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Foreign Policy
 

Foreign Policy

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    Foreign Policy Foreign Policy Presentation Transcript

    • AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY
      • Every nation has a foreign policy ---a systematic & general plan that guides the nation’s attitudes & actions toward the rest of the world.
      • Deals w/many different topics; diplomatic, military, commercial, & others.
      • Involves such matters as treaties & alliances, international trade, the defense budget, foreign economic & military aid, the United Nations, & nuclear weapons testing.
      • Basic purpose of American Foreign Policy has always been to protect the national security of the U.S.
      • National Security —Refers to the nation’s independence & freedom from unwanted interference, threat, or takeover by other nations.
      • Defense Policy ---Protecting the nation through military preparedness.
      • Nation’s founders believed in isolationism ---avoiding political involvement with other nations.
      • The U.S. tried to stay out of other nations’ conflicts, particularly European Wars.
      • Washington urged Americans “to steer clear of permanent alliances w/any portion of the foreign world.”
      • Jefferson later echoed this: “Peace, commerce, & honest friendship with all nations, entangling alliances w/none.”
      • Americans changed their minds in the 1820’s.
      • 1823, President Monroe proclaimed what has become known as the Monroe Doctrine .
      • Stated that the U.S. would not accept foreign intervention in the Western Hemisphere.
      • Declared that the U.S. would look on “any attempt on the part of other nations to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our peace & security.”
      • In return, the U.S. would not interfere in European affairs.
      • Interventionism —Direct involvement in foreign affairs.
    • State & Defense Department
      • State Department is headed by the Secretary of State.
      • President looks for advice in both the formulation & conduct of the nation’s foreign policy.
      • Secretary of State is the highest ranking official in the cabinet.
    • Foreign Service
      • Under international law every nation has the right to legation ---the right to send & receive diplomatic representatives.
      • Ben Franklin was the 1 st American (France, 1778.)
      • Ambassadors ---A personal representative appointed by the head of a nation to represent that nation in matters of diplomacy.
      • Ambassadors are stationed at the capital of each nation the U.S. recognizes.
      • Personal representative of the President, & he/she reports to the President through the Secretary of State.
      • Embassy ---The office of an ambassador to a foreign nation.
      • An embassy staff usually includes political, military, & economic aides.
      • An American consulate is an official who is assigned to promote American business interests in foreign cities.
      • The consul & his/her staff handle questions & problems about business requirements, transportation, & interpretation of foreign laws.
      • Must keep the President fully informed of events in the host country, negotiate diplomatic agreements, & do whatever else in the best interests of the U.S.
      • Must know the language, history, customs & culture.
      • Ambassadors are regularly granted diplomatic immunity.
      • Diplomatic Immunity —Are not subject to the laws of the state to which they are accredited. Cannot be arrested, sued or taxed.
      • The mistreatment of diplomats is a major breach to international law.
      • Secretary of Defense
      • Acts as the President’s chief aide & advisor in making & carrying out defense policy.
      • Acts as operating head of the Defense Department.
      • There are three military departments within the Department of Defense: Army, Navy, & Air Force.
      • Marine Corps, which is under the jurisdiction of the Navy, maintains its own leadership & identity.
    • Selective Service System
      • Two methods are used to recruit citizens into the armed services.
      • Volunteer enlistment. Any person who has a high school diploma may choose to enlist after fulfilling the requirements.
      • Draft —Signing up for the selective service. The selection of persons for compulsory military duty.
      • Draft was used from 1940-1973.
    • CIA
      • The Central Intelligence Agency
      • Created in 1947.
      • Works under the National Security Council.
      • Three major tasks:
      • 1. To coordinate the information gathering activities of all State, Defense, & other federal agencies involved in the areas of foreign affairs & national defense.
      • 2. To analyze & evaluate all data collected by those agencies.
      • 3. To brief the President & NSC.
      • CIA conducts worldwide intelligence operations.
      • Espionage —Spying
      • Much of work in secret---budget is disguised.
      • THE NATIONAL SECURITY ACT OF 1947 EXPRESSLY DENIES THE CIA THE AUTHORITY TO CONDUCT INVESTIGATIONS, SURVEILLANCE , OR OTHER CLANDESTINE ACTIVITES WITHIN THE U.S.
    • Department of Homeland Security
    • Department of Homeland Security
      • Charged w/ the task of protecting the U.S. from terrorism.
      • Terrorism —The use of violence to intimidate a government or society, usually for political or ideological reasons.
      • Created in 2002, operational in 2003.
      • Responsible for the coordination & the direction of all antiterrorist activities of all public agencies operating in the field of domestic security.
    • Prior terror attacks
      • 1983, Beirut, Lebanon—car bomb, 63 dead, Islamic Jihad
      • 1983, Beirut, Lebanon—truck bomb, 241 marines killed, Shiite
      • 1985, Mediterranean Sea—Achille Lauro, 1 killed, linked to Libya
      • 1988 Lockerbie, Scotland---Pan Am 747 exploded, killing 270, linked to Libya
      • 1993, WTC—six killed, linked to Al-Qaeda
      • 1995, Oklahoma City---car bomb, 168 dead, U.S. terrorism
    • Homeland Security Act of 2002
      • Gives the Homeland Security Department major operating responsibilities in five specific areas:
      • 1. Border & transportation security
      • 2. Infrastructure protection
      • 3. Emergency preparedness & response
      • 4. Chemical, biological, radiological, & nuclear defense
      • 5. Information analysis
    • Best Case Scenario
      • 1. Most terrorists attacks will be thwarted or their impacts will at least be minimized.
      • 2. Those responsible for the attacks will be rooted out and brought to justice.
    • Goals of American Foreign Policy
      • 1. World Peace —Staying out of wars.
      • 2. Economic Prosperity ---Nation must be economically strong in order to be secure. Also depends on free & open trade w/ other countries.
      • 3. Human Rights ---The basic privileges to which all people are naturally entitled.
      • Human Rights (Cont.)
      • The U.S. supports human rights by publicly criticizing human rights violations committed by other nations.
      • 4. Democracy ---Encourage democratic forms of government.
    • Tools of American Foreign Policy
      • 1. Diplomacy ---Total process of conducting political relations with other countries, including settling differences & conflicts through peaceful means.
      • *Most important.
      • *Usually carried out by diplomats, but can be handled by President.
      • 2. Foreign Aid ---Goes primarily to nations that support U.S. foreign policy goals.
      • 3. Alliances & Pacts
      • Alliance —A group of nations or individuals joined together for a common purpose, which may be military, economic, or political.
      • Multilateral treaties ---Signed by a group of several nations.
      • Ex.) NATO, OAS, Warsaw Pact (no longer exists)
      • 4. Trade measures
      • *Terms under which the U.S. trades w/other countries.
      • * Economic Sanctions ---Measures by which the government withholds trade benefits, supplies, or economic aid to pressure a foreign government to cease certain activities.
      • 5. Military Force
      • U.S. has declared war on five occasions.
      • When?
    • American Foreign Policy: Past & Present
      • * Monroe Doctrine
      • * Continental Expansion. Idea of “ Manifest Destiny ” surfaced. Most Americans believed this nation’s “destiny” was to expand its boundaries to the Pacific Ocean.
      • --*-- Annexation of Texas
      • --*-- Oregon country obtained
      • --*-- SW U.S.A. after the Mexican War
      • --*-- Gadsden Purchase
      • --*-- Purchasing of Alaska
      • * Became a first class power in politics during the Spanish-American War in 1898.
      • --*-- Philippines & Guam
      • --*-- Puerto Rico
      • --*-- Hawaii annexed.
    • Good Neighbor Policy
      • FDR attempted to win friends in Latin & South America.
      • This occurred after the “Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine” (Teddy Roosevelt)
      • U.S. interference was resented in the region in the early 1900’s.
      • Panama Canal
      • Virgin Islands
    • Open Door Policy-China
      • Promoted equal trade access for all nations & demanded that China’s independence & sovereignty over its own territory be preserved.
      • 1899
      • Hurt relations between U.S. & Japan
      • Cuts ties with China in 1949 when the Communists took over.
      • U.S. did not reestablish ties fully until 1979.
    • WWI & WWII
      • WWI --- “to make the world safe for democracy.”
      • U.S. refused to join the League of Nations
      • Isolationism
      • WWII---Pearl Harbor
    • Foreign Policy Since 1945
      • Collective Security —A system in which participating nations agree to take joint action to meet any threat to, or attack on another member.
      • *Idea helped to create the U.N. in 1945.
      • Deterrence ---Policy of making America & its allies so strong that its very strength will deter (prevent) any attack.
    • Truman Doctrine & Containment
      • Cold War ---Period of more than 40 years during which relations between the two superpowers were tense & often hostile.
      • Greece & Turkey were in danger of falling to the communists.
      • 1947, Truman requested a massive program of economic & military aid.
      • Containment —Communism, if held within its existing boundaries, would collapse under the weight of its internal weakness.
      • Berlin Blockade ---Split of Berlin into four sectors (Soviet, U.S., British, French.) 1948, Soviets tried to force the other nations out, with a land blockade. U.S. airlift for 1 ½ years.
      • Cuban Missile Crisis
      • Soviet build-up by 1962
      • Kennedy ordered a naval blockade.
      • We would attack if missiles were not removed.
      • “ At the brink of war.”
      • Soviets backed down.
      • Korean War ---Began in 1950.
      • South Korea attacked by North Korea.
      • War lasted three years, but peace terms never agreed upon.
      • U.S./South Korea (UN) vs. North Korea/China
      • Vietnam War
      • Really started in 1954, not 1965.
      • Ended in 1975.
      • U.S. rescued the French & the South Vietnamese, but sunk themselves.
      • After Vietnam, the Nixon administration embarked on a policy of détente .
      • Détente --- “a relaxation of tensions.”
      • Wanted to improve relations w/Soviet Union & China.
      • Soviet Union collapsed in 1991.
      • Persian Gulf War ---1991
      • Campaign to drive Iraq out of Kuwait.
      • International coalition, led by the U.S., launched Operation Desert Storm.
      • War ended less than six weeks later.
      • Today
      • Al Qaida
      • “ Axis of Evil”----consisting of Iraq, Iran, North Korea.
    • Five times U.S. has declared war:
      • Britain 1812
      • Mexico 1848
      • Spain 1898
      • WWI 1917
      • WWII 1941