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Chapter 8 Islamic Art
 

Chapter 8 Islamic Art

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  • [Point out fractal theory, quantum theory, and the idea of a holographic universe. All of these ideas were known to Islamic mystics who believed the true nature of the universe was revealed in this form – much like Pythagoreans. - Ricard]
  • [Point out fractal theory, quantum theory, and the idea of a holographic universe. All of these ideas were known to Islamic mystics who believed the true nature of the universe was revealed in this form – much like Pythagoreans. - Ricard]The Kaaba was the a cubical shrine built for God by Abraham but full of idols due to pilgrimage. Muhammad removed the idols. This example was followed by later Muslims who discouraged the use of images but instead chose non-representational ornaments using complex geometric designs.

Chapter 8 Islamic Art Chapter 8 Islamic Art Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 8: Islamic Art
    AP Art History
    Magister Ricard
  • Key Ideas
    Chief building of worship is the mosque
    Worship is directed to Mecca through an arch called a mihrab
    Due to religious law, calligraphy is most prized art form as pictorial representations are not allowed
    Islamic textiles are treasured as great works of woven art
  • Historical Background
    Islam was founded during the 7th century by Muhammad
    Originally al-Amin merchant from Mecca
    The Qur'an is the word of Allah sent to Muhammad by an angel
    Muhammad died in 632 AD,
    Four of his followers became caliphs (“successor”)
  • Historical Background
    By 750 AD, Islam spread to North Africa, Middle East, Central Asia, Spain, and India
    Caliphates conquered neighboring lands
    From 700’s to 1400’s Muslims were leading merchants
    They used coins and kept detailed records
  • Historical Background
    As trade increased, cities grew
    Cities on trade routes (Baghdad, Cairo, Damascus) became centers of government and learning
    Made contributions to math, astronomy, chemistry, medicine
    Preserved writings of ancient Greek thinkers
  • Historical Background
    After the Mongols sack of Baghdad in 1258, Islam split
    East: South and Central Asia, Iran and Turkey
    West: Near East and Arabic Peninsula, North Africa, parts of Sicily and Spain
    Two major forms exist: Shiite and Sunni
  • Five Pillars of Islam
    There is no God besides Allah and Mohammed is his prophet (Shahadah)
    Must pray 5 times a day (Salat – consists of 5 prayers)
    Give to the poor (Zakat)
    Fasting during the month of Ramadan (Sawm)
    A pilgrimage to Mecca once in their life (Hajj)
  • Patronage of Islamic Art
    Most patronage is by rulers and social elite
    Items of value (textiles, metalwork, ceramics) produced for an art market
    Calligraphy was most popular art form
    Calligraphers were more respected artists in Islam
    Started off anonymous
    By 13th-14th century, signed examples appear
    Apprenticeship was main form of training
  • Islamic Architecture
    Chapter 8
  • Key Features of Islamic Architecture
    Mosques were oriented towards Mecca
    The qiblah (direction to Mecca) marked by mihrab
    Minarets served to call for prayer
    Consisted of a base, shaft, internal staircase, gallery
    Mosques can either be hypostyle or centrally planned
  • Islamic Art
    Chapter 8
  • Characteristics of Islamic Art
  • Characteristics of Islamic Art
    Used only a straightedge and compass
    Artwork encompassed high level math; high order thinking and geometry
    The universe demonstrates intelligent design, based on logic, or mind of divinity
    Patterns radiate from a central point
    Prayer rugs highly regarded; featured geometric designs
  • Characteristics of Islamic Art
    Islamic art is intellectual
    Not emotional, but expresses awe and divine harmony
    Images are avoided (aniconism); due to the tradition of Muhammad removing images from the Kaaba