Americans had just won the war of 1812 and were gaining more land as a nation.
Under president Jackson (War of 1812 hero as well as famed Indian killer) US culture flourished. Served two terms.
NY newspaper editor John O’Sullivan stated it was the special mission to spread to the Pacific Ocean. How does manifest destiny shape settlement patterns?
President James K. Polk would have, arguably, one of the most important administrations as president in determining the size of the young nation. He ran on a ticket supporting the sole ownership of Oregon, and the annexation of Texas.
There were few settlers in Texas at the time, land owned by Spain. Tejanos, or Mexicans that were native to Texas, claimed it as their home. To inspire settlement, Spain offered vast tracts of land to families to settle on – empresarios.
Mexico proclaims its independence from Spain and pushes for settlers in the region. 3 colonization laws – colonists must learn Spanish, convert to Catholicism, and obey Mexican law. Typically, American settlers defied these demands.
For 13 days, American settlers in Texas and Tejanos held together against Santa Anna’s forces. 4,000 Mexican soldiers against 187 Texas rebels lead by Colonel Travis. The Mexicans seized the Alamo, bombarding it with cannons each day. Eventually, they attacked early in the morning on March 6, 1836 and overcame the rebels who had run low on ammunition. They died fighting hand to hand. Davy Crockett, one of the last survivors taken prisoner, was shot by firing squad. It was a victory for the Mexicans that was more costly than a defeat as the Texas rebels killed hundreds of Mexican soldiers.Jim Bowie was known for his “Bowie knife”. A fight broke out that drew in Bowie, and despite being shot and stabbed himself was able to kill the sheriff of Rapides Parish with his famous knife. At the Alamo, Bowie had gotten sick and was bedridden. When the Mexican army was closing in, Colonel Travis drew a line in the sand and asked whoever would fight with him to the end to cross the line. Bowie asked Crockett to carry his cot over the line. His mother, upon hearing of his death, “I’ll wager no wounds were found in his back.”
Sam Houston, who had sent Jim Bowie to the Alamo, wanted revenge. He needed as many troops as he could get, and wanted to prevent the Mexicans from overunning other forts. He recalled the soldiers from Goliad, who went retreating got into a skirmish with the Mexican army. The Texans surrendered, but Santa Anna had them all executed.Sam Houston pulled his armies back east to draw Santa Anna further in. The Mexican troops became tired and with so many wounded had dwindled down to about 1300 troops. With only 800 Texan soldiers, Houston ordered the attack at San Jacinto to surprise the Mexican army and win. Santa Anna is captured, and signs a treaty recognizing Texan independence.
Santa Fe Trail becomes a busy trade route. Americans began to settle in the region. Manifest Destiny begins to take shape in this area, too, as well as California.
Mission system helps establish settlement of Spanish in California. By 1820, there were 21 missions established by Spain. After Mexico won its independence, in 1833 abolish the missions and begin to settle in the area. Some lands were given to Native Americans, the rest were bought by ranchos for raising cattle and horses. Rancheros controlled larger plots of land, and treated the Native Americans almost as slave labor offering them food and shelter in return for their work.
In 1845, outgoing president John Tyler (who was put into office upon the almost immediate death of William Henry Harrison), signed the annexation of Texas. There was a border dispute between Texas and Mexico – Texas wanted border to Rio Grande, Mexico wanted Nueces River further north. The US recognized the claim to Rio Grande – infuriating Mexico.Annexation of Texas was publicly debated as it was a slave state, but land was massive and would add greatly to US interests (manifest destiny). John Quincy Adams called it a great calamity.Polk had an agenda – he wanted to acquire not just Texas and Oregon, as his election campaign stressed, but also California, New Mexico and parts of northern Mexico. He needed the Mexicans to attack first – so he sent a diplomat to Mexico City to buy California and New Mexico and honor Texas’ claim to the Rio Grande for $30M. Mexicans refused and announced they were going to reclaim Texas. Zachary Taylor is ordered to advance and hold his position to draw a fight. Mexicans attack, Taylor is victorious and the war commences.
General Zachary Taylor lead his forces against 1,000 Mexican lancers. Mexicans lost 250 men while Taylor only lost 9 defending the disputed border in Texas/northern Mexico.Kearney takes his troops along the Santa Fe Trail and captures Santa Fe without firing a shot. Kearney would move on to San Diego and Los Angeles to help capture Arizona and California. He met up with “The Pathfinder” John Fremont who had led a small revolt in California, which was met with mixed feelings among the Californios (Mexicans who lived in California). The Brea Flag Republic was established. It was the US Navy that was able to get Fremont’s forces to move throughout California so quickly. When the Navy left, there was a rebellion by some Californios but Kearney’s forces helped secure the victory.General Scott would move in from Veracruz, capturing the port city, and up to Mexico City. On Sept. 14, 1847 the first time ever an American force would capture and occupy an enemy capital. American Marines guarded the National Palace against vandalism – “the Halls of Montezuma…”.Treaty – Rio Grande and Mexico Cession – California and New Mexico given to US. US pays Mexico $15M. Mexico shrinks in half. Gadsden Purchase for $10M in 1853 for land along southern edge of Arizona and New Mexico.
Joseph Smith, directed by an angel, uncovered some golden tablets which he translated into the Book of Mormon (1830). Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Joseph Smith was running for presidential election, but was killed by a mob of anti-Mormons. Brigham Young took over, and lead the Mormons eventually to Salt Lake City, where the Mormon Trail was established and frequented by gold rush seekers.
Historical Background<br />Between 1790-1825, manufacturing took on prominent economic role<br />After the exploration of the Louisiana Territory, people started to move west<br />Adams-Onis Treaty surrenders Florida to US from Spain (1819)<br />
The Monroe Doctrine<br />In 1823, the US establishes the Monroe Doctrine which makes it dominant force in Americas<br />Statement made by then-president (#5) James Monroe<br />No new European colonies in the Americas<br />Example of Americans showing nationalism<br />
Social Reforms<br />From 1816 to 1824, Jeffersonian Republicans were dominant political party<br />During 1820s and 1830s people started to question limits of democracy<br />Women, blacks, and other minorities begin to push for the right to vote<br />Bitter election of 1824 divides Republican party; election decided by House of Representatives<br />
Jackson Administration<br />7thPresident was Andrew “Old Hickory” Jackson<br />Popular among the people; changed politics<br />Nullification Act – Southern states refused to pay a tariff on European goods<br />Jackson supported programs like the Indian Removal Act which removed Native Americans to Indian territory (Oklahoma)<br />Jackson fought against and defeated a national bank<br />
Empire of Liberty or Manifest Destiny?<br />Since Europeans first settled, the amount of land was overwhelming<br />Paradise on Earth<br />Winning the Revolution, Americans began crossing over the Appalachians<br />“Jacksonian” America began to believe this to be their destiny<br />Earlier Thomas Jefferson envisioned an “Empire of Liberty”<br />
Rivalry in the Northwest<br />US, Britain, Spain, and Russia all claim Oregon Territory<br />Adams-Onis Treaty (1819) limited Spanish claim to area now known as California<br />1824 Russia surrenders claim south of Alaska<br />Joint occupation with England leads to fixed boundary along 49⁰ latitude<br />
Mountain Men<br />Originally fur traders<br />Later became guides<br />Told tales of survival in wild<br />Late summer rendezvous (meeting)<br />Trade furs for supplies, money; swap stories<br />
Settling Oregon<br />The Whitman Mission <br />Bringing Christianity to Native Americans<br />Measles brought by missionaries, Indian children die<br />Cayuse Indians attack mission and kill all<br />The Oregon Trail<br />“Oregon Fever” spread<br />1843, 120 wagons and 1,000 pioneers go west<br />Emigrants- from Independence, Missouri to Oregon <br />2,000 miles<br />
Settling Oregon<br />Life on the Trail<br />Wagons were like “prairie schooners”<br />Walked along side<br />Abandon belongings<br />Hard work for all<br />Circle the wagons at night<br />
The Division of Oregon<br />More Americans than British in area<br />Belief that America was to serve as a model of freedom<br />Lead to belief in manifest destiny<br />
The Division of Oregon<br />“Fifty-Four Forty or Fight”<br />Ownership of Oregon became issue in 1844 election<br />Democratic slogan referred to Oregon’s northern border 54”40’ helps James K. Polk win election<br />Reaching A Settlement<br />British would finally agree to 49 degree latitude in 1846<br />
Independence for Texas<br />Chapter 12.2<br />
A Clash of Cultures<br />US claims started with Louisiana Purchase (1803)<br />Adams-Onis Treaty (1819) Texas to Spain<br />Tejanos and Empresarios<br />
A Clash of Cultures<br />Texas attractive to Americans <br />Stephen Austin settles colony in 1822<br />1830 Americans outnumber Mexicans<br />Mexican Colonization Act of 1830<br />Prohibited further American settlement<br />Banned slavery<br />Tariffs placed on goods from US<br />
The Struggle for Independence<br />Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna new President<br />Stephen Austin meets to discuss demands from Texas<br />Austin is jailed<br />War begins<br />
The Struggle for Independence<br />San Antonio early Texan victory<br />The Battle of the Alamo, famous battle<br />“Remember the Alamo.”<br />American legends Davy Crockett and Jim Bowie died there<br />
Texas Independence<br />March 2, 1836 Texas declares independence<br />Sam Houston, Commander in Chief<br />At Goliad, Texans massacred after surrender<br />Battle of San Jacinto: Texas victory ends war<br />The Lone Star Republic <br />Sam Houston President<br />Apply to be annexed, by United States<br />Amid political debate, would obtain statehood in 1844 <br />
New Mexico and California<br />Chapter 12.3<br />
The New Mexico Territory<br />In 1609 Spain founded SanteFe<br />Mexico inherited NM in 1821<br />William Becknell establishes Santa Fe Trail<br />
California’s Spanish Culture<br />Settled originally by the Mission System<br />Mexico abolishes missions in 1833, sells property to settlers<br />Ranchossettle<br />Rancheros, larger properties (plantations) treat natives like slaves<br />
Outbreak of War<br />1845 annexation of Texas<br />Border dispute: Rio Grande or Nueces River?<br />Mexico stopped payments, broke diplomatic relations with US<br />General Zachary Taylor sent and attacked<br />Fredrick Douglas: the war is a disgrace<br />Republicans against (Lincoln)<br />
Polk’s War Plan<br />Secure the border<br />General Taylor successful<br />Seize California and New Mexico<br />General Kearny takes New Mexico<br />Fremont, Kit Carson, and Navy take California<br />Capture Mexico City<br />General Winfield Scott wins<br />Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and Gadsden Purchase<br />
New Settlers in California and Utah<br />Chapter 12.5<br />
California Gold Rush<br />100,000 people came to California 1848/49<br />“Forty-niners”<br />Boomtowns emerge (almost overnight!)<br />San Francisco emerges<br />Mining: Difficult work<br />Doubled the world gold supply<br />
California gold Rush<br />Levi Strauss got rich<br />Merchants prosper<br />Gold Rush Society<br />Little law<br />Vigilantes take over<br />Political Progress<br />Zachary Taylor, President urged statehood<br />1850, California a State<br />
A Religious Refuge in Utah<br />Mormons forced westward<br />Joseph Smith killed in Illinois<br />Brigham Young takes over<br />Salt Lake City, 1846<br />Not a state until 1896<br />