US History Chapter 16


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  • Confederacy had a proposed law in 1865 that would free any slaves that fought for the South.
  • The Union tried to pay bounties of $100 to anyone who volunteered. In both the North and South, you could avoid the draft if you paid your way out or, in the case of the South, you had 20 or more slaves. Rich man’s war but a poor man’s fight resulted. In fact, most soldiers in South didn’t own slaves (like 6% did).Riots were questioning why people had to be drafted to free slaves. They didn’t own slaves, why should they fight to free them? North saw violent protest. South not so bad, but Davis did suspend habeas corpus.
  • US History Chapter 16

    1. 1. Chapter 16: The Civil War<br />Magister Ricard<br />US History<br />
    2. 2. The Two Sides<br />Chapter 16.1<br />
    3. 3. Choosing Sides<br />February 1861 – Confederacy is formed<br />Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas join<br />Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware remain in Union (slave-owning states)<br />Richmond, VA Confederate capitol <br />Importance of Maryland – home of Washington, D.C.<br />West Virginia secedes from VA, aligns with North<br />
    4. 4. Comparing North and South<br />
    5. 5. War Aims and Strategy<br />
    6. 6. American People at War<br />American vs. American, families vs. families<br />Graduates of West Point would square off against one another<br />Average soldier was about 25; 40% were under 21<br />Volunteers were asked to enlist for 3 years<br />1861 – Rebels had 112,000 soldiers; Yankees had 187,000<br />Both sides expected quick war initially<br />
    7. 7. Early Years of the War<br />Chapter 16.2<br />
    8. 8. First Battle of Bull Run<br />July, 1861 – Union troops attacked smaller Confederate troops<br />General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson leads an attack that turns back Union army<br />Union retreats back to Washington, D.C.<br />North is shocked; have strong doubts<br />Lincoln appoints General McClellan<br />
    9. 9. War at Sea<br />North started blockade of Southern ports<br />Could not contain all of 3,500 miles of coastline<br />Blockade runners helped South obtain supplies but South would be short on supplies<br />Monitor (N) vs. Merrimack (S) – first battle between two metal covered ships (ironclads)<br />
    10. 10. War in the West<br />General Ulysses S. Grant captures Tennessee River area in February 1862<br />Battle of Shiloh results in North victory<br />20,000 dead over 2 days<br />Union captures New Orleans April, 1862<br />North now has control of Mississippi River<br />
    11. 11. War in the East<br />McClellan trains Army of Potomac, but hesitant to go to battle<br />Peninsula Campaign to retake Richmond failed<br />McClellan’s hesitancy lead to a Southern victory lead by General Robert E. Lee<br />North was again shocked<br />Confederates attack Bull Run (again) and win<br />
    12. 12. Battle of Antietam<br />Confederate President Davis ordered Lee’s army to advance <br />Another victory could net support from Britain or France and relieve Maryland<br />McClellan’s hesitancy helps Lee prepare<br />Bloodiest battle in American history<br />6,000 dead, 17,000 wounded on Sept. 17th<br />McClellan fails to pursue; is replaced by General Ambrose Burnside<br />
    13. 13. A Call for Freedom<br />Chapter 16.3<br />
    14. 14. Emancipation?<br />Lincoln wanted to contain, not end, slavery<br />Border states would be offended<br />North was concerned over slavery as it aided South’s war efforts greatly<br />Slavery enabled a white to fight<br />Emancipation Proclamation– freed all enslaved blacks in the South<br />Needed key victory like Antietam to time his announcement (September 1862)<br />Officially signed in 1863<br />
    15. 15. African Americans Help<br />Emancipation Proclamation was meant to stir chaos in South<br />Britain and France withhold recognition of Confederacy<br />Robert E. Lee encouraged blacks to enlist in South <br />Many enlisted in Union navy; but in 1862 allowed to enlist in Union army as well<br />54th Massachusetts was led by white abolitionists; gained respect for their bravery<br />
    16. 16. Life During the Civil War<br />Chapter 16.4<br />
    17. 17. The Lives of Soldiers<br />Lived in camps, sometimes with their families<br />Played games, sang songs, played baseball<br />Full of drills, bad food<br />Sometimes would socialize with the enemy<br />New rifles lead to greater accuracy, higher rate of death on battlefield<br />Medical facilities were overwhelmed, poorly organized<br />
    18. 18. Women and the War<br />Helped with medical care and tending to soldiers<br />Collected food, clothing, medicine<br />Some worked as spies<br />Loretta Janeta Velazquez fought as a “man” at Bull Run and Shiloh, spied for Confederacy<br />Clara Barton helped organize battlefield medicine and founded American Red Cross<br />
    19. 19. Opposition to the War<br />North was divided; “Peace Democrats” feared social change – called Copperheads<br />Union losses created support for Copperheads<br />Lincoln suspended habeas corpus for anyone interfering with war efforts<br />Volunteers decline<br />Confederacy invokes a draft in 1862<br />Union creates draft in 1863<br />Riots against the draft resulted in both places<br />
    20. 20. War and the Economy<br />Both North and South borrowed money, increased taxes, and printed money<br />Inflation resulted<br />North was better equipped due to industrial economy<br />More trains, coal, iron, clothing<br />Innovative use of telegraph/Morse code<br />Most Southern farmland was damaged in constant battles<br />Economy could not sustain itself with blockades and lost crops<br />
    21. 21. The Way to Victory<br />Chapter 16.5 <br />
    22. 22. Southern Victories<br />December 1862 – Lee’s entrenched soldiers defeat Burnside<br />Burnside resigns after loss at Fredricksburg<br />May 1863 – Lee defeats General Hooker at Chancellorsville<br />Stonewall Jackson is wounded, arm amputated and dies<br />
    23. 23. The Tide of War Turns<br />Hooker’s refusal to engage Lee got him replaced by General George Meade<br />Armies met by accident on July 1st, 1863 at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania<br />Lee order’s Pickett’s Charge, it fails and Confederacy suffers huge losses<br />Lee retreats to Virginia, Lincoln scolds Meade for not finishing the job<br />Union captures Vicksburg, Mississippi <br />Seals off Texas, Arkansas, and Louisiana<br />
    24. 24. Final Phases of the War<br />“I can’t spare this man, he fights.” Grant takes over command of Union army<br />Two pronged attack<br />Grant attacks Lee in Virginia<br />Seeks victory despite high casualties<br />Sherman would advance from Tennessee to Atlanta<br />Total War – scorched earth policy; Atlanta to Savannah PWNED<br />Lincoln wins reelection in 1864 after North looks to be on verge of victory<br />
    25. 25. Victory for the North<br />Lincoln speaks of peace for 2nd term inaugural speech in 1865<br />Grant seizes Petersburg, then Richmond falls<br />Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox Court House on April 9th, 1865<br />Grant allowed Confederate soldiers to return home<br />Jefferson Davis is captured in Georgia on May 10th<br />
    26. 26. Results of the War<br />Over 600,000 Americans died<br />Billions of dollars of damage, mostly to the South<br />Bitter feelings lingered over the war between the two regions<br />Federal government is strengthened while state’s rights loses out<br />Slaves were freed, but were still not on equal standing<br />