CFL Nutrition - Weight Loss Seminar

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  • BMI- easy to obtain, faster than skin fold etc.
  • Levi et al., 2012
  • Levi et al., 2012 F as in Fat Report
  • Correctly for increase in population size
  • Low-protein low-fat; high carb meals
  • Nothing specific—we cannot focus on calories alone. There is more to this than just caloires
  • Antherogenic lipid states: HDL, apoB/apoA-1, TAG levels
  • Take about significance of the study.Ornish, LEARN, Zone, AtkinsAlso mention the other study on micronutrient intake—later publish*retention rate
  • Atkins also had better metabolic improvements: BP, weight, cholesterol, TC, HDL, LDL, insulin and glucose.Interstingly, the LEARN diet was the diet they recommend in 1998 after the first expert panel on obesity/overweight.
  • Over 2-yr span 84.6% retention rateLC: Atkins group
  • Talk mainly about insulin improvement and weight loss improvingEvolutionary roots
  • Keto adaptive: utilizing ketone bodies for energy; this is okayKetosis: people think that when they hit ketosis is the same asEndurance athletesWestern States 100—Tim Olsen won on lowcarbketogenic diet
  • Constantly varied, see results4-6 months: LCHF5-7 months: re-indroduce CHO, but centered around workouts and only from fruits, rice, “clean” grainsMark out on your calender—planReintroduced something new!
  • Lifestyle: nutrition, sleep, exercise, work/family/social, psycologyStrenghts: what are you good at? What sucks Example: consistent with workouts, but I binge eat immediately after.Implement change: my advice + othersSuccess + evaluate what works & doesn’t: after you make change do you stick with it? If you make a change, do you see results? What kind of result?Coninute bing you—small changes.
  • Need to evaluate each of these—ask yourself some questions
  • Some final nutrition tips
  • Evalualte lifestyle: who, what, when, whereKidney liver: AST, ALT, BUNFine tunePaleo; monitor weight, percent body fat!
  • *great on exercise days-include after/before a workout


  • 1. October 4, 2012
  • 2. What are werecommended to eat? Time Magazine, September 2011
  • 3. Nutrition Guidelines Began in 1980: Food Guide Pyramid
  • 4. Nutrition Guidelines MyPyramid 2005
  • 5. Nutrition Guidelines MyPlate 2011
  • 6. Do we see huge changes innutrition recommendations over the last 30 years? What do you think?
  • 7. Are we a healthy nation?
  • 8. ―F‖ as in Fat Report 2012 Adult obesity rose in 16 states over the past year (2008-2010 data). No decreases. 12 states have obesity rates over 30%. Mississippi highest (34.4%); Colorado lowest (19.8%). Obesity related diseases: diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, cancer still high. 2030? Obesity rates will reach 44%, and in 13 states it will be over 60%!
  • 9. Trends in ObesityNutrition Science Initiative
  • 10. Trends in DiabetesNutrition Science Initiative
  • 11. Trends in Childhood ObesityNutrition Science Initiative
  • 12. Side Effects Angina (Chest pain) Inflammation Cancer Hypertension Joint pain Heart Attack/Stroke Amputations Blindness Pre-mature Death Mental Health
  • 13. Side Effects
  • 14. But… Obesity and obesity-related diseases can be prevented and reversed! Best method? CHANGE IN LIFESTYLE!!!
  • 15. Are the currentrecommendations correct?
  • 16. Evidence Report NIH 1998 In 1995, the NIH convened the first Expert Panel on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults to develop clinical practice guidelines for primary care practitioners. What do they recommend?
  • 17. Treatment ofOverweight/Obesity ≥ 55% energy from carbohydrates ≤ 30% energy from fat Roughly 15% energy from protein CHO FAT PRO
  • 18. What are we currently told? CDC: ―you must use up more calories than you take in… since one pound [of fat] equals 3,500 calories reduce 500- 1000 calories per day to lose 1 to 2 pounds per week.‖ Mayo Clinic: ―when it comes to weight loss, it’s calories that count.‖
  • 19. What are we currently told? NIH Weight-control Information Network: ―to lose weight you need to take in fewer calories than you use.‖ ADA: ―you must eat or drink fewer calories than you body burns off.‖ ―Eat less, exercise more.‖
  • 20. The issue? Recommendations are for general population. Calories, calories, calories. Eat less, and exercise more! Too general! If it’s that simple why are we continuing to gain weight? Why do people struggle with weight loss? Why are we sick?
  • 21. What do clinical studies show? Low-Carb, High Fat (LCHF) vs. Low-Fat, high Carb (LFHC) diets. Randomized, controlled—not observational. Challenging conventional wisdom Just because it’s popular belief does not mean it’s true.
  • 22. Low-carb Diets Yancy et al., 2004: 7-8 months LC (<20% CHO/day) lost 20.7 lb. LF group lost 10.58 lb.  LC group:  serum Triglycerides,  HDL Krauss et al., 2006: in absence of weight loss LC improve antherogenic lipid status. Brehm et al., 2009: 4-6 months eating LC (<20% CHO/day) lost 13.16 lb. LF group lost 7.12 lb.
  • 23. A to Z study: Weight loss 4 ―fad‖ diets Atkins: low carb + high fat/protein Zone: 40/30/30 Ornish: low fat; at high carbs- as much as you want LEARN: health-professional diet- low-fat
  • 24. A to Z study: findings
  • 25. Low-Carb, Low-Fat andMediterrean Diet
  • 26. Why do low-carbohydrate, high fat diets work?
  • 27. Terms…just so you know Insulin: storage hormone; fat synthesis; insulin resistance; anabolic Glucagon: release stored energy; inhibit fat synthesis; high in fasted state Leptin: decreases appetite; obese are leptin resistant Other shifts in metabolic hormones & substrates based on diet.
  • 28. Reasons for Low Carb Low insulin response High glucagon Increase satiety (leptin) Lower GI/GL Increase MUFA/PUFA Increase weight loss + fat loss Structuring our body’s energy production around ―fat burning‖ rather than ―sugar burning.‖
  • 29. Why fat is better? Stores more energy Efficient fuel Preferred fuel in every day situations Quick to mobilize Need machinery to use it
  • 30. Becoming Keto Adaptive on LowCarb Ketone bodies: byproducts of fat metabolism Keto adaptive vs ketosis vs ketoacidosis What are the benefits?  Brain fuel,  ROS,  insulin sensitivity, protein sparing, better recovery, improve body composition Any side effects?  Initial: fatigue, headache, alcohol breathe
  • 31. Conclusion Short-term (4-8 months): LCHF diets are effective and safe for weight loss. Long-term(>12 months): Effective but weight regain occurs over the long-term. Keto adaptive is beneficial.
  • 32. Now…time for the good stuff!
  • 33. Steps for change Step 1: Evaluate Lifestyle Step 2: Strengths + Weaknesses Step 3: Implement change Step 4: Success + Evaluate what works (and doesn’t work) Step 5: Continue Awesomeness
  • 34. Lifestyle Checklist for weightloss Look at 5 things:  Nutrition  Sleep  Exercise  Family/work/social  Psychology/Emotional Weight loss is a team effort– trainers, family, friends, doctors and therapists, etc. Just find the right ones!
  • 35. Nutrition: Tips and Tricks Paleo/LCHF  50-100g of carbs/day Learn to cook/make your own meals!  Family cooking Eat Whole Foods  Bag, box? More than 5 ingredients?
  • 36. Paleo
  • 37. What does a 100g Carb daylook like?Food CHO (g)1 kiwi 5.4½ cup blueberries 10.02 tbsp salsa 2.01 cup broccoli 11.21 cup kale, steamed 7.31 cup apple suace 28½ cup sweet potatoes 18.71 cup green beans 9.8 Total: 92.4 g
  • 38. Nutrition: Tips and Tricks Shop the perimeter of grocery store
  • 39. Nutrition: Tips and Tricks Eat every 3-4 hours Intermittent fast (IF) Don’t drink your meals  No fruit juices, sports drinks, diet pop, skim milk Fish Oil: at least 2g DHA/EPA per day  7g of standard fish oil or 2-3 g concentrated  High-dose: increase weight loss ○ I recommend at least 10 g per day; cycle for 4-6 weeks
  • 40. Read a Fish Oil LabelFish Oil 1: Good or Bad Fish Oil?
  • 41. Read a Fish Oil LabelFish Oil 2: Good or Bad Fish Oil?
  • 42. Read a Fish Oil Label Fish Oil 1: One soft gel= 1,000 mg fish oil (or 1g). EPA= 180mg; DHA = 120mg  2g EPA/DHA recommended  Let’s look at DHA specifically so use (.120g =120mg)  So… 2g/0.120g DHA = 17 soft gels! Fish Oil 2:  4 capsules = 4,000 mg (or 4g). EPA =1600mg; DHA =800mg.  So…2g/.800g = 2.5 x 4 = 10 capsules
  • 43. Fish Oil 1: Fish Oil 2:
  • 44. Nutrition: Tips & Tricks Eat slowly and stop at 80% full Include protein dense foods with each meal Consume 1- 2 vegetables with each meal Eat diary if you tolerate it—if so, go full-fat. Fat: eat it!  Avocados, olive oil, nuts (once/day), animal fats, bacon (mmmm), cheese, grass-fed butter, ghee.
  • 45. Put into Practice Time course:  Today: evaluate lifestyle  Next 2-3 weeks: ○ Educate yourself: books, blogs, websites ○ See doctor- blood work: fasting insulin, Hba1c, Lipid panel (esp. apoB and small- dense LDL), CRP, kidney & liver, Vitamin D, calcium ○ % body fat + Lean Body Mass- get checked  See me! ○ Paleo + LCHF: 4-6 Months
  • 46. Nutrition: Things to Avoid Do not consume the following:  Sugar, brown sugar, sugar cane, HFCS, honey, maple syrup, etc.  Anything label ―enriched,‖ ―low-fat‖ or ―reduced.‖  Eating out  Artificial Sweeteners: Splenda, Sweet n Low, Equal (Aspartame)  Grains: whole grains, cereals breads, muffins, scones, cookies, baked goods, even gluten-free  Legumes: beans, peanuts, soy  Alcohol: all forms (except wine & 100% agave tequila)  Vegetable Oils: canola oil, rapeseed oil.
  • 47. What foods should I buy?
  • 48. Proteins Grass-Fed red meat Wild Game: bison, elk, deer, bear Salmon (wild) Eggs (cage-free, free-range) Chicken, duck, wild turkey Plain Greek yogurt, cottage cheese (full fat), coconut milk yogurt
  • 49. Vegetables Spinach, Kale (all kinds), mustard greens, collards Tomatoes, peppers, cucumber Cruciferous vegetables (Broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower) Brussel Sprouts, mushrooms Tubes/Root Vegetables*: parsnips, turnips, sweet potatoes, beets, carrots
  • 50. Fruits Raspberries Blueberries Blackberries Kiwi Oranges (whole) Cantaloupe
  • 51. Fats Extra virgin Coconut oil Palm kernel oil Avocados Extra virgin olive oil Fish oil (EPA/DHA) Flax seeds (ground) Raw, mixed nuts & seeds Hidden fats in fish/meats
  • 52. Liquids Coffee (black preferred) Tea – no sweetener Water Alcohol - leave it to a minimum
  • 53. Design the Right Meal Step 1: pick a protein  Lean/fatty cut? Fish? Step 2: pick 1-2 vegetables Step 3: pick your fat  Avocado? Cooking oil? Step 4: pick your Liquid Step 5: grub!
  • 54. Lifestyle Checklist for weightloss Look at 5 things:  Nutrition  Sleep  Exercise  Family/work/social  Psychology
  • 55. Exercise: Fuel to Perform Idea ―Burn Fat during Exercise‖ – needs to be forgotten (one exception) Fuel to perform—body prefers CHO at high intensities (no oxygen around) ―Anaerobic state‖ Eat CHOs around your workout.  Fruits + Vegetables  Pre-WOD honey/applesauce
  • 56. Exercise as a Tool Wellness and weight loss tool. Functional, constantly varied movements. CF + nutrition = (fast) results ―Cherry-picking‖ workouts  If you suck at something, continue to do it.
  • 57. m
  • 58. Websites to Visit…Mark’s Daily Apple – Mark SissonLivin’ La Vida Low Carb – Jimmy MooreWellness FxMother Nature Obeyed – Chris MasterjohnPaleo Solution- Robb WolfChris Kresser – Chris KresserWhole 9 Life- Dallas & Mellissa HartwigPaleo Physicians NetworkGround Up Health – Collin Popp
  • 59. Overall: Weight Loss Keys Evaluate lifestyle Paleo + LCHF Keto adaptive Avoid sugar, grains, legumes, processed crap Exercise as a tool Constantly varied, functional diet! If you eat crap, your body will turn into crap. Don’t turn into crap!
  • 60. Questions???
  • 61. Worksal.CitedYancy et ―A low-carbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet versus a low-fat diet to treat obesity and hyperlipidemia.‖ Ann Inter Med. 2004, 140: 769-777 Krauss et al. ―Separate effects of reduced carbohydrate intake and weight loss on atherogenic dyslipidemia.‖ Am J Clin Nutr 2006, 83(5):1025-1031 Brehm et al. ―A randomized trial comparing a very low carbohydrate diet and a calorie-restricted low fat diet on bdoy weight and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy women.‖ J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:1617-1623 Gardner et al. ―Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish and LEARN diets for change in weight and related risk factors among overweight premenopausal women.‖ JAMA 2007; 297:969-977. Shai et al. ―Weight loss with a low- carbohydrate, mediterranean or low-fat diet.‖ N Engl J Med 2008;359: 229-241.