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Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
Africa WP Brownstown
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Africa WP Brownstown

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  • 1. Africa A Continent in Crisis
  • 2. Struggles or Problems <ul><li>Unable to build stable democratic, political systems </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic violence </li></ul><ul><li>Hunger </li></ul><ul><li>AIDS </li></ul>
  • 3. Countries we will study in this unit <ul><li>Zaire/Congo </li></ul><ul><li>South Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Rwanda </li></ul><ul><li>Sudan </li></ul><ul><li>Somalia </li></ul><ul><li>Liberia </li></ul>
  • 4. Zaire/Congo <ul><li>1885- Belgium expanded control over south central Africa </li></ul><ul><li>1960- Belgium granted independence (plunging the country into political chaos) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Became known as Congo-Kinshasa </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. Katanga (Shaba) <ul><li>Attempted to secede from Congo </li></ul><ul><li>Very mineral rich part of the country </li></ul><ul><li>U.N. troops were called in and clashed with Katangan Army </li></ul><ul><li>1963- fighting ended and Katanga remained a part of the Congo </li></ul>
  • 6. Joseph Mobutu <ul><li>Seized power during the chaos in the country in 1965 </li></ul><ul><li>Changed the country’s name to Zaire in 1971 </li></ul><ul><li>Zaire was very mineral rich with diamonds, copper, and cobalt </li></ul><ul><li>Mobutu grew rich, but the common person became poorer and poorer </li></ul>
  • 7. Zaire <ul><li>1990s- very disintegrated </li></ul><ul><li>Sewage flowed in open ditches in the capital </li></ul><ul><li>Highways were full of potholes </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitals lacked needed medicines </li></ul>
  • 8. Laurent Kabila <ul><li>1997- entered the capital with anti-Mobutu rebels and became president </li></ul><ul><li>Changed the name of the country from Zaire to the Democratic Republic of the Congo </li></ul><ul><li>Banned all political parties and public demonstrations </li></ul><ul><li>Revolt broke out in eastern Congo; peace agreements were made, but soon broken </li></ul>
  • 9. Democratic Republic of the Congo <ul><li>2001- Laurent Kabila was assassinated by a guard </li></ul><ul><li>His son Joseph Kabila took over </li></ul><ul><li>He agreed to a cease fire- U.N. peacekeepers went to uphold the cease fire as foreign troops went home. </li></ul>
  • 10. South Africa
  • 11. Settled by 3 groups <ul><li>Blacks from various ethnic groups (Bushmen, Hottentots, and Zulus) </li></ul><ul><li>Afrikaners (whites from Netherlands, France, and Germany) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fought long wars against the Zulus and other blacks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The English </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cecil Rhodes wanted to strengthen British control because of diamond and gold mines </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. South Africa <ul><li>1948- Daniel Malan (National Party) won election </li></ul><ul><li>He instituted apartheid which: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Was designed to make sure the white minority ruled the country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deprived blacks of political rights, education, and economic opportunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created ten black “homelands” where they were to develop separately without economic resources or capabilities </li></ul></ul>
  • 13. African National Congress (ANC) <ul><li>National Party ruled until 1989 </li></ul><ul><li>Led by Nelson Mandela (spent 27 years in prison) </li></ul><ul><li>The ANC continued to wage war on the government, keeping South Africa a violent nation </li></ul><ul><li>1986- western nations imposed economic sanctions, which led white South Africans to demand change and reconciliation </li></ul>
  • 14. F.W. DeKlerk <ul><li>Became president of South Africa in 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>Lifted the ban on the ANC and freed Nelson Mandela </li></ul><ul><li>ANC accused DeKlerk of moving too slowly </li></ul><ul><li>The conflict continued </li></ul>
  • 15. South Africa <ul><li>1994- Mandela became president (all races were able to vote for the 1 st time) </li></ul><ul><li>1997- new constitution went into effect to complete the transition from white minority rule to democracy </li></ul>
  • 16. Mandela’s Government <ul><li>Tried to improve the lives of blacks while keeping support of other races </li></ul><ul><li>Promised to preserve free enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>Brought South Africa’s economy to the strongest in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Stepped down in 1999, ANC leader Thabo Mbeki became president </li></ul>
  • 17. South Africa’s continued problems <ul><li>1/3 of South African’s were unemployed </li></ul><ul><li>¼ lived in inadequate housing </li></ul><ul><li>1/5 have HIV (highest incidence in the world) </li></ul>
  • 18. Rwanda
  • 19. Civil War <ul><li>1994- over 500,000 people killed </li></ul><ul><li>Fighting between Tutsis (minority) and Hutus </li></ul><ul><li>Genocide- deliberate and systematic killing of a group of people because of their race, religion, or ethnic background </li></ul>
  • 20. The Tutsis <ul><li>Make up 1/7 of the population of Rwanda and neighboring Burundi </li></ul><ul><li>Until 1959, Tutsi kings and nobles ruled over a Hutu majority </li></ul><ul><li>In 1959, Belgian authorities supported a Hutu revolt, which many Tutusis were killed- the survivors fled to other countries </li></ul>
  • 21. Rwanda <ul><li>Became independent in 1962 </li></ul><ul><li>1973- Juvenal Habyarimana became dictator after a military coup </li></ul><ul><li>Tutsi exiles began guerilla attacks </li></ul><ul><li>1990- Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) exile army waged war on the Hutu dominated government </li></ul><ul><li>Habyarimana said there is no room for the exiles due to the farm land </li></ul>
  • 22. Rwanda <ul><li>1993- government signed cease fire with rebels (U.N. troops arrived) </li></ul><ul><li>1994- a missile blew up a plane carrying Rwandan President Habyarimana and the president of Burundi </li></ul><ul><li>Rwandan soldiers and Hutu militias began slaughtering Tutsis and moderate Hutus </li></ul>
  • 23. Refugees <ul><li>In 24 hours, 250,000 people poured into Tanzania </li></ul><ul><li>1 million went to Zaire (tens of thousands died of cholera) </li></ul><ul><li>Most refugees were Hutus even though they were doing the killing of Tutsis </li></ul>
  • 24. Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) <ul><li>Established a new government including Tutsis and Hutus </li></ul><ul><li>U.N. troops left in 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Many refugees began returning from Tanzania and Zaire </li></ul>
  • 25. Continued Troubles <ul><li>1997- Hutus used Zaire/Congo as a base for attacks into Rwanda </li></ul><ul><li>Rwanda sent troops into Congo- where fighting took place </li></ul><ul><li>2000- RPF leader Paul Kagame (a Tutsi) was elected president </li></ul><ul><li>2001- peace settlement between Tutsi and Hutu fighting in Burundi </li></ul>
  • 26. Sudan
  • 27. Sudan <ul><li>Largest area of any country in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly desert with very little rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>The country is split between the Arab northerners (mostly Muslims) and black African southerners (mostly Christians) </li></ul>
  • 28. Government <ul><li>1956- a parliamentary coalition government ruled </li></ul><ul><li>1958- a military coup took over and all political parties were banned </li></ul><ul><li>1971- Jaafar Mohammed al Nemery was elected president </li></ul><ul><li>He was reelected in 1977 and 1983, running unopposed </li></ul>
  • 29. Sudan <ul><li>1983- civil war broke out </li></ul><ul><li>Tensions rose between the Muslim north and Christian south </li></ul><ul><li>Nemery decided to impose Islamic law in all courts in the country </li></ul><ul><li>Severe economic problems occurred due to the drought throughout Africa </li></ul>
  • 30. Sudan <ul><li>1985- a military coup ousted Nemery from power </li></ul><ul><li>An elected official took power from 1986-1989 </li></ul><ul><li>Omar Hassan al-Bashir led a military coup and took over in 1989 </li></ul>
  • 31. Continued problems <ul><li>Civil war and famine have killed up to two million people </li></ul><ul><li>In 2000, the war between the north (Muslims) and the non-Muslim south had become the longest running war in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>The Sudanese depend upon daily food relief from the U.N. and other groups </li></ul><ul><li>2001- Bashir sworn in for another 5 years </li></ul>
  • 32. Somalia
  • 33. Somalia <ul><li>1960- British Somaliland gained independence </li></ul><ul><li>Joined with Italin part of Somaliland and formed the country Somalia </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. and Soviet Union competed for the influence of this area known as the “horn of Africa” </li></ul>
  • 34. Somalia <ul><li>1977- Somalia claimed to own Ogaden which is part of Ethiopia </li></ul><ul><li>The Soviet Union assisted the Ethiopian government by sending Cuban troops </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. supported the Somalian government by sending materials and weapons </li></ul>
  • 35. Somalia <ul><li>1988- warlords and local leaders battled each other and the Somali government </li></ul><ul><li>1993- the government had been destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>Drought and famine increased misery and led to the death of a hundred thousand people </li></ul>
  • 36. Humanitarian Aid <ul><li>Red Cross and United Nations brought supplies of food, fuel, and medications </li></ul><ul><li>The distribution of supplies were disrupted by militias </li></ul><ul><li>Relief workers were attacked and convoys looted </li></ul>
  • 37. United States involvement <ul><li>Provided security to convoys and ensured the distribution of food </li></ul><ul><li>October 1993- 18 U.S. soldiers were killed when trying to disarm leading warlord, Mohammed Farah Aidid </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. withdrew troops, followed by the U.N. pulling troops in 1995 </li></ul>
  • 38. Continued Problems <ul><li>Civil war continued </li></ul><ul><li>August 2000, Samali leaders agreed on new civilian government </li></ul><ul><li>Abdikassim Salad Hassan became president </li></ul><ul><li>His government backed up by business people are hoping for a return to peace and stability in the country. </li></ul>
  • 39. Liberia
  • 40. Liberia <ul><li>Colonized by Westerners in the 19 th century </li></ul><ul><li>1822- American Liberians (freed black slaves from America) moved into the area </li></ul><ul><li>Built the capital of Monrovia and settled on the coast </li></ul>
  • 41. Liberia <ul><li>Cultural tensions between the native Africans and colonists </li></ul><ul><li>Native Africans were treated badly, forced to move to the interior of the country, and sometimes enslaved </li></ul><ul><li>Americo-Liberians- make up less than ¼ of the population, but controlled the government until 1980 </li></ul>
  • 42. Military coups <ul><li>April 1980- Sgt. Samuel Doe staged a coup and took control of the government </li></ul><ul><li>1989- guerilla army tried to overthrow President Doe throwing the country into civil war </li></ul><ul><li>September 1990- rebels captured President Doe and executed him </li></ul><ul><li>Famine and war made more refugees than the population of the country </li></ul>
  • 43. Liberia <ul><li>1996- a shaky cease-fire was established after 150,000 lives were lost </li></ul><ul><li>1997- Charles Taylor became president- his rebel army created the fighting in 1989 </li></ul><ul><li>Taylor backed a violent group in Sierra Leone </li></ul><ul><li>2001- U.N. security council placed sanctions against Liberia and placed an embargo on its diamonds </li></ul>
  • 44. Charles Taylor <ul><li>Continued to back violent rebels in Sierra Leone </li></ul><ul><li>June 2003- was indicted of war crimes by the U.N. tribunal in Sierra Leone </li></ul><ul><li>President Bush asked Taylor to step down </li></ul><ul><li>Sought asylum to Nigeria </li></ul><ul><li>Will face a tribunal of war crimes on charges. </li></ul>

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