Before clipper ships and steamboats – trans-Atlantic trip took 21-28 days. Now, in half the time.Locomotives started out connecting mines to rivers. By 1840, 10 years after Tom Thumb, they would be hauling trains of cargo. Rails were needed for the locomotives, and in 1840 3000 miles was laid. By 1860 that would grow to over 31,000 miles, connecting railways across the nation. This connected Midwest with East through the Erie Canal and the rail network. Goods became cheaper and easier to sell. Increases population in Midwest as people spread for new opportunities.
Congress, in 1843, had purchased an experimental telegraph line for $30,000 but needed a way to transmit messages. Samuel Morse tapped the message, using a series of dashes and dots, “What hath God wrought!”. The success means that the use of the telegraph would instantly communicate news across vast areas – shrinking the US. Would be used by North to help them win the war.
Despite the increase in agricultural production, the North’s economy stayed based on industry. Utilizing technology, America was able to produce crops in areas that would yield very littler before the innovations. This is an American trait and result of a capitalist economy.
Originally striking was illegal. In 1842 a Massachusetts court ruled that workers did have the right to strike for better working conditions and pay.
Previously, most immigrants were Protestants from England or African slaves – now immigrants from Ireland and ½ Germany were Roman Catholics. Highlights religious freedom and tolerance that is hallmark of American society.
This is not to say that the US was without prejudice. The American Party was formed to help support the nativists’ agenda – people who felt immigrants threatened the future of native-born American citizens.
Tobacco ruined land, depended on foreign demand. Rice needed wet climates. Sugarcane needed irrigation and machinery; known as “rich man’s crop”.There was huge demand for cotton textiles, but it was difficult to produce. Eli Whitney created the “gin” short for engine, to remove the seeds from cotton fibers. Increased productivity of harvest – worker could yield 50 pounds per day as opposed to 1 pound per day. Leads to demand for more cotton, more slaves. Pushed Native Americans off their land to make way for expanding cotton growth.
Why was the divide between the economy of the North and South so wide? What was the difference? The South was rural, based on agricultural production – most of their money was tied into buying assets (slaves and land) for production. They were rigid in their belief that the cotton industry would continue to boom. This made Southerners more and more tied to a system of slavery and agriculture, whereas the North was forced to find other ways to compete economically since they lacked good land for agricultural production. Besides, South produced wealth and could buy what they wanted rather than build industry. A lack of industry and a lack of development of the railway network would come back to haunt the South in the Civil War.
Rural poor were looked down on by other whites, but were fiercely independent and prided themselves on being self sufficient – they did not work another man’s land because they did not want to appear to be slaves.
Slaves worked from sunrise to sunset, from youth to old age. Did heavy labor, were always kept busy. Older slaves were given lighter chores.
What do you think is the purpose of the Slave Codes?
Why did the Southerners claim that slavery was a means to Christianize the heathen but then not offer them the ability to read the Bible? Why were slaves who converted not freed because they had undergone the change to a “new creature”? Nat Turner, who was literate, claimed he had seen a vision by the Holy Spirit to rebel. This was not the first slave rebellion, nor would it be the last. The South became a virtual police state, censoring Northern abolition writing in favor of the South proslavery propaganda. The Bible, “Curse of Ham” was used to support slavery in the South. The North claimed that rights of free speech were being violated in the South.
US History Chapter 13
Chapter 13: North and South<br />Magister Ricard<br />US History<br />
Technology and Industry<br />Industrialization <br />Division of labor among workers<br />Machines replace workers’ duties, now tended to machines<br />Industrialization lead to mass production<br />Elias Howe invents the sewing machine (1843)<br />Production on a large scale of cotton textiles<br />
Improved Transportation<br />Steamboats and Steamships – invented by Robert Fulton<br />Carried goods and passengers more quickly<br />Clipper Ships – could sail an average of 300 miles per day<br />Locomotives – Peter Cooper and the Tom Thumb<br />By 1860 almost 31,000 miles of rail, mostly in North and Midwest<br />
Faster Communication<br />The telegraph and Morse Code<br />1844 Samuel Morse sends a message from Washington, DC to Baltimore, Maryland<br />Spreading the news – newspapers explode<br />1846 Richard Hoe invents steam rotary press<br />
Revolution in Agriculture<br />1837 John Deere’s steel-tipped plow allows for pioneers in Great Plains to farm<br />1834 Cyrus McCormick mechanizes the reaper, used to harvest wheat which would become a staple crop of Midwest<br />
Northern Factories<br />Between 1820s and 1860s, industrialization increased<br />Work was dangerous, conditions brutal<br />Workers were tending to machines with little protection<br />Owners cared more about profits than people – no laws existed to protect workers<br />Workers started forming trade unions, would strike for better conditions<br />
The Rise of Cities<br />Industrialization lead to Urbanization<br />People were looking for work, flocked to the factories<br />Urban living was dangerous<br />Run-down structures without plumbing or heat<br />Spread disease and danger of fire<br />1840s 14% lived in cities; 1860s 26%<br />
Immigration<br />Between 1846-1860 1.5 million Irish immigrated to US due to potato famine<br />By 1850 1/3 of workers in Boston were Irish<br />Between 1848-1860 1 million German immigrants came to US<br />Immigrants brought their languages, customs, cultures which were melted into American culture<br />Immigrants remind us of what we take for granted<br />
Immigration<br />Immigration leads to prejudice<br />Know-Nothing Party – a political party formed by nativists who claimed to “know nothing”<br />Called for stricter citizenship laws; prohibit foreigners from holding office<br />By mid-1850s would split into Northern and Southern branches over question of slavery<br />
Rise of the Cotton Kingdom<br />Slavery was disappearing in the North by 1820s; grew stronger in the South<br />Tobacco and rice were former cash crops<br />Sugarcane was too costly to produce<br />Upper South produces tobacco; Deep South produces rice, sugarcane, and cotton<br />1793 Eli Whitney invents the Cotton Gin – removed seeds from cotton fibers<br />Increase in slave labor and need for land<br />
Industry’s Limited Role in the South<br />North = industry<br />North lacked good land, forced to innovate<br />South = agriculture<br />Lack of capital – money used to invest in business<br />Lack of vision in future markets<br />North used immigrant labor force, South slave labor force<br />Lack of industry and railroads would plague South in Civil War<br />
Small Farmers and Rural Poor<br />Yeomen farmers made up largest group of Southern white farmers – no slaves<br />Ranged from 50-200 acres<br />Some rented land or were tenant farmers worked on landlord estates<br />Rural poor sustenance farming, proud to be self-sufficient<br />
Plantations<br />Measured wealth by number of slaves and size of land<br />Could be around several thousand acres<br />
Plantations<br />Plantation owners focused on making profits<br />Assessed their fixed costs to determine their profit margins each year<br />Profit was determined by the price of their products (cotton, etc.)<br />Agents would buy the cotton, extend credit to planters <br />Then sell when price rose to make their profit<br />
Plantations<br />Plantation wives watched over slaves who worked in the home, tended to them when sick, supervised construction, kept records<br />Domestic slaves worked indoors<br />Others were skilled laborers (blacksmiths, carpenters, etc.)<br />Most slaves were field hands – supervised by an overseer<br />
Life Under Slavery<br />Worked hard, earned no money, little hope of freedom<br />Feared being resold, separated from family<br />Formed networks of extended families to cope and give stability<br />Marriage was not honored by law, but did occur<br />Held on to their customs, but turned to Christianity for hope<br />Developed spirituals, or religious folk songs<br />
Life Under Slavery<br />Slave Codes – series of laws passed between 1830-1860<br />Slaves were not allowed to gather in large numbers<br />Slaves were not allowed to leave property without authorization<br />It was a crime to teach slaves how to read and write<br />
Life Under Slavery<br />Nat Turner lead a slave rebellion<br />Killed 55 whites in Virginia<br />Was literate<br />Lead to stricter Slave Codes<br />Inspired by the “Holy Spirit”<br />
Life Under Slavery<br />Many slaves attempted running away<br />Frederick Douglass and Harriet Tubman successfully escaped to the North<br />Used the Underground Railroad which had series of safe houses aiding escapees<br />Most runaways were captured and returned<br />Punishment was usually whipping<br />