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GEOsouthasia
 

GEOsouthasia

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    GEOsouthasia GEOsouthasia Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 22 India Section 1
    • India
      • Capital: New Dehli
      • Population: 1,095,351,995
      • Natural Resources: coal, iron ore, manganese
      • Environmental Issues: deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing
    • India
      • Takes up about 75% of the land area of South Asia
      • Is 1/3 the Size of the United States
    • Mountains
      • Form the Northern Border of India
      • Karakoram Range and the Himalayas
      • The Himalayas
        • Made up of several ranges
        • More than 1500 miles long
        • World’s tallest Mountains
          • Average more than 5 miles in height
    • Vindhya Range
      • Divides the country North and South
    • Eastern and Western Ghats
      • Along the Eastern and Western coast of India
    • Plains and Plateaus
      • Ganges Plain
        • Located between the Himalayas in the north and the Vindhya Range in the south
        • Has the most fertile soil in India
        • The Ganges River runs through the Ganges Plain
    • Deccan Plateau
      • Triangle-shaped landmass that makes up 2/3 rd of southern India
      • Forest are found in the region
      • The is some fertile farmland
      • It is rich in mineral deposits
    • Climate
      • Warm and hot most of the year
        • Because the Himalayas block cold northern air
      • Monsoons
        • Causes India to have three seasons
        • Cool - November-February
        • Hot – April
          • Dry air from the north
        • Rainy – May – October
          • Winds reverse direction and bring moist air from the Indian Ocean
    • Economy
      • Agriculture and industry are important to India
      • India’s government would like to increase production and improve India’s standard of living
    • Farming
      • Subsistence farming is the main type of farming in India
      • The cow is sacred
      • Most farmers work only small plots of ground
      • India’s the world’s second largest producer of rice
      • Also produce tea, sugarcane, wheat, barley, cotton, and jute
    • The People
      • 4000 years ago – first Indian civilization developed in present day Pakistan
      • 1500 B.C. Aryans invaded India
      • Brought the religion of Hinduism to India
      • Set up the Caste System
      • 74% live in rural villages
      • Cities are overcrowded
    • Caste System
      • A caste is a hereditary Hindu social class that determines each individual’s occupation and status. The caste system is a social system that keeps the four castes segregated.
    • Reincarnation
      • People of India believe that all living things that have souls are part of one spirit. When someone dies they are reborn and returns to the earth. If you reach perfection then you go to a higher state of existence.
      • Cows are sacred.
    • Section 2 Muslim South Asia
    • Pakistan
      • Capital: Islamabad
      • Population: 165,803,560
      • Natural Resources: land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum
      • Environmental Issues: water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes
    • Pakistan
      • About the size of Texas
      • Independent due to Muslim religion, broke of from India which is Hindu
    • Land and Climate
      • Landscapes:
        • snow-topped mountains
        • High plateaus
        • Fertile plains
        • Sandy deserts
      • Climates:
        • Desert
        • Steppe
        • Mountains block cold air from the north
    • The Economy
      • Earn a living by farming
        • Wheat, cotton, corn
      • Craft workers participate in cottage industries
        • Metalware, pottery, and carpets
    • People
      • 97% are Muslim
      • 72% of the population live in rural villages
      • Most people in the cities are factory workers, shopkeepers, and craft workers
    • Pakistan
      • Is an ally of the U.S. war on terror
      • It is believed that Osama Bin Laden has been or is living in Pakistan
    • Bangladesh
      • Capital: Dhaka
      • Population: 147,365,352
      • Natural Resources: natural gas, arable land, timber, coal
      • Environmental Issues: forced to live on and cultivate flood-prone land; water-borne diseases prevalent in surface water; water pollution
    • The Land
      • Has two major rivers:
      • Brahmaputra River
      • Ganges River
      • Delta: land formed by mud and sand at the mouth of a river
    • Climate
      • Has a tropical and humid subtropical climate
      • Monsoons affect the country
      • Cyclone cause flooding which kills many people and animals and ruins their crops
    • The Economy
      • Depends on farming
      • Farmers raise rice, sugarcane, and jute
      • Teak is also harvested from the tropical forests
    • The People
      • Population: 123 million people
      • 86% live in rural areas
      • They live in homes made of bamboo and thatch
      • 87% are Muslim
    • Section 3 The Himalayan Countries
    • Nepal
      • Capital: Kathmandu
      • Population: 28,287,147
      • Natural Resources: quartz, water, timber, hydropower
      • Environmental Issues: deforestation, contaminated water
    • Nepal
      • Abominable snowman- myth about a gigantic, apelike beast that roams the mountainous wilderness
      • About the size of North Carolina
      • The Himalayan mountains cover 80% of Nepal’s land area
    • Nepal
      • 8 of 10 largest mountains in the world are located here
      • Mount Everest is the tallest peak in the world at 29,028 feet
    • The Land
      • Mountains
      • Hills and valleys lie south of the mountains
        • Thick forests and bamboo grasses
      • Flat fertile river plain runs along the border with India
      • Various climates
        • Mountainous areas long harsh winters and cool summers
        • Valley areas- cool climate, heavy summer rains
        • Plains- humid subtropical climate
    • The Economy
      • Depends almost entirely on farming
      • Farmers trade surplus crops for other items
      • Carries on limited trade with the rest of the world due to the lack of roads and railroads
      • The tourist industry is growing because of climbers and hikers that enjoy the mountains
    • The People
      • Most people are related to peoples in Northern India or Tibet
      • The Sherpa- are know for being great mountain guides
      • 90% live in rural villages
      • Follow a form of Hinduism and mixed Buddhist practices
    • Bhutan
      • Capital: Thimphu
      • Population: 2,279,723
      • Natural Resources: timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbonate
      • Environmental Issues: soil erosion; limited access to potable water
    • Bhutan
      • About the size of New Hampshire and Vermont together
      • Land and Economy
        • Himalayan mountains
        • Foothills of the mountains the climate is mild
        • To the south, subtropical plains and river valleys
        • Most people are subsistence farmers
        • Commercial farms and hydroelectric plants have been set up with the help of India
    • The People
      • Most speak a Dzongkha dialect
      • Not as isolated as they used to be
      • Very loyal to the Buddhist faith
        • Dzongs- Buddhist centers of prayer and faith
    • Section 4 Island Countries
    • Sri Lanka
      • Capital: Colombo
      • Population: 20,222,240
      • Natural Resources: limestone, graphite, mineral sands, gems
      • Environmental Issues: deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by poaching and urbanization
    • Sri Lanka
      • Land
      • Island that is shaped like a pear.
      • Size of West Virginia
      • Contains lowlands and highlands
      • Known for white beaches and thick forests
      • Rivers flow the down the mountains, providing irrigation for crops
    • Economy
      • Farming
      • Lowland – rice is grown
      • Highland – tea, rubber, coconuts
        • One of the world’s leading producers of tea and rubber.
      • Natural Resources
        • Gemstones
        • Wood – ebony and satinwood
    • The People
      • Two major ethnic groups
        • Sinhalese 74% of the population
        • Tamils 18% of the population
      • Regardless of their ethnic group, they value their history and the arts
    • Maldives
      • Capital: Male
      • Population: 359,008
      • Natural Resources: fish
      • Environmental Issues: depletion of freshwater aquifers threatens water supplies; global warming and sea level rise
    • Maldives
      • Made up of 1,200 coral islands
      • Only 200 have people living on them
      • Atolls- ring-shaped coral reef or low-lying island surrounding a small bay
      • Lagoons- pool of water surrounded by reefs or sandbars
    • Maldives
      • Climate is warm and humid
      • Monsoons bring plenty of rain
      • The people are skilled sailors
      • Fishing is their major economic activity
      • Tourists have been attracted to sandy beaches and coral formations