Chapters 9 and 23 Indian Art


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  • Three jewels are the Buddha, the Law, and the Monastic Order of priests.
  • Chapters 9 and 23 Indian Art

    1. 1. Chapters 9 and 23: Indian Art<br />AP Art History<br />Magister Ricard<br />
    2. 2. Key Concepts<br />Indian art stresses connection between all the major arts (architecture, painting, sculpture)<br />Buddhism and Hinduism form major influences into thought and art of India<br />Ancient culture with many diverse languages<br />
    3. 3. Historical Background<br />Based around the Indus and Ganges river valleys<br />Due to abundance of resources, became a highly contested area<br />18 official languages – Hindi is only spoken by about 20% of the population<br />Diverse geography and religious followings as well<br />
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    5. 5. Historical Background<br />The earliest civilization, the Harrapa, flourished ca. 2600-1900 BC<br />Synchronous with Old Kingdom Egypt, Minoans, Ur and Babylon from Mesopotamia<br />Notice the importance of a river?<br />
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    7. 7. Patronage of Art in India<br />Rulers were generous patrons<br />Architecture and public sculpture used to enhance civic life and propaganda<br />Art is interconnected; monuments are meant to unify in their vision <br />Artists work as a team under an artist leader that wants to realize a cohesive vision<br />Uniformity of style<br />Artists were trained as apprentices<br />
    8. 8. Hinduism and Indian Art<br />Chapters 9 and 23: Indian Art<br />
    9. 9. Hinduism and Art<br />Kind of a mish-mash of religions from India<br />Polytheistic, folk beliefs run alongside complex philosophical schools of thought<br />Infinite variety of the expression of the Divine<br />The Vedas are the sacred texts, written in Sanskrit<br />Makes mention of the caste system (Brahmins are priestly class at highest social point)<br />
    10. 10. Hinduism and Art<br />Goal is to break the cycle of rebirth<br />Karma and Dharma<br />Shiva – god of destruction and rebirth, Cosmic Dancer<br />Parvati – consort of Shiva<br />Brahma – creator god<br />Vishnu – god of preservation, order, law, associated with water<br />Lakshmi – consort of Vishnu, goddess of wealth<br />
    11. 11. Hinduism and Architecture<br />The temple is the residence of the god (compare to Greek and Roman temples)<br />Interior cella is referred to as “womb of the world”<br />Contained sacred statue for priests and attendants<br />Preferred corbelled vault to the arch<br />Hypostyle hall (congregation) precedes antechamber (ceremonies)<br />
    12. 12. Hinduism and Architecture<br />Temples were found in a temple complex<br />Northern India features more vertical elements with towers<br />Southern India features concentric gated walls (Cambodia)<br />Temple exteriors are completely covered with sculpture (horror vacui)<br />
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    17. 17. Hinduism and Painting<br />Excelled at painting miniatures, illuminating texts<br />Popular theme is the life of Krishna<br />Crowded scenes with lots of color<br />Perspective is tilted upwards<br />Figures proportionally small compared to landscapes, rendered carefully <br />Use of floral patterns to fill up negative space<br />
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    19. 19. Hinduism and Sculpture<br />Integrated with sculpture; buildings thought of as sculpture<br />Mithuna – divine couples appear on exteriors and above doorways<br />Stress sexual union as expression of fertility, creation<br />Organic and geometric designs with curved lines, dancing poses<br />To touch an image is to touch the god<br />Darshan is experience of invocation of deity<br />Puja is ritual offering to deity<br />
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    24. 24. Buddhism and Art in India<br />Chapters 9 and 23: Indian Art<br />
    25. 25. Buddhism and Art<br />Buddha, obtained enlightenment under the bodhi tree, rejects the world of illusion<br />Prince Siddhartha left royal court and lifestyle behind<br />Life is pain, pain is belief in illusory world<br />Endless cycle of birth and rebirth (Samsara)<br />Assuming unification with the supreme deity is main focus, deny outside stimuli is sign of enlightenment<br />
    26. 26. Buddhism and Art<br />Rich iconography<br />Lion – symbol of royalty<br />Wheel – Samsara, Buddha’s law, cycle of birth<br />Lotus – purity, esoteric symbol based on its behavior<br />
    27. 27. Buddhism and Architecture<br />Principal place of study/worship is the stupa<br />Mound shaped shrine with no interior, is a reliquary and grants spiritual power through close proximity<br />Worshippers ascend staircase and follow clockwise direction – the direction of the sun<br />Features three umbrellas and four toranas (points of the compass)<br />
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    29. 29. Buddhism and Painting/Sculpture<br />Much uniformity despite spans of space and time<br />Depictions of Buddha usually seated, compact pose, seated in lotus position<br />Drapery treatment depends on region<br />Usually frontal with nimbus/halo<br />Features helpers or bodhisattvas who postpone nirvana/enlightenment to help others<br />Uses hand gestures called mudras<br />
    30. 30. Buddhism and Painting/Sculpture<br />Artists usually depicted male figures (yakshas) and female figures (yakshis)<br />Nature spirits, syncretized into Buddhism from native religions<br />Figures are rendered to stress masculine/feminine features<br />
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    36. 36. Art of South and Southeastern Asia After 1200<br />Chapter 9 and 23<br />
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    41. 41. Summary<br />Very diverse region yet unified artistic visions<br />Arts were unified into one large monument and vision of a leading artist<br />Both Buddhist and Hindu temples follow a mound shape<br />Exterior spaces feature horror vacui, which has sculptured elements piled on top of each other to cover any negative space<br />Human figures tend to be rendered sensually<br />