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Research Design [Creswell]
 

Research Design [Creswell]

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    Research Design [Creswell] Research Design [Creswell] Presentation Transcript

    • Research Designby John Creswell
    • Worldviews (aka methodologies)Postpositivist (6-7)Social Constructivist (8-9)Advocacy/Participatory (9-10)Pragmatic (10-11)
    • Strategies of Inquiry(aka methodologies)Qualitative (e.g. ethnography)QuantitativeMixed Method
    • Methodsways to gather data
    • Literature ReviewSecondary/library research conducted tosituate current studyImportant questions:Can it be researched?Should it be researched?Is there any interest in this?
    • Independent & Dependent Variablessituation + independent variable = dependentvariableSO...adults over 25 + drink green tea = betterperformance on memory test
    • Intervening Variablessituation + independent variable + interveningvariable = dependent variableadults over 25 + drink green tea + steeped teafor 15 minutes = better performance onmemory test
    • Moderating Variablessituation + independent variable + interveningvariable = dependent variable[+moderating variables]adults over 25 + drink green tea + steeped teafor 15 minutes = better performance onmemory test[age x ounces consumed daily]
    • Control Variablessituation + independent variable = dependentvariableadults over 25 + drink green tea = betterperformance on memory testsituation + control variable = dependentvariableadults over 25 + drink no green tea = nochange in performance on memory test
    • Confounding Variablesituation + independent variable [+confounding variable] = dependent variableadults over 25 + drink green tea [+ dailycrossword] = better performance on memorytest
    • Purpose Statementcoveys overall intent of study (111);include methodology, method, site,participants, definitions (112-113)
    • Research Questionscentral question of projectwhat or how are generally qualitativequestionsQuintessential ethnography question:What is happening here?nondirectional (no cause, impact, influence,etc.)
    • Hypothesespredictionsnull, directional, nondirectional (134-135)
    • Sampling Termscross-sectional (146)longitudinal (146)population (148)samplingsingle-stage or cluster sampling (148)random sampleconvenience sample (148)stratification (148)random table list & sample size formula (149)
    • Validity (Experimental)Does the instrument measure what you wantit to measure? [Think SATs: are they aptindicators of a students potential forcollege?]threats to validity (162-165)
    • Reliability (Experimental)Consistency of scores internally (on the sameinstrument), over time, and in theadministration and scoringKey for Writing Studies: interrater reliability:will different readers score a piece of writingthe same over time?
    • ExperimentsTrue experiment (uses random sampling) vs.Quasi experiment (does not use randomsampling) (155)pre-experiment (no control group) (158)
    • Backyard ResearchStudying the researchers own organization,friends, work, family, etc. (177)In Writing Studies, this is a researcher studyinghis/her own classroom (teacher research) orown institution (happens a lot in dissertationsand theses)
    • Methods for qualitative researchobservationsinterviewsdocumentsaudio/visual artifacts(182)
    • Codingbreaking data into pieces and assigning eachpiece at least one label (code)
    • Qualitative Reliability Strategiescheck transcripts for accuracycheck for code driftintercoder agreement (190-91)
    • Qualitative Validity Strategiestriangulationmember checkingrich, thick descriptiondisclosure of biasinclude discrepant informationstay in field long enoughpeer debriefingexternal auditor (191-92)