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Chapters 9 and 23 Indian Art
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  • Three jewels are the Buddha, the Law, and the Monastic Order of priests.

Chapters 9 and 23 Indian Art Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Chapters 9 and 23: Indian Art
    AP Art History
    Magister Ricard
  • 2. Key Concepts
    Indian art stresses connection between all the major arts (architecture, painting, sculpture)
    Buddhism and Hinduism form major influences into thought and art of India
    Ancient culture with many diverse languages
  • 3. Historical Background
    Based around the Indus and Ganges river valleys
    Due to abundance of resources, became a highly contested area
    18 official languages – Hindi is only spoken by about 20% of the population
    Diverse geography and religious followings as well
  • 4.
  • 5. Historical Background
    The earliest civilization, the Harrapa, flourished ca. 2600-1900 BC
    Synchronous with Old Kingdom Egypt, Minoans, Ur and Babylon from Mesopotamia
    Notice the importance of a river?
  • 6.
  • 7. Patronage of Art in India
    Rulers were generous patrons
    Architecture and public sculpture used to enhance civic life and propaganda
    Art is interconnected; monuments are meant to unify in their vision
    Artists work as a team under an artist leader that wants to realize a cohesive vision
    Uniformity of style
    Artists were trained as apprentices
  • 8. Hinduism and Indian Art
    Chapters 9 and 23: Indian Art
  • 9. Hinduism and Art
    Kind of a mish-mash of religions from India
    Polytheistic, folk beliefs run alongside complex philosophical schools of thought
    Infinite variety of the expression of the Divine
    The Vedas are the sacred texts, written in Sanskrit
    Makes mention of the caste system (Brahmins are priestly class at highest social point)
  • 10. Hinduism and Art
    Goal is to break the cycle of rebirth
    Karma and Dharma
    Shiva – god of destruction and rebirth, Cosmic Dancer
    Parvati – consort of Shiva
    Brahma – creator god
    Vishnu – god of preservation, order, law, associated with water
    Lakshmi – consort of Vishnu, goddess of wealth
  • 11. Hinduism and Architecture
    The temple is the residence of the god (compare to Greek and Roman temples)
    Interior cella is referred to as “womb of the world”
    Contained sacred statue for priests and attendants
    Preferred corbelled vault to the arch
    Hypostyle hall (congregation) precedes antechamber (ceremonies)
  • 12. Hinduism and Architecture
    Temples were found in a temple complex
    Northern India features more vertical elements with towers
    Southern India features concentric gated walls (Cambodia)
    Temple exteriors are completely covered with sculpture (horror vacui)
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  • 17. Hinduism and Painting
    Excelled at painting miniatures, illuminating texts
    Popular theme is the life of Krishna
    Crowded scenes with lots of color
    Perspective is tilted upwards
    Figures proportionally small compared to landscapes, rendered carefully
    Use of floral patterns to fill up negative space
  • 18.
  • 19. Hinduism and Sculpture
    Integrated with sculpture; buildings thought of as sculpture
    Mithuna – divine couples appear on exteriors and above doorways
    Stress sexual union as expression of fertility, creation
    Organic and geometric designs with curved lines, dancing poses
    To touch an image is to touch the god
    Darshan is experience of invocation of deity
    Puja is ritual offering to deity
  • 20.
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  • 24. Buddhism and Art in India
    Chapters 9 and 23: Indian Art
  • 25. Buddhism and Art
    Buddha, obtained enlightenment under the bodhi tree, rejects the world of illusion
    Prince Siddhartha left royal court and lifestyle behind
    Life is pain, pain is belief in illusory world
    Endless cycle of birth and rebirth (Samsara)
    Assuming unification with the supreme deity is main focus, deny outside stimuli is sign of enlightenment
  • 26. Buddhism and Art
    Rich iconography
    Lion – symbol of royalty
    Wheel – Samsara, Buddha’s law, cycle of birth
    Lotus – purity, esoteric symbol based on its behavior
  • 27. Buddhism and Architecture
    Principal place of study/worship is the stupa
    Mound shaped shrine with no interior, is a reliquary and grants spiritual power through close proximity
    Worshippers ascend staircase and follow clockwise direction – the direction of the sun
    Features three umbrellas and four toranas (points of the compass)
  • 28.
  • 29. Buddhism and Painting/Sculpture
    Much uniformity despite spans of space and time
    Depictions of Buddha usually seated, compact pose, seated in lotus position
    Drapery treatment depends on region
    Usually frontal with nimbus/halo
    Features helpers or bodhisattvas who postpone nirvana/enlightenment to help others
    Uses hand gestures called mudras
  • 30. Buddhism and Painting/Sculpture
    Artists usually depicted male figures (yakshas) and female figures (yakshis)
    Nature spirits, syncretized into Buddhism from native religions
    Figures are rendered to stress masculine/feminine features
  • 31.
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  • 36. Art of South and Southeastern Asia After 1200
    Chapter 9 and 23
  • 37.
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  • 41. Summary
    Very diverse region yet unified artistic visions
    Arts were unified into one large monument and vision of a leading artist
    Both Buddhist and Hindu temples follow a mound shape
    Exterior spaces feature horror vacui, which has sculptured elements piled on top of each other to cover any negative space
    Human figures tend to be rendered sensually