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What a Difference a Global Education Paradigm for Social Studies Teacher Education Can Make

What a Difference a Global Education Paradigm for Social Studies Teacher Education Can Make



This presentation is based on how two teacher education programs approach the teaching of social studies methods through a globally minded lens. Our analysis of the work of teacher educators and ...

This presentation is based on how two teacher education programs approach the teaching of social studies methods through a globally minded lens. Our analysis of the work of teacher educators and teacher candidates around perspective consciousness and open-mindedness
offers insight into a future-oriented approach that promotes change in education.



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  • Conflation of globalization and global education leads to misunderstanding of what global education entails and why more critical approaches to globaleducation in teacher education are required
  • Merryfield’s “"What a Difference Global Education can Make” (2002)
  • We identify three misconceptions that persist when discussing and conceptualizing global education (we welcome more thoughts/ideas).There are multiple forms of globalization and it is not new. Think historically.It is more than economics: cultural pluralism,hybridity, and the fact that tribal music is Mariah Carey in Nigeria.
  • A current events approach is inadequate and can have the opposite effect: Strange, exotic, weird events pop up and that is all student learn about that country, place, people. It is like using the quiz to say this is what is going on in the world, without context or criticism.Image from Hanvey, 1976.
  • Twain: schooling and educationLacks a critical perspective, is more concerned with history rather than future oriented, and is being marginalized by emphasis on U.S. civics and government education.Emphasis on competition, economic/capitalist motivations. Lack of resources that are current, diverse, and not produced in the U.S.Hanvey writes: “If this is the way the media are: event-centered, and potent servants of both traditional and emergent elements of the national culture, what then of the schools? The schools, after all, are also carriers of the national culture. But the schools must stake out a niche that balances and corrects the media” (p. 4).
  • What I like about these is that you are offered multiple entry points. Global Ed. is not one, set approach or there is not one way to say you are doing the work of global education.Think back to our class on global citizenship and what it means to be a global citizen? We will come back to this next week, but I want you to start revisiting and thinking about the issues we brought up a few weeks ago: are you a global citizen simply by being here? Is it a privileges status? Do you have to travel to be a global citizen (think about last week’s Anthony Bourdain clip), are global citizens necessarily people with good intentions?So how do we bridge this “out there” global perspective with our lives here?How many of you want a teaching job someday?
  • Case’s perceptual: “formulate opinions about the world on the basis of extensive, open-minded inquiry” and through the promotion of “rational reflection” (p. 320).
  • In earlier literature on Global Education we talk about the perceptual dimension and the substantive. The field breaks up what we do as global educators already – acknowledging the need to foundational habits of mind before moving to bring in the global educationperspectove. Evolution in the field to a more critical approach to global education continues to emphasize the importance of habits of mind such as open-mindedness and empathy – and I would add a sense of interconnectedness between peoples as foundational to be able to move toward a more critical approach. It was this emphasis on these habits that served as a bridge for how I came to my approach of teaching global education. Frame as perceptual dimension (case) inner dimension (pike and selby)Empathy – case 1992Interconnectedness – case 1992 – merryfield expands in 1998 – pushing to more critical place by including the interconnectedness of inequality, power dynamics, etc.
  • What distinguishes my approach to teaching global education is the inclusion of the spiritual pedagogy as a way to teach the global. What you see here is the combination of a spiritual pedagogy – which is based on work by bell hooks, Parker Palmer, and Cynthia Dilllard. The work Dillard discusses is a spiritual research paradigm and this work shifts this into a pedagogy to be taught in teacher education classes – along with other pedagogies. The ways in which to combine the spiritual pedagogy and critical global education became clear as we used the habits of mind to act an a bridge between the two.
  • We divide our global education pedagogy in teacher ed into three sections:Content and Perspective development—laying a foundation and helping students unpack prejudices, stereotypes, and attempt to fill in gaps in knowledgeCurriculum and Resources—we begin from the question: Who is missing? To look to decenter the Eurocentric voices and build not only multiple perspectives, but multiple positionalties related to an issue to better discuss issues of power, patriarchy, social injustice, inequity, and more.Application by the student teachers and reflection: how do they transfer their learning and provide opportunities to their own students to, as Kumashiro discusses, learning is supposed to be unsettling. Darker Nations: Zinn’s publisher, a history of the cold war students do not typically have—not in college, but also the high school content that focuses on U.S. and U.S.S.R.this book offers examinations of the non-aligned nations to provide better understanding for currents issues.Diversity and Citizenship Ed: the Banks book offers examinations of diversity and citizenship from multiple countries beyond the U.S.Noddings: peace education, place-based education, feminism, citizenship, not much depth on concepts within global ed, but a breadth that offers multiple entry points for students.Kumashiro: What we like about this text is that the first section gives an accessible discussion of what social justice work involves and the role educators can play. The second section of the book is broken up by discipline—social studies, English, mathematics, science (interestingly, not art)—and gives lesson ideas for integrating the theories into the classroom. Students were asked to look at the lesson ideas across multiple disciplines and how they would incorporate global perspectives to not only teach for social justice, but to also demonstrate that global approaches are trans-disciplinary and not relegated only to social studies (as we know).
  • CP three characteristics: the continuous creation of new categories, openness to new information, and an implicit awareness of more than one perspective. She states that the essence of mindfulness is flexible thinking. Fellow Mary Rose O’Reilly, in Radical Presence: Teaching as a Contemplative Practice, says that it has to do with being awake, being there, being present, listening, creating a space for learning and for developing an inner life by your very attention to the moment. The time of silence at the beginning of class permitted us to get ready for learning. They were able to clear their minds – and then be ready to grapple with complex material that was new to them – and most often had no answers. It really helped us mark the beginning of class. And all it took was two minutes.This introduction and embracing of silence also extended into our activities – one called a serial testimony had a big impact on the students. This came out of an article we read about listening in a democratic society. In the article Walter Parker discussed the importance of listening not only in society and to strangers – but also in the classroom where he felt there simply is not enough listening. I asked to listen to people who may be different than us or have different views and privilege what the speaker is saying and see it from there perspective – and set aside my own reaction to what they are saying. To take the stance of acknowledging the speakers expertise in their own experience and that as the listener I have incomplete knowledge. Finally, cto respond with care – in that we do not need to say everything that we think – but rather choose what will add to the space.Combined with other activities – this changed how the students say listening. Students began describing listening and deep listening and for them there was a clear difference. When we listen we may or may not actually be listening – especially in the classroom. We are thinking about a rebuttal - oh I know what I will say next!– or how I can fix whatever it is they are sharing. I have a solution!, what we will make for dinner, our to-do lists. Deep listening is slower, focused, and difficult. It created a space where we were better able to disagree with one another – question what each other said and know that we had been listened to. It is also difficult to be listened to in such a manner as the participants wanted that immediate feedback – whether positive or negative – they wanted someone to respond to their comments immediately. The pauses we created were uncomfortable. Multiple participants discussed that they realized they had a need for that validation from someone else and wrote in their reflections about wanted to be more confident in their own thoughts. Enough so that they could stand on their own. Deep listening also allowed them to honor another person’s perspective and really hear it and consider it.
  • An increasing number of studies in cognitive psychology, from around the world and most recently in the United States, suggests that reflection and quiet time are essential for learning. It is a mind that integrates information and experiences so students can move forward with greater confidence, less stress, and better prepared for learning.Writing – offering reflection and “speaking back” to discussions, points raised in class we discussed in depth or that we did not pick up, readings, etc. and also to revisit topics from previous classes.
  • I take a few minutes at the end of my classes to introduce perspectives not yet considered to the work students do as educators and citizens in an increasingly interconnected world. The videos, images, and other resources used for "Views and Voices in Our World" typically align with a theme or essential concept from that day's class and serve as equal parts motivation, reflection, and perspective consciousness for students as they continue to expand how they think about their work as teachers.
  • As a way to discuss multiple perspectives – I brought in a world religions panel – or at least the world religions that we focus on in the Ohio middle school content standards. Minus Christianity. The people I chose intentionally worked toward addressing stereotypes – so the two Muslim men were from a middle-class neighborhood and were immigrants – but their younger siblings were born here in the US. The woman representing Hinduism grew up Southern Baptist and converted to Hinduism. It was about each religion individually – shifting to the Abrahimic religions and the Dharmic religions- to where they all intersect and are quite similar. We also discussed what it is like living in a country where your religion is not the dominant religionAnd then how we can teach other’s faiths without making unintentional mistakes or being offensive. How would you want a teacher to teach about your faith to young people.
  • Set-up discussion board, Skype for class sessions, KwaZulu Natal University in Durban, S. Africa--full time Graduate students, teachers seeking a Master’s degree—some drove over one hour to go to school and Internet access was either on campus or through their smart phones--Discussions about citizenship and LGBT rights, global perspectives, colonialism, work of educators, Mandela’s passingReturned for perspective on class work and topics in student teaching, citizenship in S. Africa and U.S.
  • A second area we focus on is curriculum and resources—simulation on creating a global education curriculum in schools—analysis of the curricula/state standards they will teach to discuss the extent to which it is or is not desirable, possible, what would be needed to achieve the goal. Students took on perspectives and then engaged in a simulation (methodologically this was done to model for students how to organize and run a simulation. Students also reflected on the extent to which the simulation addressed the CCSS for their grade level while also integrating a global education approach.
  • After we develop the ability to acknowledge our own worldviews – the understanding of MP and being able to identify the missing voices and perspectivesExamination of current resources on particular topicAdditional resources must introduce multiple perspectives/ missing voices/ global perspectivesThree resources must be from outside the US5th grade lesson that incorporates multiple perspectives inside the US, takes fracking outside the US to examine what countries around the world are doing – and the interconnectedness of such decisions across the globe The lesson asks the 5th graders to have their toFrack or Not conversation via twitter.What we see here are some justifications as to why one student chose her resources- I had them justify this so we can get at their thinking and reasons behind. We don’t just choose a resource because it is the first thing we find – we need to make intentional choices around them – why did we choose these resources?
  • Also needed to move outside of the classroom for a community connections approach. Global agents assignment along with a semester long project using Tumblr.
  • Throughout the city, away from class, but related to class themes/discussions—photos, videos, and blogging for a dialogue to also use social media. Cultural globalization (Appadurai) and that culture is always becoming (Stuart Hall) as is place (Massey).
  • Multiculturalism and the Market: Michael W. Hobson, The Year I Smelled Like Milk: Stories from Beijing and Beyond (2010): “You know,” I said during Free Talk, “apartments in Beijing all smell like soy sauce to me.’ “Really?” Their fascination told me I was onto something. I continued: ”What do you think Americans smell like?” They didn’t even pause: “Milk!” Students could not just festishize culture nor just consume, but were require dot go beyond the surface by learning about the products and speaking with the shop owners
  • SkypeAfter introductions to global education extended learning – what can we do to take actions. Builds off GE definition of Asia Society. Gave great examples of what to do in MS classrooms and what had been done in other classrooms they have worked with. Social Justice – ActionResources
  • Third section: Application and reflection of students/Transformative aspect of global teacher educationOne of the main findings of the study was that the SP was transformative for the participants – especially in relation to the habits of mind. In order for transformative learning to take place, the heart, spirit, and the mind must be engaged in the learning process. Central process to transformative learning may be rational, effective, or experiential – not one single experience or approach – internal or external (Taylor, 2006)“Transformative learning creates a more expansive understanding of the world regarding how one sees and experiences both others and one’s self and is grounded in one’s entire being. Such learning increases one’s sense of an ability to make a difference in the world and leads to a greater sense of purpose and meaning” (p. 37).
  • Connecting with compassion – which connects it to habits of heart. You just can’t separate them. Seeing things from other people’s perspective but using that vision to – I think using that to guide the way that you approach situations in certain ways. But, now, its an action. If I feel empathy – I want to take action. We also talked a lot about empathy and violence. One video I showed of a woman from Ireland was call “Disarming with Empathy” and the idea was – once I have empathy – I no longer need violence nor forgiveness – because I see myself in you.Shortly after we watched this President Obama gave his speech regarding the use of chemical weapons in syria ad potential US response. One of the students created a wordle and we examined the words – which we found to focus on the humanitarian reasons for bombing Syria. It brought us back to the video – and in the video we use empathy to avoid violence – but they felt President Obama was playing on people's empathy of children and the innocent to use violence. We grappled with the question – is empathy inherently non-violent? Once we introduce violence – even to protect the innocent – what does it become?
  • Interconnectedness got more and more complex to the students. As we shifted away from the interconnectedness of trade or the economy – the students began to see the interconnectedness of the environment – the events around the world – and the interconnectedness of people they have never even met. This was a big shift for them.
  • Students’ RQs for student teaching

What a Difference a Global Education Paradigm for Social Studies Teacher Education Can Make What a Difference a Global Education Paradigm for Social Studies Teacher Education Can Make Presentation Transcript

  • Jason R. Harshman Tami A. Augustine The Ohio State University American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education (AACTE) Conference Indianapolis, IN March 2, 2014
  • Purpose & Rationale RQ: How can we develop a more globally minded approach to teacher education and what does this pedagogical approach mean for transformative thinking by teacher candidates? “little work to date on understanding what impact global citizenship education programs have actually had on students’ perceptions of their roles and responsibilities as global citizens” (Richardson, De Fabrizio, & AnsuKyeremeh, 2011, p. 96). “I am honestly ashamed of my worldview. I ultimately viewed everywhere outside of the U.S. as a place that needed help and guidance from either U.S. participation or observation. I figured I could be used someday as a teacher over in some third world country or even just help build a few houses. I still plan on doing both of those things, however, I will no longer be going into world traveling with such a Euro-centric viewpoint. I am completely guilty of what we have been discussing in class—I have always looked at history from only the White American perspective.”
  • Pre-course reflections “Our social studies education throughout school was very one sided. They did not teach from any point of view than the typical text book stand point. There are many items listed on the "Other Teachers' Decisions" that the way my teachers taught falls into. For example, the teachers tended to reaffirm stereotypes among other groups and portrayed other cultures through an American viewpoint rather than from the actual cultural view point.” “My high school and undergraduate education was definitely lacking a global touch…Once I got to college, the only world cultures class I took was, again, history. My education about the modern-day world and even recent history is severely lacking. The fact that those sort of classes are not required for even a future Social Studies teacher makes it difficult for more global educators to enter the workforce and the vicious circle continues.”
  • Problem #1: Globalization • Dichotomizing the local and the global. • Focus on markets and technology. • Something that happens around us.
  • Problem #2: The Current Events Approach
  • Problem #3: Schooling OR
  • Global Education is… • “an approach that develops students’ knowledge, skills, and dispositions to promote individual and collective responsibility for a sustainable, equitable, just, humane, and peaceful world.” • “A way to prepare students to develop a critical perspective that would allow them to view the world with critical understandings and concern.” • “A method of helping students develop a sense of social responsibility and commitment to finding just and peaceful solutions to global problems.” • “A critical study of cultures, peoples, and systems of various nationstates yet which must avoid exotic understandings of cultural practices.” • “A way to promote global issues such as diversity, equity, and social justice, especially issues of power, privilege, oppression, racism, sexism, classism, xenophobia, ex ploitation, and more.” Ukpokudo, O.N. (2010). Teacher preparation for global perspectives pedagogy. In B. Subedi (Ed.) Critical global perspectives: Rethinking knowledge about global societies. (pp. 121-142). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.
  • Constructing a Global Education Paradigm in the Social Studies As “the degree of frequency of events involving global interdependencies” continues to rise, the inclusion of more perspectives in order to learn about the complexity of global issues is needed (Pike & Selby, 1988, p. 3). “Idealizing the global as a novel process of interconnectedness conceals inequality and disguises the long-standing interdependence and imbalanced power relations among countries, regions, and cultures” (Agbaria, 2011, p. 70). “It is this perspective—local, critical, and in light of prevailing global economic competition—that must become a part of global education” (Gaudelli, 2013, p. 554). “Basic principles and purposes of civic education and citizen development are stunted and distorted when discrimination against minorities remains a social norm. But the social studies curriculum, with its traditional focus on history rather than issues, often treats racism and prejudice as though these are resolved social events, historic artifacts from a previous period” (Nelson & Pang, 2006, p. 116).
  • Foundational Habits of Mind OpenMindedness Awareness of the diversity of ideas and practices to be found in human societies around the world, of how such ideas and practices compare Empathy Examining the thoughts and feelings of others from their own perspective and includes perspective consciousness Interconnectedness Connection of global systems and dynamics Of students, commu nities and other peoples – inequities
  • - Risky Tami A. Augustine - Political - Cultural - Articulates worldviews through "subaltern knowledge” - Liberating Overlap Spiritual Pedagogy - Embodied Critical Global Education - Examination of unequal global - Sacred & Grounded in - Develops knowledge, skills and Truth formations dispositions for critically studying - Dialogic cultures, peoples, and nation-states - Redemptive - Global issues:
  • Globally Minded Approaches to Teacher Education “teachers need to work on themselves…rather than becoming dogmatic or close-minded, teachers can ready themselves, through a variety of exercises, for the challenges, difficulties, and possibilities of education in a globalizing environment” (Hansen, 2011, p. 33). Bond (2003): Three approaches are often used by faculty to internationalize curriculum • Add-on • Curricula infusion • Transformative approach
  • Content and Perspective Development
  • Contemplative Practice We found the silence you kept talking about. And I feel like it got us ready to learn and we could start thinking deeper. Really let us open our mind completely. When we do the meditation, I feel as if I’m a new person after it. I’m not stressed. My mind is clearer. And then, you can really actually get into deeper stuff. You can actually talk about stuff like that. Well, me personally, I can clear out the stress, clear out the checklist, and then really talk about the stuff that we need to talk about. It’s good. I really like that.
  • connecting with stillness connecting with stillness “We focus on the outside world in education and don’t look much at inwardly focused reflective skills and attentions, but inward focus impacts the way we build memories, make meaning, and transfer that learning into new context” (Yang, 2012).
  • A N D I N
  • World Religions Panel • Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism • “The truth is one, the wise call it by many names.” • Faith not as a religion – but as a way of life.
  • “Am called Kah Moma, born in Mutengene Cameroon. From a family of five and am the second child. My parents are still alive both engaged in petty trading business. Did my primary and secondary schooling in Buea - Cameroon where i obtained my GCE ordinary and advanced level. I then proceeded to the University of Buea Cameroon where i had my Bsc Degree in Sociology and Anthropology in 2008.”
  • Modeling a Simulation: Global Education, Curricula, & CCSS “our lessons on citizenship education brought to our attention the importance of teaching with open-mindedness to all perspectives. In discussing standards and perspectives, we took the previous lesson that stressed representing multiple voices and incorporated that into an introduction to the standards. We learned how these “voices” can be represented and still teach the standards.”
  • Global Education Resources Scavenger Hunt I thought it was important that this source was from the Great Britain because it was more likely to be unbiased about the US use of fracking. Similarly, it allowed me to understand whether or not other countries, like Great Britain are using fracking as well. I knew that I wanted to incorporate multiple perspectives but I had trouble thinking where they could come from. This website had specific viewpoints on fracking that made it easy to create participants in a fracking conversation. This Saudi Arabian website contained information on The Kingdom Holding company. It gave me information on Prince Alwaleed and what the company he owns does that was crucial for understanding what his perspective on fracking in the United States. #toFrackOrNot President Obama, Prince Alwaleed, Sandra Steingraber, Dan Dinges, and Larry Jenkins
  • Global Agents “teachers need to work on themselves…rather than becoming dogmatic or close-minded, teachers can ready themselves, through a variety of exercises, for the challenges, difficulties, and possibilities of education in a globalizing environment.” (Hansen, 2011, p. 33)
  • “We proceeded down the alley and encountered many people BUT nearly all had headphones plugged into their ears or were chatting on their cellphones. It was quite sad to see this amount of alienation because the reason for which we were patrolling High Street was interconnectedness to the world not to some phone or some headphones. Think about this for a moment. Can not the mindless devotion to cell phones and the plugging in of earphones be a powerful metaphor for how many of our fellow women and men think about the larger world? Everyone seems to be in their own little worlds and don’t see the wider world.” "Uniting the flavors of many nations under one menu." Hybridity? Deterritorializing food and culture? Border crossing? A product of and for global capital? What about homogenizing and conflating a nation’s multiple cuisines into a single flavor?”
  • Community and Cross-cultural learning • Noor Islamic Center • Multiculturalism/Global cultures in the North Market • Global Agents in School Districts • Dabakh African Restaurant • Banana Leaf Indian Restaurant • Somali Women and Children’s Alliance
  • http://gcc.concernusa.org/
  • Open-Mindedness • All this has made me more open-minded I would definitely say because I started this program crying in your office saying I can’t do this. I’ve come a ways since then so that’s been transformative definitely and maybe being just more accepting of other people’s views in social studies especially. Because I think sometimes I let my pride issues like run where I just don’t want to listen to other people’s opinions but I think I’ve become better with that. Like with John. I was really mad at him after that conversation about feminism, but now we talk more and we actually have a lot of the same beliefs. This all helped me be able to talk like that and listen.
  • Empathy I think that’s one thing that a lot of us struggled with and are probably, at least for myself, am now able to push past that and understand what she means. Looking at people that we thought were evil or did something terrible and things like that. Seeing them as a person and realizing something had to make them tick to do that. When you stop “othering” them you can see something happened to this person. I just had a kid at school fight and I really thought about that video and empathy and realized he didn’t necessarily just do that because they wanted to pick a fight but that maybe there was a deeper lying reason for that and I at least needed to slow down and ask him about it.
  • Interconnectedness • The whole interconnectedness through a spiritual lens kinda has got me thinking a lot. I just thought we were connected through trade and stuff like that. Like – you are always connected to something and someone. • I originally said that I thought interconnectedness was this (interlacing fingers) but now I don’t think so cause interconnectedness can’t just do this (pulling fingers apart). It’s not that simple – if you wanted to disconnect something you’d have to go through like a million strings to try and get one out and then it would all knot up anyway. I mean – we might think it’s possible – but is it really?
  • Reflective Inquiry and Application in the Social Studies Classroom • How can students effectively use critical media literacy to analyze the power dynamics of Western dominant nations and those they effect to foster a critical global perspective? • How does a global education approach to teaching citizenship education inform instruction in a 21st century social studies classroom? • How does critical pedagogy inform teaching for global mindedness in a 21st century social studies classroom? • How will incorporating a critical global education approach to teaching for social justice in the social studies classroom positively effect students’ motivation and learning? “There is no such thing as a complete global education, but I do think that we can achieve a thorough global education. Have I been given this through my 17 odd years of schooling? No. Do I think that I have been given the tools to make this a reality in my own future? Yes. Can I make this a reality for my own students? Well that will require a great deal of change from far more important educators than myself, but you better bet I am gonna try.”
  • Resources
  • IMPLICATIONS/TAKE AWAYS • Global teacher educators do not only teach about global education but incorporate and model globally minded practices throughout their course(s). • Global teacher education provides pre-service teachers with opportunities to develop perspective consciousness and crosscultural skill development. • Global teacher education requires that pre-service teachers decenter their worldview to more thoroughly examine and teach about complex global issues.
  • Contact Information • Jason R. Harshman: E-mail: harshman.22@osu.edu Twitter: @tchlrnchnge Website: http://jasonrharshman.weebly.com/ • Tami A. Augustine: E-mail: augustine.19@osu.edu Twitter: @tchheartmind Website: http://augustine16.wix.com/teachheartmind