US History chapter 8


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Based on The American Journey textbook.

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  • Jay’s Treaty, signed in 1794 with England, upset the French and they begin seizing American ships with cargo bound for England. Adams wanted to avoid war, sends diplomats to France but they are not heard. Instead, Talleyrand sends three agents to ask for a bribe from the US. This infuriated Adams, refers to agents as X, Y, and Z. “Not a sixpence!”Congress builds up armed forces, establishes Navy Department in May 1798. Between 1798 and 1800, American and French naval forces waged undeclared war. Americans seized more than 90 ships from France. Republican party, aligned with France, gets voted out as outrage over France’s actions.
  • Aliens = immigrants living in a country, have different country of origin and are not citizens. Many immigrants were supporters of French Revolution, supported Republican party, which made Americans question whether aliens would be loyal to France or US. As Republicans fell out of favor due to the X,Y,Z affair, and French naval action, many supported Federalists political ideas.Federalists came up with Alien and Sedition acts to address these fears. Sedition act, or acts to weaken government, made it a crime to criticize the government. No one was deported under this act and it expired in 1802. The Sedition Act was used as a political tool to silence opposition or partisans. Matthew Lyon, a Republican from Vermont, was jailed for criticizing President Adams. 25 people arrested, 10 jailed.Naturalization Act made it difficult to apply for citizenship (14 years instead of 5 years residence). Federalists wanted to limit the Republicans’ support from foreigners. Africans or freed slaves could not apply.
  • Americans feared the growing central government. Feared the loss of State’s rights and the control of central government. (Think back to Tyranny/Anarchy dichotomy.) Republicans supported state sovereignty, characterized as a Federalist tyranny. James Madison and Thomas Jefferson wrote resolutions for rights of states; endorsed by Virginia (both Madison and Jefferson were from Virginia) and Kentucky supported these.According to these resolutions, the states had the right to judge the constitutionality of federal laws. Kentucky Resolution could even nullify federal laws. Directly challenges authority of constitution; sets precedent for state’s questioning federal authority; would be an issue that would divide the nation.
  • John Adams did not want to hastily put his young nation into a war with France, a former ally during the Revolution. The Federalists wanted war with France, as they not only favored an alliance with England but also wanted to defeat their political rivals, the Republicans, who leaned towards France. In fact, war would have helped Adams politically, yet this causes a schism in the party. Alexander Hamilton openly opposes Adams, who formed a commission to get a treaty with France. In 1800, France would sign a treaty and stopped attacking US ships. As it divided the Federalist party, it allowed for the Republicans to reclaim political clout via the presidency with Thomas Jefferson.
  • US History chapter 8

    1. 1. U.S. Chapter 8<br />A New Nation<br />1789-1800<br />
    2. 2. Questions to Consider<br />Why do you think the US stayed neutral in regards to the war between England and France?<br />Do you think the development of political parties was necessary? Explain.<br />How did President John Adams reluctance to go to war with France help Thomas Jefferson win the presidential election of 1800?<br />
    3. 3. The First President<br />Section 8.1 <br />
    4. 4. 8.1 Timeline (1789-1792)<br />
    5. 5. President Washington<br />George Washington becomes first president<br />John Adams first vice-president<br />Inauguration- sworn into office<br />Set precedents- traditions<br />Addressed as Mr. President<br />Two terms in office<br />Added “so help me God” to oath<br />
    6. 6. President Washington<br />Washington’s Cabinet<br />State Department: relations with other nations<br />Treasury Department: financial matters<br />War Department: nation’s defense<br />Attorney General: legal department<br />
    7. 7. Washington’s Cabinet<br />
    8. 8. The First Congress<br />Judiciary Act of 1789<br />Establishes federal court system<br />Federal courts overturn state laws<br />Supreme court the final authority<br />13 district courts <br />3 circuit courts <br />1 supreme court <br />John Jay: 1st Chief Justice<br />
    9. 9. The First Congress<br />The Bill of Rights<br />1st ten amendments<br />Guarantees and protects personal liberties<br />Ensure States Rights (10th amendment)<br />Madison studied hundreds of proposals, broke down to 12<br />States ratified 10; added in December, 1791<br />
    10. 10. Financial Problems<br />National Debt High (amount we owed)<br />Alexander Hamilton’s Plan<br />Pay debt to foreign nations and citizens<br />Would increase their stake in the new nation<br />Payback bonds bought during the war at face value<br />Opposition to the Plan<br />Speculators, risk money to make more<br />Bought bonds cheap<br />Should not be paid in full<br />
    11. 11. Financial Problems<br />Compromise, Washington DC in the South<br />Southerners support payment of debt<br />Building the Economy (Hamilton’s Plan)<br />National bank created<br />Protective tariff, tax on imports<br />Protect American goods and industry<br />Low tariffs, raised 90% of government’s income<br />Creation of new taxes (whiskey)<br />
    12. 12. Early Challenges<br />Section 8.2 <br />
    13. 13. 8.2 Timeline (1790-1796)<br />
    14. 14. The Whiskey Rebellion<br />July 1794<br />500 protested, attacked tax collectors, western PA<br />Washington led 13,000 troops<br />Quickly put down<br />Laws had to be changed peacefully, following the Constitution<br />
    15. 15. Struggle Over the West<br />Spanish, English, Indian problems<br />Native Americans did not recognize US claims<br />American settlers continued to move into area, threatening Native American settlements<br />Fighting broke out<br />American troops defeated by Little Turtle in November 1791<br />Many Americans wanted an alliance with France<br />
    16. 16. Struggle Over the West<br />Washington sends John Jay to halt possible war with Britain<br />General Anthony Wayne wins Battle of Fallen Timbers (August 1794)<br />Delayed attack<br />Indians weakened by tradition of fasting<br />Treaty of Greenville<br />12 Indian nations sign<br />Opens Ohio to settlement<br />
    17. 17. The French Revolution<br />In 1789 French rebelled against Louis XVI<br />Initially supported by America<br />Violence escalates in 1793 <br />Rebellion kills King and Queen<br />Thousands of civilians killed, less support<br />England and France at war 1793<br />Washington proclaims neutrality (April 22, 1793)<br />No French or British war ships allowed<br />British impressment, American merchant sailors forced into British Navy<br />
    18. 18. The French Revolution<br />A Controversial Treaty<br />Jay’s Treaty<br />British pull out of west<br />Pay damages to ships<br />Allows trade with Carribean<br />Considered dishonorable by some<br />Did not address impressment and blocked trade<br />Success with Spain<br />Pinckney’s Treaty<br />Unrestricted access to the Mississippi River <br />No more forts<br />
    19. 19. Washington’s Farewell<br />Announces he would not serve a third term in 1796<br />Establishes precedent<br />Farewell address warned against evils of political parties and foreign affairs<br />Still read aloud to this day on his birthday<br />
    20. 20. The First Political Parties<br />Section 8.3 <br />
    21. 21. Opposing Views<br />Washington, parties would divide the nation<br />Hamilton and Jefferson disagree on economics, foreign relations, power of federal government<br />Partisan, favoring one side<br />Federalist party (supports Constitution)<br />Democratic-Republicans (opposed Hamilton’s views)<br />
    22. 22. Opposing Views<br />
    23. 23. Opposing Views<br />1793, Jefferson and Hamilton resign from Washington’s cabinet<br />Election of 1796<br />Candidates run under parties<br />Caucus: members of a party choose candidates<br />Federalists nominate John Adams<br />Republican-Democrats nominate Thomas Jefferson<br />Adams wins electoral college (71 votes)<br />Jefferson, 2nd place, named vice president<br />
    24. 24. President John Adams<br />Section 8.4<br />
    25. 25. 8.4 Timeline (1797-1800)<br />
    26. 26. The XYZ Affair<br />
    27. 27. Alien and Sedition Acts<br />Suspicion of aliens’ loyalty grew<br />French immigrants supported Republican party<br />Would they support France or US?<br />Federalists pass Alien and Sedition Acts (1798)<br />Sedition: acts to weaken a government<br />Alien Act<br />Sedition Act<br />Naturalization Act<br />
    28. 28. States’ Rights<br />Many feared strong government abusing its power<br />Republicans regarded it as a Federalist tyranny<br />Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (1798, 1799)<br />People’s <br />Law<br />Tyranny<br />100%<br />Anarchy<br />0%<br />
    29. 29. Peace With France<br />Adams (Federalist) sought peace<br />Federalists opposed, wanted war with France<br />Peace achieved with France<br />Federalist party split leads to Jefferson’s (Republican) victory in 1800 election<br />
    30. 30. Questions to Consider<br />Why do you think the US stayed neutral in regards to the war between England and France?<br />Do you think the development of political parties was necessary? Explain.<br />How did President John Adams reluctance to go to war with France help Thomas Jefferson win the presidential election of 1800?<br />