The Art and Science of Effective Teaching

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Effective teaching is more than a good lecture. In fact, it may be NO lecture at all. This presentation suggests dozens of effective structures. While many are not fully explained here, they are easily found in many locations on the internet and in the woks of Gardner, Tomlinson, Marzano, Sternberg, Costa, Solomon and others.

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The Art and Science of Effective Teaching

  1. 1. The Art and Science of Teaching www.theRTC.net
  2. 2. The Art and Science of Teaching  The material in this presentation was gathered from various courses produced by the Regional Training Center in partnership with The College of New Jersey and Gratz College (PA and MD).  The courses represented include     Encouraging Skillful, Critical and Creative Thinking Differentiated Instruction Multiple Intelligences And others
  3. 3. The Art and Science of Teaching  Questions to answer . . . 2 among many  What will I do to help students effectively interact with new knowledge?  What will I do to engage students?
  4. 4. “To know and not to do is not to know!” - Stephen Covey “Kids who do the doing, and kids who do the talking . . . DO THE LEARNING! - Eric Jensen
  5. 5. Teaching for Thinking: Creating a thoughtful and respectful classroom through all instructional procedures and activities  Community  Find building someone who  Stand up/Sit down  Uncommon commonalities
  6. 6. Teaching for Thinking: Creating a thoughtful and respectful classroom through all instructional procedures and activities  Relationship skills  Paraphrasing  Probing  Active listening
  7. 7. Teaching for Thinking: Creating a thoughtful and respectful classroom through all instructional procedures and activities  Cooperative learning procedures  Think-pair-share  Jigsaw  Stir-the-class
  8. 8. Teaching for Thinking: Creating a thoughtful and respectful classroom through all instructional procedures and activities  Simultaneous sharing procedures  Turn to your partner  Team Web  Carousel  Gallery walk
  9. 9. Teaching for Thinking: Creating a thoughtful and respectful classroom through all instructional procedures and activities  Active learning procedures    Community round robin Discussion ball Talking stick
  10. 10. Tony Robbins’ Six Basic Human Needs  Certainty  Uncertainty  Significance (capable)  Connected  Contributing  Growth
  11. 11. Teaching of Thinking: Specific instructional practices designed to help students acquire particular thinking skills and processes  ASCD i.e. Core Thinking Skills Making inferences, drawing conclusions, etc.  Seven-step model for teaching a thinking skill  Questioning frameworks Think-Trix Q-Matrix Bloom’s Taxonomy
  12. 12. Teaching about Thinking: Metacognition and reflection: Instructional methods and procedures that empower students to reflect on their thinking  Cognitive frameworks  Dimensions of Learning, DeBono’s Six Hats for Metacognition
  13. 13. Teaching about Thinking: Metacognition and reflection: Instructional methods and procedures that empower students to reflect on their thinking  Reflection  KWL, tools and activities PMI, journals, reflection logs
  14. 14. Teaching about Thinking: Metacognition and reflection: Instructional methods and procedures that empower students to reflect on their thinking  Instructional  Concept strategies attainment, team webbing, group problem solving
  15. 15. Teaching about Thinking: Metacognition and reflection: Instructional methods and procedures that empower students to reflect on their thinking  Graphic organizers  Venn diagram, flow charts, summary pyramid, 6 word memoirs
  16. 16. Teaching about Thinking: Metacognition and reflection: Instructional methods and procedures that empower students to reflect on their thinking  Creative modes for metacognition  Music, art, portfolios, role play, dance, mime
  17. 17. 5 Brain-based and Learning Centered Principles 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The brain requires social interaction The brain is influenced by emotions: Relaxed alertness The brain seeks patterns and searches for meaning The brain is a complex organ that can function on many levels and in many ways simultaneously Each brain is unique
  18. 18. Gardner’s Eight Intelligences  Verbal-Linguistic intelligence (word smart*)  Logical-Mathematical intelligence (number/reasoning smart)  Visual-Spatial intelligence (picture smart)  Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence (body smart)  Musical-Rhythmic intelligence (music smart)  Interpersonal intelligence (people smart)  Intrapersonal intelligence (self smart)  Naturalist intelligence (nature smart)  [ Existential intelligence (“spiritually smart?”) ] *Words in parentheses are Thomas Armstrong’s Armstrong’s
  19. 19. Sternberg's Intelligence’s
  20. 20. Successfully intelligent people discern their strengths and weaknesses, then figure out how to capitalize on their strengths, and to compensate for or remediate their weaknesses. Successfully intelligent individuals succeed in part because they achieve a functional balance among a "triarchy" of abilities: analytical, creative, and practical abilities. Successfully intelligent people are not necessarily high in all three of these abilities, but find a way effectively to exploit whatever pattern of abilities they may have. Moreover, all of these abilities can be further developed. A fundamental idea underlying this research is that conventional notions of intelligence and tests of intelligence miss important kinds of intellectual talent, and overweigh what are sometimes less important kinds of intellectual talent. -Robert Sternberg
  21. 21. Analytical – “School Smart” Make meaning from text  Can organize info  See cause and effect  Think logically  Evaluate/Critique  Compare/Contrast  Take notes/Memorize  See parts and whole 
  22. 22. Creative – “Imagination Smart” Like to solve problems in NEW and surprising ways  Experiment with ideas  Phrases they like to hear are  Create, invent, imagine, design, show how, suppose, what if?
  23. 23. Practical – “Street Smart” Need to  Be shown how something is used  Apply  Implement  Demonstrate in the real world  Use ideas, not just learn them  Solve problems in a meaningful context
  24. 24. Analytical High grades High test scores Likes school Liked by teachers “Fits” into school Follows directions Sees flaws in ideas Natural “critic” May prefer to be given directions Chart from Sternberg, 1996, p. 7 Creative Practical Moderate-low grades Moderate test scores Confined by school Viewed as a pain by teachers Doesn’t “fit” well Doesn’t like to follow directions Creates own ideas Natural “ideas” person Likes to direct self Moderate-low grades Moderate-low tests Bored by school Viewed as disconnected by teachers Doesn’t “fit” well Likes to know use of task and directions Applies ideas pragmatically Natural common sense Likes to find self in practical settings
  25. 25. Analytical Creative Practical Your friend needs a really clear, step-bystep explanation of what division is and how it works. Please write that explanation and help your friend see what you mean by using number examples as well as words. Find a brand new way to help us see what division is all about and how it works. Use numbers and words to illustrate your ideas so we are all sure to understand. Show how someone at school, at home, or in our town uses division as part of his/her daily life. Help us see how and why the person uses division, and give number examples to go along with your illustrations. Choose one of these three activities to show what you understand about division. Your work should be accurate, complete, interesting, and explained so someone who didn’t understand division well before looking at your work would understand it much better afterwards. You will be asked to explain your work to some classmates when everyone is finished with his or her work.
  26. 26. Sample Test using Sternberg’s Intelligences - Complete one of the following assignments:  Choice 1: Create a story or dialogue among the following following scientists about their view of the atom: Democritus, Dalton, Thomson, and Rutherford.  Choice 2: Compare and contrast the following individuals and their view of the atom: Democritus, Dalton, Thomson, and Rutherford.  Choice 3: From Democritus to Dalton to Thomson and then to Rutherford, show how the advancement of the view of the atom effected changes in society with each modification. What inventions were created, etc.?
  27. 27. Robert Marzano’s Productive Habits of Mind Mental dispositions that facilitate the thinking process
  28. 28. Productive Habits of Mind  Being sensitive to feedback  Seeking accuracy  Evaluating the effectiveness of one ’s actions  Being precise  Engaging intensely in tasks even when answers or solutions are not available  Pushing the limits of your knowledge and performance
  29. 29. Habits of Mind  Generating and following your own standards  Generating new ways of viewing situations Marzano believes that cooperative learning can foster these mental dispositions and behaviors. His list does not exhaust all the productive habits of mind, however.
  30. 30. Arthur Costa’s 16 Habits of Mind          Finding humor Thinking flexibly Responding with wonderment and awe Persisting Managing impulsivity Listening with understanding and empathy Thinking about thinking (metacognition) Striving for accuracy Questioning and posing problems        Applying past knowledge to new situations Thinking and communicating w/ clarity and precision Gathering data through all senses Creating, imagining, and innovating Taking responsible risks Thinking interdependently Remaining open to continuous learning
  31. 31. Robert Marzano ASCD CORE THINKING SKILLS
  32. 32. Focusing  1. Defining Problems: Clarifying needs, discrepancies or a puzzling situation  2. Setting Goals: Establishing direction and purpose
  33. 33. Information Gathering  3. Observing: Obtaining information through one or more senses  4. Formulating Questions: Seeking new information through inquiry
  34. 34. Remembering  5. Encoding: Storing information in longterm memory  6. Recalling: Retrieving information in long -term memory
  35. 35. Organizing  7. Comparing: Noting similarities and differences among things  8. Classifying: Grouping and labeling things on the basis of their attributes  9. Ordering: Sequencing things according to a given criterion  10. Representing: Changing the form, but not the substance, of the information
  36. 36. Analyzing  11. Identifying Attributes and Components: Determining characteristics or parts of something  12. Identifying Relationships and Patterns: Recognizing ways in which elements are related  13. Indentifying main ideas: Identifying the central element  14: Identifying errors: Recognizing logical fallacies and other mistakes, and, where possible correcting them
  37. 37. Generating  15. Inferring: Going beyond available information to identify what is reasonably true  16. Predicting: Anticipating next events or the outcome of a situation  17. Elaborating: Explaining by adding details, examples or other relevant information
  38. 38. Integrating  18. Summarizing: Combining information efficiently into a cohesive statement  19. Restructuring: Changing existing knowledge structures to incorporate new information
  39. 39. Evaluating  20. Establishing Criteria: Setting standards for making judgments  21. Confirming the accuracy of claims
  40. 40. The Story Pyramid I Word – Main Character 2 Words – Describe Character 3 Words -- Setting 4 Words – The Problem 5 Words – First event in plot 6 Words – Next event in plot 7 Words – Another event in plot 8 Words – The Resolution
  41. 41. 6 Word Memoirs        By Larry Smith and Rachel Fershleiser (Harper Perennial, $12) “For sale, baby shoes, never worn” Ernest Hemingway “Revenge is living well without you!” Joyce Carol Oates “Macular degeneration. Didn’t see that coming.” “Was father, boys died, still sad.” “I was born – some assembly required.” “Discovered moral code via Judy Blume.” “White trash tempered by wit and charm.” Life stories all in six words.
  42. 42. What can be summarized in 6 words? A short story  A novel  A lesson  Someone’s life  Results of an experiment  How one feels today  Life goals ?
  43. 43. A Seven Step model for Teaching a Thinking Skill 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. State the rationale for the thinking skill Describe or define the thinking skill Model or demonstrate the thinking skill Invite learners to identify the indicators of the thinking skill Guided practice with constructive feedback Reflection on practice and application of the thinking skill Independent practice
  44. 44. The Q Matrix
  45. 45. De Bono’s Six Hats for Thinking  White – the facts  Red – emotions  Black – negatives  Yellow – positives  Green – creative  Blue – control Thinking!
  46. 46. Review: Stir-the-class  Group members stand shoulder to shoulder around the room - space between each group  Leader poses a question  Group huddles to discuss the answer  Leader calls a number and a direction (right or left)  Specified members of group move and share
  47. 47. For More Information on RTC courses face2face and online contact Regional Training Center 800-433-4740 www.theRTC.net
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