and It’s Neighbors
  2. 2. South Africa <ul><li>Capital: Pretoria </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 44,187,637 </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources: gold, chromium, coal </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Issues: lack of rivers and lakes, air pollution, desertification </li></ul>
  3. 3. South Africa <ul><li>Spreads across the southern end of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Three times the size of California </li></ul><ul><li>Landscapes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Winding coastlines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tall mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep valleys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High plateaus </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. South Africa <ul><li>Enclaves - small countries surrounded or nearly surrounded by a larger country. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lesotho </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swaziland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coasts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>West coast borders the Atlantic Ocean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South and east coast borders the Indian Ocean </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. South Africa <ul><li>Cape of Good Hope- the southernmost point of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Great Karroo- a dry flat land between the mountain ranges of southern Africa </li></ul><ul><li>High Veld- south African plateau made up of flat, grass-covered plains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolated rocky hills rise as high as 100 feet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Great Escarpment- mountains and cliffs that circle the plateau and divide the coastal areas </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Climate <ul><li>Lies south of the Equator </li></ul><ul><li>Winter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cool and sunny, some rainfall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperatures sometimes drop to freezing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Summer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mild due to high elevation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cape Town- a major port city </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern warm winds from the Indian Ocean bring a humid subtropical climate </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Economy <ul><li>Has the most developed economy in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>½ of Africa’s minerals are mined in S.A. </li></ul><ul><li>2/5 of Africa’s manufactured goods come from South Africa </li></ul><ul><li>In rural areas, South Africans are poor and depend on subsistence farming </li></ul>
  8. 8. Economy <ul><li>South Africa is one of the richest countries in the world </li></ul><ul><li>1/3 of all gold is mined there </li></ul><ul><li>Witwatersrand- an area around the city of Johannesburg holds the largest goldfield </li></ul><ul><li>South Africa also contains the world’s largest deposits of diamonds </li></ul>
  9. 9. Economy <ul><li>Manufacturing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial workers produce manufactured goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exports metal products, chemicals, clothing, and processed foods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Farming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is either too dry or too hilly to farm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grow enough food for themselves and some to export </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herding sheep and livestock is a major economic activity on the plateau </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. People <ul><li>74% of the population is made up of various African ethnic groups </li></ul><ul><li>14% of the people are of European origin </li></ul><ul><li>3% of the people are of Asian origin </li></ul><ul><li>9% are a mixed of European, Asian, and African </li></ul>
  11. 11. People <ul><li>Apartheid - “apartness” or practices that separated South Africans of different ethnic groups </li></ul><ul><li>Townships- neighborhoods outside cities </li></ul><ul><li>57% of people live in urban areas </li></ul>
  12. 12. Recent history in South Africa <ul><li>1994- Mandela became president (all races were able to vote for the 1 st time) </li></ul><ul><li>1997- new constitution went into effect to complete the transition from white minority rule to democracy </li></ul>
  13. 13. Mandela’s Government <ul><li>Tried to improve the lives of blacks while keeping support of other races </li></ul><ul><li>Promised to preserve free enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>Brought South Africa’s economy to the strongest in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Stepped down in 1999, ANC leader Thabo Mbeki became president </li></ul>
  14. 14. South Africa’s continued problems <ul><li>1/3 of South African’s were unemployed </li></ul><ul><li>¼ lived in inadequate housing </li></ul><ul><li>1/5 have HIV (highest incidence in the world) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Section 2 Atlantic Countries
  16. 16. Angola <ul><li>Capital: Luanda </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 12,127,071 </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources: petroleum, diamonds, iron ore </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Issues: overuse of pastures, soil erosion; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest </li></ul>
  17. 17. Angola <ul><li>Larger than Texas and California combined </li></ul><ul><li>Includes a tiny exclave called Cabinda </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exclave- is a tiny area of a country that is separated from the main part </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Angola <ul><li>Huge inland plateau </li></ul><ul><li>Rivers cross Angola draining into the Congo River in the North and the Atlantic and Indian Oceans </li></ul><ul><li>Hilly grasslands cover northern Angola </li></ul><ul><li>Lowland has little vegetation except for rainforests in the North </li></ul>
  19. 19. Angola <ul><li>Three types of Climates: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steppe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical savanna </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The tropical savanna receives enough rainfall for farming </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Economy <ul><li>Major economic activity is agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>58% of the people live in rural areas </li></ul><ul><li>Coffee is the leading export crop </li></ul><ul><li>Oil and mining provide for most of the income </li></ul><ul><li>Most oil deposits are found off the coast of Cabinda </li></ul>
  21. 21. Namibia <ul><li>Capital: Windhoek </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 2,044,147 </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources: diamonds, copper, uranium, gold </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Issues: very limited natural fresh water resources; desertification; wildlife poaching </li></ul>
  22. 22. Namibia <ul><li>Became independent in 1990 after 75 years of South African rule </li></ul><ul><li>Is about half the size of Alaska </li></ul><ul><li>Namib Desert runs almost the entire length of Namibia’s Atlantic Coast </li></ul><ul><li>The Kalahari Desert stretches across the southernmost part of the country </li></ul><ul><li>Very hot and dry climate </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Economy <ul><li>Depends on the export of minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Has a major difficulty in feeding its people, due to the desert climate </li></ul><ul><li>Most Namibians are herders who raise cattle, goats, and sheep </li></ul>
  24. 24. Namibia <ul><li>Receives just enough rainfall to grow corn </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most sparsely populated countries in Africa </li></ul>
  25. 25. Section 3 Inland Southern Africa
  26. 26. Zambia <ul><li>Capital: Lusaka </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 11,502,010 </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources: copper, cobalt, zinc </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Issues: air pollution and resulting acid rain </li></ul>
  27. 27. Zambia <ul><li>Landlocked and near the equator </li></ul><ul><li>Mild climate due to high elevation </li></ul><ul><li>Covered by a high plateau </li></ul><ul><li>Kariba Dam- one of Africa’s hydroelectric projects on the Zambezi River </li></ul>
  28. 28. Economy <ul><li>One of the world’s largest producers of copper </li></ul><ul><ul><li>80% of Zambia’s income </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copper belt- a large area of copper mines in northern Zambia near the border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Must import food due to a focus on mining </li></ul>
  29. 29. The People <ul><li>More than 70 different ethnic groups </li></ul><ul><li>Speak 8 different languages </li></ul><ul><li>40% of the people live in urban areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most work in mining or service industries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The other 60% live in villages & raise corn and other subsistence food crops </li></ul>
  30. 30. Malawi <ul><li>Capital: Lilongue </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 13,013,926 </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources: limestone, arable land, hydropower </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Issues: deforestation; land degradation </li></ul>
  31. 31. Malawi <ul><li>In some place is less than 50 miles wide </li></ul><ul><li>Great Rift Valley runs through the country North to South </li></ul><ul><li>Lies in the tropics, but mountains and plateaus give it a mild climate </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most densely populated countries in Africa </li></ul>
  32. 32. Economy <ul><li>Only 1/3 is suitable for farming </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture is the country’s major economic activity </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tea is a major export </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sorghum- tall grass with seeds like corn </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Zimbabwe <ul><li>Capital: Harare </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 12,236,805 </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources: coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Issues: soil erosion; land degradation; air and water pollution </li></ul>
  34. 34. Zimbabwe <ul><li>Occupies a high plateau </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical savanna climate of wet and dry seasons </li></ul><ul><li>High elevations keep temperatures cool and pleasant </li></ul>
  35. 35. Economy <ul><li>Mining provides most of the income </li></ul><ul><li>½ of the land is fertile for farming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They grow coffee and tobacco on commercial farms for export </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. People <ul><li>Most belong to two African ethnic groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shona & Ndeble </li></ul></ul><ul><li>70% live in rural villages </li></ul><ul><li>Some moving to the city to find factory jobs </li></ul>
  37. 37. Botswana <ul><li>Capital: Gaborone </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 1,639,833 </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources: diamonds, copper, nickel </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental issues: overgrazing; desertification </li></ul>
  38. 38. Botswana <ul><li>Most isolated country in the inland of Southern Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Southwestern Botswana is home to the Kalahari Desert </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern- made up of grasses, bushes, and trees of the savanna </li></ul><ul><li>Okawango River flows through the Northwest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the largest swamp areas in the world </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. The Economy <ul><li>Rich in mineral resources </li></ul><ul><li>Mining only provides a small number of jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Most farm or raise livestock </li></ul><ul><li>Drought in the 1980s brought hardships to the farmers </li></ul>
  40. 40. The People <ul><li>Has very few people due to large size </li></ul><ul><li>75% live in rural areas, some moving to the city every year </li></ul>
  41. 41. Section 4 Indian Ocean Countries
  42. 42. Mozambique <ul><li>Capital: Maputo </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 19,686,505 </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources: coal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Issues: civil war and recurrent drought </li></ul>
  43. 43. Mozambique <ul><li>Landscapes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sand lowlands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High plateaus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tall mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sand dunes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swamps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat plain near the center of the country </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gabora Bassa Dam on the Zambezi River provides electric power to most of the country </li></ul>
  44. 44. The Economy <ul><li>Mostly farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Practices slash and burn agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They cut and burn forest trees to clear areas for planting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Major source of income comes from seaports </li></ul><ul><li>Civil war in the 1980s and 1990s slowed industrial growth </li></ul>
  45. 45. Madagascar <ul><li>Capital: Antananarivo </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 18,595,469 </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources: graphite, chromite, coal </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Issues: soil erosion results from deforestation and overgrazing </li></ul>
  46. 46. Madagascar <ul><li>Island nation in the Indian Ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Highland areas cross the middle of the country </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal areas have warm, humid plains, and fertile river valleys </li></ul><ul><li>Dry grasslands cover southern Madagascar </li></ul><ul><li>Has many plants and animals that are not found anywhere else on earth </li></ul>
  47. 47. Economy <ul><li>Agriculture is the chief economic activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coffee is the leading export </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces most of the world’s vanilla beans </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Comoros <ul><li>4 mountainous islands formed from volcanoes </li></ul><ul><li>Covered by thick tropical forests </li></ul><ul><li>Farming is a major economic activity </li></ul>
  49. 49. Mauritius <ul><li>Capital: Port Louis </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 1,240,827 </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources: arable land, fish </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Issues: water pollution, degradation of coral reefs </li></ul>