Foreign Policy


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Foreign Policy

  2. 2. <ul><li>Every nation has a foreign policy ---a systematic & general plan that guides the nation’s attitudes & actions toward the rest of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Deals w/many different topics; diplomatic, military, commercial, & others. </li></ul><ul><li>Involves such matters as treaties & alliances, international trade, the defense budget, foreign economic & military aid, the United Nations, & nuclear weapons testing. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Basic purpose of American Foreign Policy has always been to protect the national security of the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>National Security —Refers to the nation’s independence & freedom from unwanted interference, threat, or takeover by other nations. </li></ul><ul><li>Defense Policy ---Protecting the nation through military preparedness. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Nation’s founders believed in isolationism ---avoiding political involvement with other nations. </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. tried to stay out of other nations’ conflicts, particularly European Wars. </li></ul><ul><li>Washington urged Americans “to steer clear of permanent alliances w/any portion of the foreign world.” </li></ul><ul><li>Jefferson later echoed this: “Peace, commerce, & honest friendship with all nations, entangling alliances w/none.” </li></ul><ul><li>Americans changed their minds in the 1820’s. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>1823, President Monroe proclaimed what has become known as the Monroe Doctrine . </li></ul><ul><li>Stated that the U.S. would not accept foreign intervention in the Western Hemisphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Declared that the U.S. would look on “any attempt on the part of other nations to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our peace & security.” </li></ul><ul><li>In return, the U.S. would not interfere in European affairs. </li></ul><ul><li>Interventionism —Direct involvement in foreign affairs. </li></ul>
  6. 6. State & Defense Department <ul><li>State Department is headed by the Secretary of State. </li></ul><ul><li>President looks for advice in both the formulation & conduct of the nation’s foreign policy. </li></ul><ul><li>Secretary of State is the highest ranking official in the cabinet. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Foreign Service <ul><li>Under international law every nation has the right to legation ---the right to send & receive diplomatic representatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Ben Franklin was the 1 st American (France, 1778.) </li></ul><ul><li>Ambassadors ---A personal representative appointed by the head of a nation to represent that nation in matters of diplomacy. </li></ul><ul><li>Ambassadors are stationed at the capital of each nation the U.S. recognizes. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Personal representative of the President, & he/she reports to the President through the Secretary of State. </li></ul><ul><li>Embassy ---The office of an ambassador to a foreign nation. </li></ul><ul><li>An embassy staff usually includes political, military, & economic aides. </li></ul><ul><li>An American consulate is an official who is assigned to promote American business interests in foreign cities. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>The consul & his/her staff handle questions & problems about business requirements, transportation, & interpretation of foreign laws. </li></ul><ul><li>Must keep the President fully informed of events in the host country, negotiate diplomatic agreements, & do whatever else in the best interests of the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Must know the language, history, customs & culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Ambassadors are regularly granted diplomatic immunity. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Diplomatic Immunity —Are not subject to the laws of the state to which they are accredited. Cannot be arrested, sued or taxed. </li></ul><ul><li>The mistreatment of diplomats is a major breach to international law. </li></ul><ul><li>Secretary of Defense </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as the President’s chief aide & advisor in making & carrying out defense policy. </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as operating head of the Defense Department. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>There are three military departments within the Department of Defense: Army, Navy, & Air Force. </li></ul><ul><li>Marine Corps, which is under the jurisdiction of the Navy, maintains its own leadership & identity. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Selective Service System <ul><li>Two methods are used to recruit citizens into the armed services. </li></ul><ul><li>Volunteer enlistment. Any person who has a high school diploma may choose to enlist after fulfilling the requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Draft —Signing up for the selective service. The selection of persons for compulsory military duty. </li></ul><ul><li>Draft was used from 1940-1973. </li></ul>
  13. 13. CIA <ul><li>The Central Intelligence Agency </li></ul><ul><li>Created in 1947. </li></ul><ul><li>Works under the National Security Council. </li></ul><ul><li>Three major tasks: </li></ul><ul><li>1. To coordinate the information gathering activities of all State, Defense, & other federal agencies involved in the areas of foreign affairs & national defense. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>2. To analyze & evaluate all data collected by those agencies. </li></ul><ul><li>3. To brief the President & NSC. </li></ul><ul><li>CIA conducts worldwide intelligence operations. </li></ul><ul><li>Espionage —Spying </li></ul><ul><li>Much of work in secret---budget is disguised. </li></ul><ul><li>THE NATIONAL SECURITY ACT OF 1947 EXPRESSLY DENIES THE CIA THE AUTHORITY TO CONDUCT INVESTIGATIONS, SURVEILLANCE , OR OTHER CLANDESTINE ACTIVITES WITHIN THE U.S. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Department of Homeland Security
  16. 16. Department of Homeland Security <ul><li>Charged w/ the task of protecting the U.S. from terrorism. </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorism —The use of violence to intimidate a government or society, usually for political or ideological reasons. </li></ul><ul><li>Created in 2002, operational in 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for the coordination & the direction of all antiterrorist activities of all public agencies operating in the field of domestic security. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Prior terror attacks <ul><li>1983, Beirut, Lebanon—car bomb, 63 dead, Islamic Jihad </li></ul><ul><li>1983, Beirut, Lebanon—truck bomb, 241 marines killed, Shiite </li></ul><ul><li>1985, Mediterranean Sea—Achille Lauro, 1 killed, linked to Libya </li></ul><ul><li>1988 Lockerbie, Scotland---Pan Am 747 exploded, killing 270, linked to Libya </li></ul><ul><li>1993, WTC—six killed, linked to Al-Qaeda </li></ul><ul><li>1995, Oklahoma City---car bomb, 168 dead, U.S. terrorism </li></ul>
  18. 18. Homeland Security Act of 2002 <ul><li>Gives the Homeland Security Department major operating responsibilities in five specific areas: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Border & transportation security </li></ul><ul><li>2. Infrastructure protection </li></ul><ul><li>3. Emergency preparedness & response </li></ul><ul><li>4. Chemical, biological, radiological, & nuclear defense </li></ul><ul><li>5. Information analysis </li></ul>
  19. 19. Best Case Scenario <ul><li>1. Most terrorists attacks will be thwarted or their impacts will at least be minimized. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Those responsible for the attacks will be rooted out and brought to justice. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Goals of American Foreign Policy <ul><li>1. World Peace —Staying out of wars. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Economic Prosperity ---Nation must be economically strong in order to be secure. Also depends on free & open trade w/ other countries. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Human Rights ---The basic privileges to which all people are naturally entitled. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Human Rights (Cont.) </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. supports human rights by publicly criticizing human rights violations committed by other nations. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Democracy ---Encourage democratic forms of government. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Tools of American Foreign Policy <ul><li>1. Diplomacy ---Total process of conducting political relations with other countries, including settling differences & conflicts through peaceful means. </li></ul><ul><li>*Most important. </li></ul><ul><li>*Usually carried out by diplomats, but can be handled by President. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>2. Foreign Aid ---Goes primarily to nations that support U.S. foreign policy goals. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Alliances & Pacts </li></ul><ul><li>Alliance —A group of nations or individuals joined together for a common purpose, which may be military, economic, or political. </li></ul><ul><li>Multilateral treaties ---Signed by a group of several nations. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.) NATO, OAS, Warsaw Pact (no longer exists) </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>4. Trade measures </li></ul><ul><li>*Terms under which the U.S. trades w/other countries. </li></ul><ul><li>* Economic Sanctions ---Measures by which the government withholds trade benefits, supplies, or economic aid to pressure a foreign government to cease certain activities. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Military Force </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. has declared war on five occasions. </li></ul><ul><li>When? </li></ul>
  25. 25. American Foreign Policy: Past & Present <ul><li>* Monroe Doctrine </li></ul><ul><li>* Continental Expansion. Idea of “ Manifest Destiny ” surfaced. Most Americans believed this nation’s “destiny” was to expand its boundaries to the Pacific Ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>--*-- Annexation of Texas </li></ul><ul><li>--*-- Oregon country obtained </li></ul><ul><li>--*-- SW U.S.A. after the Mexican War </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>--*-- Gadsden Purchase </li></ul><ul><li>--*-- Purchasing of Alaska </li></ul><ul><li>* Became a first class power in politics during the Spanish-American War in 1898. </li></ul><ul><li>--*-- Philippines & Guam </li></ul><ul><li>--*-- Puerto Rico </li></ul><ul><li>--*-- Hawaii annexed. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Good Neighbor Policy <ul><li>FDR attempted to win friends in Latin & South America. </li></ul><ul><li>This occurred after the “Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine” (Teddy Roosevelt) </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. interference was resented in the region in the early 1900’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Panama Canal </li></ul><ul><li>Virgin Islands </li></ul>
  28. 28. Open Door Policy-China <ul><li>Promoted equal trade access for all nations & demanded that China’s independence & sovereignty over its own territory be preserved. </li></ul><ul><li>1899 </li></ul><ul><li>Hurt relations between U.S. & Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Cuts ties with China in 1949 when the Communists took over. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. did not reestablish ties fully until 1979. </li></ul>
  29. 29. WWI & WWII <ul><li>WWI --- “to make the world safe for democracy.” </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. refused to join the League of Nations </li></ul><ul><li>Isolationism </li></ul><ul><li>WWII---Pearl Harbor </li></ul>
  30. 30. Foreign Policy Since 1945 <ul><li>Collective Security —A system in which participating nations agree to take joint action to meet any threat to, or attack on another member. </li></ul><ul><li>*Idea helped to create the U.N. in 1945. </li></ul><ul><li>Deterrence ---Policy of making America & its allies so strong that its very strength will deter (prevent) any attack. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Truman Doctrine & Containment <ul><li>Cold War ---Period of more than 40 years during which relations between the two superpowers were tense & often hostile. </li></ul><ul><li>Greece & Turkey were in danger of falling to the communists. </li></ul><ul><li>1947, Truman requested a massive program of economic & military aid. </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Containment —Communism, if held within its existing boundaries, would collapse under the weight of its internal weakness. </li></ul><ul><li>Berlin Blockade ---Split of Berlin into four sectors (Soviet, U.S., British, French.) 1948, Soviets tried to force the other nations out, with a land blockade. U.S. airlift for 1 ½ years. </li></ul><ul><li>Cuban Missile Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Soviet build-up by 1962 </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy ordered a naval blockade. </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>We would attack if missiles were not removed. </li></ul><ul><li>“ At the brink of war.” </li></ul><ul><li>Soviets backed down. </li></ul><ul><li>Korean War ---Began in 1950. </li></ul><ul><li>South Korea attacked by North Korea. </li></ul><ul><li>War lasted three years, but peace terms never agreed upon. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S./South Korea (UN) vs. North Korea/China </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Vietnam War </li></ul><ul><li>Really started in 1954, not 1965. </li></ul><ul><li>Ended in 1975. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. rescued the French & the South Vietnamese, but sunk themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>After Vietnam, the Nixon administration embarked on a policy of détente . </li></ul><ul><li>Détente --- “a relaxation of tensions.” </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to improve relations w/Soviet Union & China. </li></ul><ul><li>Soviet Union collapsed in 1991. </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Persian Gulf War ---1991 </li></ul><ul><li>Campaign to drive Iraq out of Kuwait. </li></ul><ul><li>International coalition, led by the U.S., launched Operation Desert Storm. </li></ul><ul><li>War ended less than six weeks later. </li></ul><ul><li>Today </li></ul><ul><li>Al Qaida </li></ul><ul><li>“ Axis of Evil”----consisting of Iraq, Iran, North Korea. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Five times U.S. has declared war: <ul><li>Britain 1812 </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico 1848 </li></ul><ul><li>Spain 1898 </li></ul><ul><li>WWI 1917 </li></ul><ul><li>WWII 1941 </li></ul>