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Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy
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Foreign Policy


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  • 2.
    • Every nation has a foreign policy ---a systematic & general plan that guides the nation’s attitudes & actions toward the rest of the world.
    • Deals w/many different topics; diplomatic, military, commercial, & others.
    • Involves such matters as treaties & alliances, international trade, the defense budget, foreign economic & military aid, the United Nations, & nuclear weapons testing.
  • 3.
    • Basic purpose of American Foreign Policy has always been to protect the national security of the U.S.
    • National Security —Refers to the nation’s independence & freedom from unwanted interference, threat, or takeover by other nations.
    • Defense Policy ---Protecting the nation through military preparedness.
  • 4.
    • Nation’s founders believed in isolationism ---avoiding political involvement with other nations.
    • The U.S. tried to stay out of other nations’ conflicts, particularly European Wars.
    • Washington urged Americans “to steer clear of permanent alliances w/any portion of the foreign world.”
    • Jefferson later echoed this: “Peace, commerce, & honest friendship with all nations, entangling alliances w/none.”
    • Americans changed their minds in the 1820’s.
  • 5.
    • 1823, President Monroe proclaimed what has become known as the Monroe Doctrine .
    • Stated that the U.S. would not accept foreign intervention in the Western Hemisphere.
    • Declared that the U.S. would look on “any attempt on the part of other nations to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our peace & security.”
    • In return, the U.S. would not interfere in European affairs.
    • Interventionism —Direct involvement in foreign affairs.
  • 6. State & Defense Department
    • State Department is headed by the Secretary of State.
    • President looks for advice in both the formulation & conduct of the nation’s foreign policy.
    • Secretary of State is the highest ranking official in the cabinet.
  • 7. Foreign Service
    • Under international law every nation has the right to legation ---the right to send & receive diplomatic representatives.
    • Ben Franklin was the 1 st American (France, 1778.)
    • Ambassadors ---A personal representative appointed by the head of a nation to represent that nation in matters of diplomacy.
    • Ambassadors are stationed at the capital of each nation the U.S. recognizes.
  • 8.
    • Personal representative of the President, & he/she reports to the President through the Secretary of State.
    • Embassy ---The office of an ambassador to a foreign nation.
    • An embassy staff usually includes political, military, & economic aides.
    • An American consulate is an official who is assigned to promote American business interests in foreign cities.
  • 9.
    • The consul & his/her staff handle questions & problems about business requirements, transportation, & interpretation of foreign laws.
    • Must keep the President fully informed of events in the host country, negotiate diplomatic agreements, & do whatever else in the best interests of the U.S.
    • Must know the language, history, customs & culture.
    • Ambassadors are regularly granted diplomatic immunity.
  • 10.
    • Diplomatic Immunity —Are not subject to the laws of the state to which they are accredited. Cannot be arrested, sued or taxed.
    • The mistreatment of diplomats is a major breach to international law.
    • Secretary of Defense
    • Acts as the President’s chief aide & advisor in making & carrying out defense policy.
    • Acts as operating head of the Defense Department.
  • 11.
    • There are three military departments within the Department of Defense: Army, Navy, & Air Force.
    • Marine Corps, which is under the jurisdiction of the Navy, maintains its own leadership & identity.
  • 12. Selective Service System
    • Two methods are used to recruit citizens into the armed services.
    • Volunteer enlistment. Any person who has a high school diploma may choose to enlist after fulfilling the requirements.
    • Draft —Signing up for the selective service. The selection of persons for compulsory military duty.
    • Draft was used from 1940-1973.
  • 13. CIA
    • The Central Intelligence Agency
    • Created in 1947.
    • Works under the National Security Council.
    • Three major tasks:
    • 1. To coordinate the information gathering activities of all State, Defense, & other federal agencies involved in the areas of foreign affairs & national defense.
  • 14.
    • 2. To analyze & evaluate all data collected by those agencies.
    • 3. To brief the President & NSC.
    • CIA conducts worldwide intelligence operations.
    • Espionage —Spying
    • Much of work in secret---budget is disguised.
  • 15. Department of Homeland Security
  • 16. Department of Homeland Security
    • Charged w/ the task of protecting the U.S. from terrorism.
    • Terrorism —The use of violence to intimidate a government or society, usually for political or ideological reasons.
    • Created in 2002, operational in 2003.
    • Responsible for the coordination & the direction of all antiterrorist activities of all public agencies operating in the field of domestic security.
  • 17. Prior terror attacks
    • 1983, Beirut, Lebanon—car bomb, 63 dead, Islamic Jihad
    • 1983, Beirut, Lebanon—truck bomb, 241 marines killed, Shiite
    • 1985, Mediterranean Sea—Achille Lauro, 1 killed, linked to Libya
    • 1988 Lockerbie, Scotland---Pan Am 747 exploded, killing 270, linked to Libya
    • 1993, WTC—six killed, linked to Al-Qaeda
    • 1995, Oklahoma City---car bomb, 168 dead, U.S. terrorism
  • 18. Homeland Security Act of 2002
    • Gives the Homeland Security Department major operating responsibilities in five specific areas:
    • 1. Border & transportation security
    • 2. Infrastructure protection
    • 3. Emergency preparedness & response
    • 4. Chemical, biological, radiological, & nuclear defense
    • 5. Information analysis
  • 19. Best Case Scenario
    • 1. Most terrorists attacks will be thwarted or their impacts will at least be minimized.
    • 2. Those responsible for the attacks will be rooted out and brought to justice.
  • 20. Goals of American Foreign Policy
    • 1. World Peace —Staying out of wars.
    • 2. Economic Prosperity ---Nation must be economically strong in order to be secure. Also depends on free & open trade w/ other countries.
    • 3. Human Rights ---The basic privileges to which all people are naturally entitled.
  • 21.
    • Human Rights (Cont.)
    • The U.S. supports human rights by publicly criticizing human rights violations committed by other nations.
    • 4. Democracy ---Encourage democratic forms of government.
  • 22. Tools of American Foreign Policy
    • 1. Diplomacy ---Total process of conducting political relations with other countries, including settling differences & conflicts through peaceful means.
    • *Most important.
    • *Usually carried out by diplomats, but can be handled by President.
  • 23.
    • 2. Foreign Aid ---Goes primarily to nations that support U.S. foreign policy goals.
    • 3. Alliances & Pacts
    • Alliance —A group of nations or individuals joined together for a common purpose, which may be military, economic, or political.
    • Multilateral treaties ---Signed by a group of several nations.
    • Ex.) NATO, OAS, Warsaw Pact (no longer exists)
  • 24.
    • 4. Trade measures
    • *Terms under which the U.S. trades w/other countries.
    • * Economic Sanctions ---Measures by which the government withholds trade benefits, supplies, or economic aid to pressure a foreign government to cease certain activities.
    • 5. Military Force
    • U.S. has declared war on five occasions.
    • When?
  • 25. American Foreign Policy: Past & Present
    • * Monroe Doctrine
    • * Continental Expansion. Idea of “ Manifest Destiny ” surfaced. Most Americans believed this nation’s “destiny” was to expand its boundaries to the Pacific Ocean.
    • --*-- Annexation of Texas
    • --*-- Oregon country obtained
    • --*-- SW U.S.A. after the Mexican War
  • 26.
    • --*-- Gadsden Purchase
    • --*-- Purchasing of Alaska
    • * Became a first class power in politics during the Spanish-American War in 1898.
    • --*-- Philippines & Guam
    • --*-- Puerto Rico
    • --*-- Hawaii annexed.
  • 27. Good Neighbor Policy
    • FDR attempted to win friends in Latin & South America.
    • This occurred after the “Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine” (Teddy Roosevelt)
    • U.S. interference was resented in the region in the early 1900’s.
    • Panama Canal
    • Virgin Islands
  • 28. Open Door Policy-China
    • Promoted equal trade access for all nations & demanded that China’s independence & sovereignty over its own territory be preserved.
    • 1899
    • Hurt relations between U.S. & Japan
    • Cuts ties with China in 1949 when the Communists took over.
    • U.S. did not reestablish ties fully until 1979.
  • 29. WWI & WWII
    • WWI --- “to make the world safe for democracy.”
    • U.S. refused to join the League of Nations
    • Isolationism
    • WWII---Pearl Harbor
  • 30. Foreign Policy Since 1945
    • Collective Security —A system in which participating nations agree to take joint action to meet any threat to, or attack on another member.
    • *Idea helped to create the U.N. in 1945.
    • Deterrence ---Policy of making America & its allies so strong that its very strength will deter (prevent) any attack.
  • 31. Truman Doctrine & Containment
    • Cold War ---Period of more than 40 years during which relations between the two superpowers were tense & often hostile.
    • Greece & Turkey were in danger of falling to the communists.
    • 1947, Truman requested a massive program of economic & military aid.
  • 32.
    • Containment —Communism, if held within its existing boundaries, would collapse under the weight of its internal weakness.
    • Berlin Blockade ---Split of Berlin into four sectors (Soviet, U.S., British, French.) 1948, Soviets tried to force the other nations out, with a land blockade. U.S. airlift for 1 ½ years.
    • Cuban Missile Crisis
    • Soviet build-up by 1962
    • Kennedy ordered a naval blockade.
  • 33.
    • We would attack if missiles were not removed.
    • “ At the brink of war.”
    • Soviets backed down.
    • Korean War ---Began in 1950.
    • South Korea attacked by North Korea.
    • War lasted three years, but peace terms never agreed upon.
    • U.S./South Korea (UN) vs. North Korea/China
  • 34.
    • Vietnam War
    • Really started in 1954, not 1965.
    • Ended in 1975.
    • U.S. rescued the French & the South Vietnamese, but sunk themselves.
    • After Vietnam, the Nixon administration embarked on a policy of détente .
    • Détente --- “a relaxation of tensions.”
    • Wanted to improve relations w/Soviet Union & China.
    • Soviet Union collapsed in 1991.
  • 35.
    • Persian Gulf War ---1991
    • Campaign to drive Iraq out of Kuwait.
    • International coalition, led by the U.S., launched Operation Desert Storm.
    • War ended less than six weeks later.
    • Today
    • Al Qaida
    • “ Axis of Evil”----consisting of Iraq, Iran, North Korea.
  • 36. Five times U.S. has declared war:
    • Britain 1812
    • Mexico 1848
    • Spain 1898
    • WWI 1917
    • WWII 1941