Introduction to the Multiple Intelligences

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Howard Gardner's theory of the Multiple Intelligences continues to develop. Based on feedback from colleagues he went from the 7 Intelligences to the Multiple Intelligences by adding first the Naturalist and now the Existentialist. This presentation is just a quick overview.

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Introduction to the Multiple Intelligences

  1. 1. Introduction to the Multiple Intelligences
  2. 2. An unofficial short history of Howard Gardner’s MI  Howard Gardner got lucky!  1979 – Bernard van Leer Foundation of The Hague, Netherlands, approached Harvard Grad School of Ed to study: The nature and realization of human potential  Team of professionals – Gardner came back and published first!  A psychologist trained in Piaget’s theories, Gardner had been taught that Intelligence is a single entity, you either have it or not.
  3. 3. Gardner questioned Piaget’s theory . . . 1. His work in preschool taught him that each child had unique intelligence profiles 2. His word with brain damaged individuals taught him that if Piaget was correct, damage should lessen all intelligence. Not so: it depends on the part of the brain that is damaged
  4. 4. Eight Criteria for Intelligences  Potential isolation by brain damage  The existence of savants, prodigies, and other exceptional individuals  An identifiable core of operations or set of operations  A distinct developmental history  An evolutionary history  Experimental psychological tasks  Standardized tests  Can be encoded in a symbol system of some sort
  5. 5. MI Theory 1. We are all born with all 8, 9 (or more) intelligences 2. All intelligences can be modified and developed 3. Each intelligence has its own scope of abilities and skills
  6. 6. Gardner’s Eight Intelligences  Verbal-Linguistic intelligence (word smart)  Logical-Mathematical intelligence (number/reasoning smart)  Visual-Spatial intelligence (picture smart)  Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence (body smart)  Musical-Rhythmic intelligence (music smart)  Interpersonal intelligence (people smart)  Intrapersonal intelligence (self smart)  Naturalist intelligence (nature smart)  [Existential intelligence (“spiritually smart?”)] *The words in parentheses are those of Thomas Armstrong, another authority on the topic
  7. 7. Think about how we learn:  10% of what we read  20% of what we hear  30% of what we see  50% of what we both see and hear  70% of what is discussed with others  80% of what we experience personally  95% of what we TEACH to others (guess who’s doing the most learning in your classroom!) source: William Glasser
  8. 8. Verbal Linguistic  The intelligence of words  Can: argue, persuade, entertain and instruct  Love: to use puns, word games, tongue twisters, trivia, read, write  Who? J.K. Rawling, John Grisham, Barack Obama, Oprah, David Letterman
  9. 9. Math-Logical  Not just a numbers person  Key phrases they like to hear:  I have a challenge for you  How would you solve?  What do you think and expert would say/do?  Needs:  Big picture  Clear objectives  Connections between ideas  Structure  Wants to:  Estimate, find patterns, calculate, reason, interpret
  10. 10. Musical-Rhythmic  The capacity to:  Perceive  Appreciate  Produce – rhythms and melodies  It’s everywhere:  Alarm clocks, iPods, door bells, XM radio, MTV, CMT, elevators, etc.  Who?  The Beatles  Beethoven  Bette Midler
  11. 11. Learn with the Classics (That’s NOT the Beatles, by the way!)  Mozart – as in the “Mozart Effect”  Bach, Handel, Vivaldi, Most Baroque, Some New Age  4 Brain-Wave States  Beta – doing (High speed, 75+ beats/minute)  Alpha – reflecting (slower, 50-75 beats/minute)  Theta – dreamlike, meditation, pre-sleep (less than 50 beats/minute)  Delta – sleep (ZZZZZZZZZZZZZ)
  12. 12. Visual-Spatial  Involves thinking in pictures and images  Who?  Architects  Photographers  Artists  Pilots  Landscapers  Interior decorators  Edison, Steve Jobs, Bill Gates, Picasso  Sees things others are likely to miss  Often have a photographic memory
  13. 13. Bodily-Kinesthetic  Talent in . .  Controlling one’s body movements, handling objects skillfully, etc.  Who?  Athletes, gymnasts, seamstresses, tailors, craftspeople, mechanics, surgeons, dances, hikers, etc.  The way they think:  “Hands-on,” “Gut reactions,” “A feeling in my bones.”  Physical competence:  Western cultures: Strength, endurance.  Eastern cultures: Flexibility, balance, dexterity, coordination, good reflexes
  14. 14. Naturalistic  Individuals who demonstrate expertise in recognition and classification of the numerous species of:  Flora and fauna, cars, baseball cards, etc.  Ability to categorize and classify – Knowledge of the natural world is only a part!  Who?  Hunters, fisherfolk, farmers, gardeners, cooks.  Like to hear:  “What do you observe about. . .”  “Classify the following. . .”  “Describe the characteristics of. . .”  “Create a hypothesis about. . .”
  15. 15. Intrapersonal  Introspective – “Self Smart”  Can easily access own feelings, use self-understanding, to enrich own life  Who? Counselors, clergy, self- employed business people  May enjoy: meditation, contemplation diaries, journals  And may be: fiercely independent, highly goal oriented, self- disciplined  May prefer to work alone
  16. 16. Interpersonal  “People Smart”  Ability to understand and work with other people  Perceive and be responsive to  Needs, moods, temperaments, intentions and desires of others  Make good social directors, administrators, teachers, networkers, negotiators  Collaborative workers – Party people!
  17. 17. Existentialist  Understand religious and spiritual ideals.  A strong understanding of things that are not visual to the eye but through faith and belief.  Not one of the original intelligences but, like naturalistic intelligence, it grew from peers questioning Howard Gardner concerning those with this type of intelligence.  May study philosophy, religion, care about the environment (closely tied to Naturalistic for many).  More comfortable with their own being if they feel connected to people, ideas, and beliefs.
  18. 18. Thank you! Information regarding the Multiple Intelligences is included in several of RTC’s courses: Styles of Teaching: Personality Type in the Classroom, Differentiated Instruction, and others. For more information go to: www.theRTC.net Or 800.433.4740

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