U.S. Chapter 7<br />A More Perfect Union<br />1777-1790<br />
Questions to Consider<br />How does American distrust in central government shape their new form of government?<br />How d...
The Articles of Confederation<br />Section 7.1<br />
7.1 Timeline 1777-1790<br />
England’s Disrespect<br />Ignore the Treaty of Paris<br />Troops on the frontier<br />No representative sent to US from Br...
Thirteen Independent States<br />Each state required to create a state constitution<br />Less central government power<br ...
Forming a Republic<br />Separate state governments allied to create national government<br />Single national government sh...
Forming a Republic<br />
Forming a Republic<br />Problems with Articles of Confederation<br />Little federal power (states retained their power)<br...
New Land Policies<br />Few settlers lived west of Appalachians<br />13 States were making claims to these lands (p. 191)<b...
Trouble on Two Fronts<br />New currency depreciated<br />Inflation of goods resulted<br />War left Confederation Congress ...
Convention and Compromise<br />Section 7.2<br />
7.2 Timeline 1783-1789<br />
Economic Depression<br />Depression: economic activity slows and unemployment increases<br />Farmers could not sell their ...
A Call for Change<br />Revolution created a union of 13 states, not a nation<br />Federalists – supported weak national go...
The Constitutional Convention<br />Meeting in Philadelphia in May 1787<br />Purpose: To revise the Articles of Confederati...
The Constitutional Convention<br />The Virginia Plan<br />End state sovereignty <br />Bicameral (proportional representati...
Compromise Wins Out<br />House of Representatives <br />Proportional representation; elected every 2 years<br />Senate <br...
A New Plan of Government<br />Section 7.3 <br />
Roots of the Constitution<br />Greece (Aristotle)<br />European Philosophers (Thomas Hobbes, Enlightenment ideas)<br />Joh...
The Federal System<br />Shared powers<br />Federalism is shared powers between federal and state governments<br />Constitu...
The Organization of Government<br />Three Branches<br />Legislative: makes laws, collects taxes, regulates trade, issues c...
The Organization of Government<br />
A New Plan of Government<br />System of Checks and Balances<br />No one branch gaining too much power<br />The world watch...
Ratifying the Constitution<br />Section 7.4<br />
7.4 Timeline 1787-1789<br />
Compromise Wins Out<br />In order to revise the Articles of Confederation, 13 out of 13 had to agree<br />The meeting in P...
The Constitutional Debate<br />Federalists [Nationalists] versus Anti-Federalists [Federalists] (1787 – 1793)<br />Federal...
Questions to Consider<br />How does American distrust in central government shape their new form of government?<br />How d...
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US History Chapter 7

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US History Chapter 7

  1. 1. U.S. Chapter 7<br />A More Perfect Union<br />1777-1790<br />
  2. 2. Questions to Consider<br />How does American distrust in central government shape their new form of government?<br />How did the Articles of Confederation create instability in the new US government?<br />Is the Constitution a legal document?<br />Would you be a Federalist or an Anti-Federalist? Explain.<br />
  3. 3. The Articles of Confederation<br />Section 7.1<br />
  4. 4. 7.1 Timeline 1777-1790<br />
  5. 5. England’s Disrespect<br />Ignore the Treaty of Paris<br />Troops on the frontier<br />No representative sent to US from Britain<br />British felt new American government was weak and ineffective<br />
  6. 6. Thirteen Independent States<br />Each state required to create a state constitution<br />Less central government power<br />Some states limited power of governors<br />Separation of Power<br />Bicameral legislatures<br />Division of governmental powers and duties<br />Frequent elections; popularly elected<br />
  7. 7. Forming a Republic<br />Separate state governments allied to create national government<br />Single national government should be a republic<br />Citizens rule through elected representatives<br />Would the central government be strong or weak?<br />
  8. 8. Forming a Republic<br />
  9. 9. Forming a Republic<br />Problems with Articles of Confederation<br />Little federal power (states retained their power)<br />No taxing power<br />No commerce (trade) power<br />Inability to raise troops<br />No Chief Executive or Court<br />Difficult to pass laws (9 of 13 needed)<br />Approving the Articles<br />Unanimous consent needed (all 13 states needed)<br />
  10. 10. New Land Policies<br />Few settlers lived west of Appalachians<br />13 States were making claims to these lands (p. 191)<br />Claims were abandoned, national government took control (1780s -1790s)<br />Territories, based on population, were allowed to petition for statehood<br />Northwest Ordinance (1787) created single Northwest Territory (p. 193)<br />No slavery or involuntary servitude allowed<br />Originally proposed by Thomas Jefferson<br />New states would be on “equal footing” with 13 originals<br />
  11. 11. Trouble on Two Fronts<br />New currency depreciated<br />Inflation of goods resulted<br />War left Confederation Congress in debt<br />Could not tax, could not pay back debt<br />States did not contribute much money<br />Robert Morris proposes 5% import tax, but failed to be ratified<br />Foreign problems; England and Spain<br />Exposed need for stronger central government<br />
  12. 12. Convention and Compromise<br />Section 7.2<br />
  13. 13. 7.2 Timeline 1783-1789<br />
  14. 14. Economic Depression<br />Depression: economic activity slows and unemployment increases<br />Farmers could not sell their goods or pay taxes<br />Shays’ Rebellion<br />1,000 farmers revolt in MA led by Daniel Shays<br />Private militia hired, no federal help<br />Issue of Slavery<br />Some states free, others not<br />Divided the new country<br />
  15. 15. A Call for Change<br />Revolution created a union of 13 states, not a nation<br />Federalists – supported weak national government<br />Nationalists – supported stronger national government<br />Shays’ Rebellion highlighted the need for stronger federal government<br />Washington now supports need for revising Articles of Confederation<br />James Madison (Virginia) <br />Alexander Hamilton (New York)<br />
  16. 16. The Constitutional Convention<br />Meeting in Philadelphia in May 1787<br />Purpose: To revise the Articles of Confederation<br />55 delegates, highly educated, “achievers”<br />George Washington presides<br />Not publicized, highly secret<br />Edmund Randolph proposed Virginia Plan (stronger national government)<br />Mostly written by James Madison<br />Called for a vote to start a new document<br />
  17. 17. The Constitutional Convention<br />The Virginia Plan<br />End state sovereignty <br />Bicameral (proportional representation)<br />Executive and Judicial Branch<br />The New Jersey Plan<br />Unicameral (equal representation)<br />The Great Compromise (Connecticut Plan)<br />Bicameral, Senate equal, House proportional<br />
  18. 18. Compromise Wins Out<br />House of Representatives <br />Proportional representation; elected every 2 years<br />Senate <br />Equal representation; elected every 6 years<br />The Three-Fifths Compromise<br />Slaves counted for tax and representation<br />Slave Trade<br />No interference until 1808<br />Bill of Rights<br />George Mason’s plan defeated, refused to sign Constitution<br />Approving the Constitution<br />9 of 13 needed by the states<br />
  19. 19. A New Plan of Government<br />Section 7.3 <br />
  20. 20. Roots of the Constitution<br />Greece (Aristotle)<br />European Philosophers (Thomas Hobbes, Enlightenment ideas)<br />John Locke: “Natural rights”<br />Baron de Montesquieu: Separation of powers, limited government<br />British ideas<br />Magna Carta: limited power<br />English Bill of Rights (1689)<br />
  21. 21. The Federal System<br />Shared powers<br />Federalism is shared powers between federal and state governments<br />Constitution gained power to tax, regulate trade, control currency, raise an army, declare war<br />Constitution: The Supreme Law of the Land<br />States could not make laws which contradict Constitution<br />Constitution was final authority<br />
  22. 22. The Organization of Government<br />Three Branches<br />Legislative: makes laws, collects taxes, regulates trade, issues currency (Article I)<br />Executive: enforces laws, diplomacy, commander in chief (Article II)<br />Judicial: interprets laws and actions (Article III)<br />
  23. 23. The Organization of Government<br />
  24. 24. A New Plan of Government<br />System of Checks and Balances<br />No one branch gaining too much power<br />The world watched and wondered would we fail<br />
  25. 25. Ratifying the Constitution<br />Section 7.4<br />
  26. 26. 7.4 Timeline 1787-1789<br />
  27. 27. Compromise Wins Out<br />In order to revise the Articles of Confederation, 13 out of 13 had to agree<br />The meeting in Philadelphia was with intention to revise<br />Rhode Island did not send delegates, which meant revision was impossible<br />Meeting was held anyway<br />Confederation Congress with 55 delegates approved Constitution<br />Changed unanimous to 9 of 13 votes needed for approval<br />
  28. 28. The Constitutional Debate<br />Federalists [Nationalists] versus Anti-Federalists [Federalists] (1787 – 1793)<br />Federalists supported stronger, central government (and Constitution)<br />Federalist papers (Madison, Hamilton, and Jay) published to explain Constitution<br />Anti-Federalists feared losing state rights would destroy what they fought for<br />Called for Bill of Rights<br />
  29. 29. Questions to Consider<br />How does American distrust in central government shape their new form of government?<br />How did the Articles of Confederation create instability in the new US government?<br />Is the Constitution a legal document?<br />Would you be a Federalist or an Anti-Federalist? Explain.<br />

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