Central and South Africa
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Central and South Africa

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Central and South Africa Central and South Africa Presentation Transcript

  • Central Africa Mr. Rinkel
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo
    • Capital: Kinshasa
    • ¼ the size of the U.S.
    • The Congo River stretches 2,733 miles throughout the country
    • Savanna and park forest vegetation predominate the north and south of the forest belt
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo
    • Highest altitudes found along the Great African Rift Valley
      • Mt. Ruwenzori reaches 16,795 ft.
    • Some mountains are volcanic
  • Rainforests
    • Cover 1/3 of Democratic Republic of the Congo
    • Canopy: umbrella-like forest covering made up of tree tops
      • Very thick (sunlight rarely reaches the jungle floor)
    • Home to monkeys, birds, snakes, and other small animals
    • Over 750 species of trees grow in the R.F.
  • Highlands and Savannas
    • Mountains rise on the eastern border
    • Vast open grasslands
      • Home to giraffes, lions, leopards, zebras, and rhinos
  • Rivers and Lakes
    • Congo River (2800 miles long)
      • Runs through Central Africa to the Atlantic Ocean
      • Known as the country’s highway for trade and travel
    • Lake Tanganyika
      • The world’s longest freshwater lake
      • The world’s 2 nd deepest lake
  • Climate
    • The country is located near the equator (tropical climate)
    • 80” of rain annually
    • Savannah and highlands are cooler and drier
  • Economy
    • Has the potential to become wealthy
    • Mining is the major economic activity
      • The Congo leads the rest of Africa in diamond mining
    • Farming especially subsistence farming is very important to this area
  • Energy Sources
    • Rivers provide the main source for energy
    • 13% of the world’s hydroelectricity
      • Electricity created by moving water
  • The People
    • Population of 49 million
    • Home to many different ethnic groups
    • Culture
      • African with European influences
      • 75% are Christians
      • 70% live in rural villages
  • Katanga (Shaba)
    • Attempted to secede from Congo
    • Very mineral rich part of the country
    • U.N. troops were called in and clashed with Katangan Army
    • 1963- fighting ended and Katanga remained a part of the Congo
  • Congo problems
    • 1990s- very disintegrated
    • Sewage flowed in open ditches in the capital
    • Highways were full of potholes
    • Hospitals lacked needed medicines
  • Section 2 Other Countries of Central Africa
  • Central African Republic
    • Capital: Bangui
    • Population: 4,303,356
    • Landlocked and in completely tropical climate
    • Most of the land is a plateau varying from 2,000 to 2,500 ft.
  • Central African Republic
    • Land is well drained by the Ugangi and the Shari and Longone river systems
    • Natural Resources: diamonds, uranium, timber
    • Environmental issues: poaching, non-potable water, desertification
  • Cameroon
    • Capital: Yaounde
    • Population: 17,340,702
    • Four geographic regions
      • Southern region (coastal plains and forested plateau)
      • Central region (transitional region in which the forest gives way to the savanna
  • Cameroon
    • Four geographic regions continued…
      • Northern region (vast savanna that slopes down to the Chad River basin
      • West (dominated by forested mountains with peaks reaching 8,000 ft.)
    • Mount Cameroon- is an active volcano
    • Benue River is navigable during several months of the year
  • Cameroon
    • Natural Resources: petroleum, bauxite, iron ore
    • Environmental Issues: waterborne diseases, overgrazing, overfishing
  • Gabon
    • Capital: Libreville
    • Population: 1,424,906
    • Highest peak: Mt. Iboundiki (5,165 ft)
    • Ogowe River is navigable for 150 miles
  • Gabon
    • Natural Resources: petroleum, natural gas, diamonds
    • Environmental Issues: deforestation and poaching
  • Equatorial Guinea
    • Capital: Malabo
    • Population: 540,109
    • Natural Resources: petroleum, timber, gold
    • Environmental issues: water not potable, deforestation
  • Equatorial Guinea
    • Mainland consists of coastal plains rising to interior thickly forested hills
    • Bioko- island formed from three extinct volcanoes
      • Malabo the capital is located on this island
  • Sao Tome and Principe
    • Capital: Sao Tome
    • Population: 193,413
    • Natural Resources: Fish, hydropower
    • Environmental issues: soil erosion/exhaustion, deforestation
  • Sao Tome and Principe
    • Formed by a chain of extinct volcanoes
    • Situated in the Gulf of Guinea, straddling the equator
  • Chapter 21 South Africa and It’s Neighbors
  • South Africa
    • Capital: Pretoria
    • Population: 44,187,637
    • Natural Resources: gold, chromium, coal
    • Environmental Issues: lack of rivers and lakes, air pollution, desertification
  • South Africa
    • Spreads across the southern end of Africa
    • Three times the size of California
    • Landscapes:
      • Winding coastlines
      • Tall mountains
      • Deep valleys
      • High plateaus
  • South Africa
    • Enclaves - small countries surrounded or nearly surrounded by a larger country.
      • Lesotho
      • Swaziland
    • Coasts
      • West coast borders the Atlantic Ocean
      • South and east coast borders the Indian Ocean
  • South Africa
    • Cape of Good Hope- the southernmost point of Africa
    • Great Karroo- a dry flat land between the mountain ranges of southern Africa
    • High Veld- south African plateau made up of flat, grass-covered plains
      • Isolated rocky hills rise as high as 100 feet
    • The Great Escarpment- mountains and cliffs that circle the plateau and divide the coastal areas
  • The Climate
    • Lies south of the Equator
    • Winter
      • Cool and sunny, some rainfall
      • Temperatures sometimes drop to freezing
    • Summer
      • Mild due to high elevation
    • Cape Town- a major port city
      • Eastern warm winds from the Indian Ocean bring a humid subtropical climate
  • The Economy
    • Has the most developed economy in Africa
    • ½ of Africa’s minerals are mined in S.A.
    • 2/5 of Africa’s manufactured goods come from South Africa
    • In rural areas, South Africans are poor and depend on subsistence farming
  • Economy
    • South Africa is one of the richest countries in the world
    • 1/3 of all gold is mined there
    • Witwatersrand- an area around the city of Johannesburg holds the largest goldfield
    • South Africa also contains the world’s largest deposits of diamonds
  • Economy
    • Manufacturing
      • Industrial workers produce manufactured goods
      • Exports metal products, chemicals, clothing, and processed foods
    • Farming
      • Is either too dry or too hilly to farm
      • Grow enough food for themselves and some to export
      • Herding sheep and livestock is a major economic activity on the plateau
  • People
    • 74% of the population is made up of various African ethnic groups
    • 14% of the people are of European origin
    • 3% of the people are of Asian origin
    • 9% are a mixed of European, Asian, and African
  • People
    • Apartheid - “apartness” or practices that separated South Africans of different ethnic groups
    • Townships- neighborhoods outside cities
    • 57% of people live in urban areas
  • Recent history in South Africa
    • 1994- Mandela became president (all races were able to vote for the 1 st time)
    • 1997- new constitution went into effect to complete the transition from white minority rule to democracy
  • Mandela’s Government
    • Tried to improve the lives of blacks while keeping support of other races
    • Promised to preserve free enterprise
    • Brought South Africa’s economy to the strongest in Africa
    • Stepped down in 1999, ANC leader Thabo Mbeki became president
  • South Africa’s continued problems
    • 1/3 of South African’s were unemployed
    • ¼ lived in inadequate housing
    • 1/5 have HIV (highest incidence in the world)
  • Section 2 Atlantic Countries
  • Angola
    • Capital: Luanda
    • Population: 12,127,071
    • Natural Resources: petroleum, diamonds, iron ore
    • Environmental Issues: overuse of pastures, soil erosion; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest
  • Angola
    • Larger than Texas and California combined
    • Includes a tiny exclave called Cabinda
      • Exclave- is a tiny area of a country that is separated from the main part
  • Angola
    • Huge inland plateau
    • Rivers cross Angola draining into the Congo River in the North and the Atlantic and Indian Oceans
    • Hilly grasslands cover northern Angola
    • Lowland has little vegetation except for rainforests in the North
  • Angola
    • Three types of Climates:
      • Steppe
      • Desert
      • Tropical savanna
    • The tropical savanna receives enough rainfall for farming
  • The Economy
    • Major economic activity is agriculture
    • 58% of the people live in rural areas
    • Coffee is the leading export crop
    • Oil and mining provide for most of the income
    • Most oil deposits are found off the coast of Cabinda
  • Namibia
    • Capital: Windhoek
    • Population: 2,044,147
    • Natural Resources: diamonds, copper, uranium, gold
    • Environmental Issues: very limited natural fresh water resources; desertification; wildlife poaching
  • Namibia
    • Became independent in 1990 after 75 years of South African rule
    • Is about half the size of Alaska
    • Namib Desert runs almost the entire length of Namibia’s Atlantic Coast
    • The Kalahari Desert stretches across the southernmost part of the country
    • Very hot and dry climate
  • The Economy
    • Depends on the export of minerals
    • Has a major difficulty in feeding its people, due to the desert climate
    • Most Namibians are herders who raise cattle, goats, and sheep
  • Namibia
    • Receives just enough rainfall to grow corn
    • One of the most sparsely populated countries in Africa
  • Section 3 Inland Southern Africa
  • Zambia
    • Capital: Lusaka
    • Population: 11,502,010
    • Natural Resources: copper, cobalt, zinc
    • Environmental Issues: air pollution and resulting acid rain
  • Zambia
    • Landlocked and near the equator
    • Mild climate due to high elevation
    • Covered by a high plateau
    • Kariba Dam- one of Africa’s hydroelectric projects on the Zambezi River
  • Economy
    • One of the world’s largest producers of copper
      • 80% of Zambia’s income
      • Copper belt- a large area of copper mines in northern Zambia near the border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo
    • Must import food due to a focus on mining
  • The People
    • More than 70 different ethnic groups
    • Speak 8 different languages
    • 40% of the people live in urban areas
      • Most work in mining or service industries
    • The other 60% live in villages & raise corn and other subsistence food crops
  • Malawi
    • Capital: Lilongue
    • Population: 13,013,926
    • Natural Resources: limestone, arable land, hydropower
    • Environmental Issues: deforestation; land degradation
  • Malawi
    • In some place is less than 50 miles wide
    • Great Rift Valley runs through the country North to South
    • Lies in the tropics, but mountains and plateaus give it a mild climate
    • One of the most densely populated countries in Africa
  • Economy
    • Only 1/3 is suitable for farming
    • Agriculture is the country’s major economic activity
        • Tea is a major export
        • Sorghum- tall grass with seeds like corn
  • Zimbabwe
    • Capital: Harare
    • Population: 12,236,805
    • Natural Resources: coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold
    • Environmental Issues: soil erosion; land degradation; air and water pollution
  • Zimbabwe
    • Occupies a high plateau
    • Tropical savanna climate of wet and dry seasons
    • High elevations keep temperatures cool and pleasant
  • Economy
    • Mining provides most of the income
    • ½ of the land is fertile for farming
      • They grow coffee and tobacco on commercial farms for export
  • People
    • Most belong to two African ethnic groups
      • Shona & Ndeble
    • 70% live in rural villages
    • Some moving to the city to find factory jobs
  • Botswana
    • Capital: Gaborone
    • Population: 1,639,833
    • Natural Resources: diamonds, copper, nickel
    • Environmental issues: overgrazing; desertification
  • Botswana
    • Most isolated country in the inland of Southern Africa
    • Southwestern Botswana is home to the Kalahari Desert
    • Eastern- made up of grasses, bushes, and trees of the savanna
    • Okawango River flows through the Northwest
      • One of the largest swamp areas in the world
  • The Economy
    • Rich in mineral resources
    • Mining only provides a small number of jobs
    • Most farm or raise livestock
    • Drought in the 1980s brought hardships to the farmers
  • The People
    • Has very few people due to large size
    • 75% live in rural areas, some moving to the city every year
  • Section 4 Indian Ocean Countries
  • Mozambique
    • Capital: Maputo
    • Population: 19,686,505
    • Natural Resources: coal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower
    • Environmental Issues: civil war and recurrent drought
  • Mozambique
    • Landscapes
      • Sand lowlands
      • High plateaus
      • Tall mountains
      • Sand dunes
      • Swamps
      • Flat plain near the center of the country
    • Gabora Bassa Dam on the Zambezi River provides electric power to most of the country
  • The Economy
    • Mostly farmers
    • Practices slash and burn agriculture
      • They cut and burn forest trees to clear areas for planting
    • Major source of income comes from seaports
    • Civil war in the 1980s and 1990s slowed industrial growth
  • Madagascar
    • Capital: Antananarivo
    • Population: 18,595,469
    • Natural Resources: graphite, chromite, coal
    • Environmental Issues: soil erosion results from deforestation and overgrazing
  • Madagascar
    • Island nation in the Indian Ocean
    • Highland areas cross the middle of the country
    • Coastal areas have warm, humid plains, and fertile river valleys
    • Dry grasslands cover southern Madagascar
    • Has many plants and animals that are not found anywhere else on earth
  • Economy
    • Agriculture is the chief economic activity
      • Coffee is the leading export
      • Produces most of the world’s vanilla beans
  • Comoros
    • 4 mountainous islands formed from volcanoes
    • Covered by thick tropical forests
    • Farming is a major economic activity
  • Mauritius
    • Capital: Port Louis
    • Population: 1,240,827
    • Natural Resources: arable land, fish
    • Environmental Issues: water pollution, degradation of coral reefs