Africa WP Brownstown

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Africa WP Brownstown

  1. 1. Africa A Continent in Crisis
  2. 2. Struggles or Problems <ul><li>Unable to build stable democratic, political systems </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic violence </li></ul><ul><li>Hunger </li></ul><ul><li>AIDS </li></ul>
  3. 3. Countries we will study in this unit <ul><li>Zaire/Congo </li></ul><ul><li>South Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Rwanda </li></ul><ul><li>Sudan </li></ul><ul><li>Somalia </li></ul><ul><li>Liberia </li></ul>
  4. 4. Zaire/Congo <ul><li>1885- Belgium expanded control over south central Africa </li></ul><ul><li>1960- Belgium granted independence (plunging the country into political chaos) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Became known as Congo-Kinshasa </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Katanga (Shaba) <ul><li>Attempted to secede from Congo </li></ul><ul><li>Very mineral rich part of the country </li></ul><ul><li>U.N. troops were called in and clashed with Katangan Army </li></ul><ul><li>1963- fighting ended and Katanga remained a part of the Congo </li></ul>
  6. 6. Joseph Mobutu <ul><li>Seized power during the chaos in the country in 1965 </li></ul><ul><li>Changed the country’s name to Zaire in 1971 </li></ul><ul><li>Zaire was very mineral rich with diamonds, copper, and cobalt </li></ul><ul><li>Mobutu grew rich, but the common person became poorer and poorer </li></ul>
  7. 7. Zaire <ul><li>1990s- very disintegrated </li></ul><ul><li>Sewage flowed in open ditches in the capital </li></ul><ul><li>Highways were full of potholes </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitals lacked needed medicines </li></ul>
  8. 8. Laurent Kabila <ul><li>1997- entered the capital with anti-Mobutu rebels and became president </li></ul><ul><li>Changed the name of the country from Zaire to the Democratic Republic of the Congo </li></ul><ul><li>Banned all political parties and public demonstrations </li></ul><ul><li>Revolt broke out in eastern Congo; peace agreements were made, but soon broken </li></ul>
  9. 9. Democratic Republic of the Congo <ul><li>2001- Laurent Kabila was assassinated by a guard </li></ul><ul><li>His son Joseph Kabila took over </li></ul><ul><li>He agreed to a cease fire- U.N. peacekeepers went to uphold the cease fire as foreign troops went home. </li></ul>
  10. 10. South Africa
  11. 11. Settled by 3 groups <ul><li>Blacks from various ethnic groups (Bushmen, Hottentots, and Zulus) </li></ul><ul><li>Afrikaners (whites from Netherlands, France, and Germany) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fought long wars against the Zulus and other blacks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The English </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cecil Rhodes wanted to strengthen British control because of diamond and gold mines </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. South Africa <ul><li>1948- Daniel Malan (National Party) won election </li></ul><ul><li>He instituted apartheid which: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Was designed to make sure the white minority ruled the country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deprived blacks of political rights, education, and economic opportunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created ten black “homelands” where they were to develop separately without economic resources or capabilities </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. African National Congress (ANC) <ul><li>National Party ruled until 1989 </li></ul><ul><li>Led by Nelson Mandela (spent 27 years in prison) </li></ul><ul><li>The ANC continued to wage war on the government, keeping South Africa a violent nation </li></ul><ul><li>1986- western nations imposed economic sanctions, which led white South Africans to demand change and reconciliation </li></ul>
  14. 14. F.W. DeKlerk <ul><li>Became president of South Africa in 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>Lifted the ban on the ANC and freed Nelson Mandela </li></ul><ul><li>ANC accused DeKlerk of moving too slowly </li></ul><ul><li>The conflict continued </li></ul>
  15. 15. South Africa <ul><li>1994- Mandela became president (all races were able to vote for the 1 st time) </li></ul><ul><li>1997- new constitution went into effect to complete the transition from white minority rule to democracy </li></ul>
  16. 16. Mandela’s Government <ul><li>Tried to improve the lives of blacks while keeping support of other races </li></ul><ul><li>Promised to preserve free enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>Brought South Africa’s economy to the strongest in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Stepped down in 1999, ANC leader Thabo Mbeki became president </li></ul>
  17. 17. South Africa’s continued problems <ul><li>1/3 of South African’s were unemployed </li></ul><ul><li>¼ lived in inadequate housing </li></ul><ul><li>1/5 have HIV (highest incidence in the world) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Rwanda
  19. 19. Civil War <ul><li>1994- over 500,000 people killed </li></ul><ul><li>Fighting between Tutsis (minority) and Hutus </li></ul><ul><li>Genocide- deliberate and systematic killing of a group of people because of their race, religion, or ethnic background </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Tutsis <ul><li>Make up 1/7 of the population of Rwanda and neighboring Burundi </li></ul><ul><li>Until 1959, Tutsi kings and nobles ruled over a Hutu majority </li></ul><ul><li>In 1959, Belgian authorities supported a Hutu revolt, which many Tutusis were killed- the survivors fled to other countries </li></ul>
  21. 21. Rwanda <ul><li>Became independent in 1962 </li></ul><ul><li>1973- Juvenal Habyarimana became dictator after a military coup </li></ul><ul><li>Tutsi exiles began guerilla attacks </li></ul><ul><li>1990- Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) exile army waged war on the Hutu dominated government </li></ul><ul><li>Habyarimana said there is no room for the exiles due to the farm land </li></ul>
  22. 22. Rwanda <ul><li>1993- government signed cease fire with rebels (U.N. troops arrived) </li></ul><ul><li>1994- a missile blew up a plane carrying Rwandan President Habyarimana and the president of Burundi </li></ul><ul><li>Rwandan soldiers and Hutu militias began slaughtering Tutsis and moderate Hutus </li></ul>
  23. 23. Refugees <ul><li>In 24 hours, 250,000 people poured into Tanzania </li></ul><ul><li>1 million went to Zaire (tens of thousands died of cholera) </li></ul><ul><li>Most refugees were Hutus even though they were doing the killing of Tutsis </li></ul>
  24. 24. Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) <ul><li>Established a new government including Tutsis and Hutus </li></ul><ul><li>U.N. troops left in 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Many refugees began returning from Tanzania and Zaire </li></ul>
  25. 25. Continued Troubles <ul><li>1997- Hutus used Zaire/Congo as a base for attacks into Rwanda </li></ul><ul><li>Rwanda sent troops into Congo- where fighting took place </li></ul><ul><li>2000- RPF leader Paul Kagame (a Tutsi) was elected president </li></ul><ul><li>2001- peace settlement between Tutsi and Hutu fighting in Burundi </li></ul>
  26. 26. Sudan
  27. 27. Sudan <ul><li>Largest area of any country in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly desert with very little rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>The country is split between the Arab northerners (mostly Muslims) and black African southerners (mostly Christians) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Government <ul><li>1956- a parliamentary coalition government ruled </li></ul><ul><li>1958- a military coup took over and all political parties were banned </li></ul><ul><li>1971- Jaafar Mohammed al Nemery was elected president </li></ul><ul><li>He was reelected in 1977 and 1983, running unopposed </li></ul>
  29. 29. Sudan <ul><li>1983- civil war broke out </li></ul><ul><li>Tensions rose between the Muslim north and Christian south </li></ul><ul><li>Nemery decided to impose Islamic law in all courts in the country </li></ul><ul><li>Severe economic problems occurred due to the drought throughout Africa </li></ul>
  30. 30. Sudan <ul><li>1985- a military coup ousted Nemery from power </li></ul><ul><li>An elected official took power from 1986-1989 </li></ul><ul><li>Omar Hassan al-Bashir led a military coup and took over in 1989 </li></ul>
  31. 31. Continued problems <ul><li>Civil war and famine have killed up to two million people </li></ul><ul><li>In 2000, the war between the north (Muslims) and the non-Muslim south had become the longest running war in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>The Sudanese depend upon daily food relief from the U.N. and other groups </li></ul><ul><li>2001- Bashir sworn in for another 5 years </li></ul>
  32. 32. Somalia
  33. 33. Somalia <ul><li>1960- British Somaliland gained independence </li></ul><ul><li>Joined with Italin part of Somaliland and formed the country Somalia </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. and Soviet Union competed for the influence of this area known as the “horn of Africa” </li></ul>
  34. 34. Somalia <ul><li>1977- Somalia claimed to own Ogaden which is part of Ethiopia </li></ul><ul><li>The Soviet Union assisted the Ethiopian government by sending Cuban troops </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. supported the Somalian government by sending materials and weapons </li></ul>
  35. 35. Somalia <ul><li>1988- warlords and local leaders battled each other and the Somali government </li></ul><ul><li>1993- the government had been destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>Drought and famine increased misery and led to the death of a hundred thousand people </li></ul>
  36. 36. Humanitarian Aid <ul><li>Red Cross and United Nations brought supplies of food, fuel, and medications </li></ul><ul><li>The distribution of supplies were disrupted by militias </li></ul><ul><li>Relief workers were attacked and convoys looted </li></ul>
  37. 37. United States involvement <ul><li>Provided security to convoys and ensured the distribution of food </li></ul><ul><li>October 1993- 18 U.S. soldiers were killed when trying to disarm leading warlord, Mohammed Farah Aidid </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. withdrew troops, followed by the U.N. pulling troops in 1995 </li></ul>
  38. 38. Continued Problems <ul><li>Civil war continued </li></ul><ul><li>August 2000, Samali leaders agreed on new civilian government </li></ul><ul><li>Abdikassim Salad Hassan became president </li></ul><ul><li>His government backed up by business people are hoping for a return to peace and stability in the country. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Liberia
  40. 40. Liberia <ul><li>Colonized by Westerners in the 19 th century </li></ul><ul><li>1822- American Liberians (freed black slaves from America) moved into the area </li></ul><ul><li>Built the capital of Monrovia and settled on the coast </li></ul>
  41. 41. Liberia <ul><li>Cultural tensions between the native Africans and colonists </li></ul><ul><li>Native Africans were treated badly, forced to move to the interior of the country, and sometimes enslaved </li></ul><ul><li>Americo-Liberians- make up less than ¼ of the population, but controlled the government until 1980 </li></ul>
  42. 42. Military coups <ul><li>April 1980- Sgt. Samuel Doe staged a coup and took control of the government </li></ul><ul><li>1989- guerilla army tried to overthrow President Doe throwing the country into civil war </li></ul><ul><li>September 1990- rebels captured President Doe and executed him </li></ul><ul><li>Famine and war made more refugees than the population of the country </li></ul>
  43. 43. Liberia <ul><li>1996- a shaky cease-fire was established after 150,000 lives were lost </li></ul><ul><li>1997- Charles Taylor became president- his rebel army created the fighting in 1989 </li></ul><ul><li>Taylor backed a violent group in Sierra Leone </li></ul><ul><li>2001- U.N. security council placed sanctions against Liberia and placed an embargo on its diamonds </li></ul>
  44. 44. Charles Taylor <ul><li>Continued to back violent rebels in Sierra Leone </li></ul><ul><li>June 2003- was indicted of war crimes by the U.N. tribunal in Sierra Leone </li></ul><ul><li>President Bush asked Taylor to step down </li></ul><ul><li>Sought asylum to Nigeria </li></ul><ul><li>Will face a tribunal of war crimes on charges. </li></ul>

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