Children’s exposition to the 2nd language—environment, community 2. Critical period (that was being discussed a while ago) – the time from birth to puberty during which normal first language acquisition can take place. 3. Not being exposed to language 4. Even after years of study, L2 rarely matches ability in our L1. (we speak bisaya fluently but speak English hardly.) 5. The enigma of why we learn better in the stage of critical period (birth to puberty or 2-12). 6. Introduction to the second topic—reasons to explain the enigma and approaches to become effective in communicating in L2.
1. Read first the presentation 2. Give concrete examples : - English as a foreign Language – Japanese students in an English class in Japan. - English as a second Language – Japanese students in an English class in USA. 3. Give conclusion: In either case, they are simply trying to learn another language, so the expression SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING is used more generally to describe both situations.
1. Mathematics is not acquired but learned. 2. Activities associated with LEARNING : (used traditionally in language teaching in schools) - this is the conscious process that results in ‘knowing about’ the language. - those demonstrated on tests -- may result in more knowledge about the language than in fluency. 3. Activities associated with ACQUISITION : - this is the subconscious process - those experience by child - those who pick up a second language from long periods spent of interaction in different social setting. - constancy of using the language in an environment where people speak the language 4. CONCLUSION: Those individuals whose L2 exposure is primarily a learning type of experience tend not to develop the same kind of general proficiency as those who have had more of an acquisition type of experience. 5. State that you will be using these two terminologies interchangeably since both explain the Language acquisition. 6. There are two ways of developing a L2. Acquisition is a subconscious process and learning a conscious process that results in ‘knowing about’ the language. 7. Acquisition and Learning are used in producing a language. Acquired competence (subconscious knowledge) allows the learner to produce utterances while learned language (conscious language serves as a monitor. The monitor allows correction of the language.
1. Introduction of the topic – incite their interests by saying: try to recognize yourself on one of these barriers. 2. Give concrete examples of each presentation: Insufficient time is devoted in the process – a few hours each week—in class—rather than through the constant in experienced as a child. - a lot of things to be made while children have little else to do. Insufficient incentive – adults already know a language and can use it for their daily communicative needs thus they find it less advantage of learning the language. Critical period for language acquisition has passed – difficult to learn a language because your brain already reached its adult function unless of course if you are well motivated to learn.
1. State that very few adults seem to reach a native-like proficiency in using a 2 nd language . - some of us may achieve a great expertise in writing the 2 nd language, but not the spoken language - some may also be good in speech but there is always an interference of the features of our 1 st language. for example: in our language we speak p in family as in pamily, d in this or that as in dis and dat. 2. Give a concrete example by introducing Joseph Conrad who speak English, as his 3 rd language, yet retain his strong Polish Accent. Give other examples: Filipino bilinguals, friends who speak English yet retain their strong 1 st lang. accent. 3. Give Conclusion using these observations - this suggest that some Language features, such as vocabulary and grammar are much easier to learn compared to pronunciation. - this type of observation is sometimes taken as evidence that, after the critical period for language acquisition has passed, around the time of puberty, it becomes very difficult to acquire another language fully.
1. Affective factors – the negative feelings or experiences which can create a barrier to acquisition. Perhaps, we are unlikely to learn anything if we are: Stress - due to tiring schedules of study and or work Uncomfortable - unpleasant classroom surroundings Self-conscious - the unwillingness of attempting to produce the diff. sound of another language - feeling no identification with its speakers - the fear of committing mistake in the utterance (like wrong diction and enunciation of words in the utterance) which may consequently result in embarrassment and later inhibit learning. Unmotivated - if we find it less advantageous to learn 2nd language, it will be very difficult to learn the language even if more hours will be spent in the process. 2. Conclusion: These affective factors creates inhibitions which impedes the acquisition process. 3. Inhibitions: children – quickly overcome adult or teens – sometimes overcome by gaining self confidence. Experiment : In one intriguing study, a group of adults L2 learners volunteered to have their self-consciousness levels reduced by having their alcohol levels gradually increased. Up to a certain point, the pronunciation of the L2 noticeably improved, but after a certain number of drinks, as we might expect, pronunciations deteriorated rapidly. These may give partial solution but inhibitions are likely returned with sobriety.
Input – it is the language that the learner is exposed to, either in writing or in speech. - linguist say that learning takes place through the interaction of the linguistic environment and the internal mechanisms of learner. - for that to happen, the input must be comprehensible; it can be made comprehensible by being simpler in structure and vocabulary (foreigner talk). The learner is exposed to input, which is processed in two stages: 1 st – parts of it are attended to and taken into short-term memory. These are refered as intake 2 nd – some of the intake is stored in long-term memory as L2 knowledge. Finally – L2 knowledge is used by the learner to produce spoken and written output.
Input can also be made comprehensible through negotiation of its meaning.
Negotiation of meaning: Through this type of interaction the learner receive the input by hearing the L2 , and at the same time producing the output by speaking the L2 . This will give them to develop their communicative competence.
Positive transfer – If the formation of plural on the ends of nouns or pronouns. Negative transfer – take it from the side inferior.
Transfer Errors: Example: Here, it is quiet obvious that some features of learner’s L1 creates and error in producing an L2. Instead of “single room”, he substituted it in “room single”, which correspond to his L1 subj.-adj. syntactic order. There are two kinds of errors common in L2 production Global errors example: - the syntax of the sentence. Local errors example: - the errors in the use of preposition or correct form of the past tense. We cannot see errors in verbal production of L2 as something negative since these are indications that they are in the active and of gradual process of learning, for realizing errors would lead to general competence of using appropriately the language.
They occur because the learner does not know what is correct. This is committed out of ignorace. They occur because, in a particular instance, the learner is unable to perform what he or she knows. - Ex. When we commit slips in our speech production. We often commit this when we are tired.
This rules is influenced from the outside (through the input as to how do they see the grammar works), and inside (the internal processing – the errors they produced as they try to make their own rule: overgeneralization, omission, and transfer errors) Learners change their grammar from one time to another by adding rules, deleting rules, and restructuring the whole system. This is done in order for them to accommodate new learning -1. Learner fail to mark the verb for the past time. -2. learner begin to produce irregular past tense forms. - these are the first stages of acquisition. Here, it does not necessarily mean that this form has already been acquired. This will still undergo various stages of reconstruction to the point of arriving to the correct form. 3 & 4 Learner overgeneralizes the past tense form. -These occur because learners reorganize their existing knowledge in order to accommodate new knowledge; thus, mixed these up with the current knowledge they have. In fact these productions are more advanced than the 2 nd stage, who produces the correct form, since at this time learners have begun to acquire new form of regular –ed (as in ‘jumped’). Forms like ‘eated’ and ‘ated’ represent an overgeneralization of the regular –ed past tense. (just write these examples in the white board). Another examples might be the comparative and superlative: That dog is the ‘most little’ instead of ‘littlest’, or ‘excitinger’ instead of ‘excitingest’. 5. Learners produce correct irregular past tense forms. - Finally, learners arrive at the point that their interlanguage is the same that of the target language, where it arrive at the correct form.
Here, they use different strategies that will help them to easily acquire L2. We will examine the different learning strategies on the proceeding discussion. If some learners develop a fairly fixed model of L2 expressions and assume new rules that those expressions are the correct form of the L2, which usually do not match the target language, and seem to be not progressing any further, their interlanguage is said to have ‘fossilized’. - In the U-shaped development (you can probably preview the diagram), if either of the 3 rd or 4 th stage of acquisition is adopted and considered by the learner as the “correct” form of the target language, then fossilization takes place. - The language that they produced does not correspond to that of target language. (ask them some other examples. - Fossilization does not occur in the L1 acquisition.
As what I have discussed in the previous slide, I have talked about the output and its role in developing a communicative competence. So now let us examine what does it mean. Grammatical competence – as is Sociolinguistic competence – enables the learner to know when to say Can I have some water? Versus Give me some water!; Would you mind closing the door or Close the door!. Strategic competence In their process of learning, learner usually experience a moment when there is a gap between communicative intent and their ability to express that intent. Some learners may just stop talking (which is definitely a bad idea), whereas others may try to express themselves using a communicative strategy as part of strategic competence.
Ex. When a spanish speaker tries to communicate herradura (horseshoe in English) but doesn’t know the equivalent word in English, he will try to describe the object by using the vocabulary he already knew: the things that horses wear under their feet.
Instrumental motivation Motivated to learn because it gives them educational and economic opportunities.
Integrative motivation Motivated to learn in order to take part in the social life of a community using that language. Motivated to learn to become an accepted member of that community where the language is spoken. Resultative motivation Motivation as cause of L2 achievement. Learners who experience success in learning may become more and more motivated to learn, while Learner who experience failure may become less motivated. Intrinsic motivation This is though the arousal of curiosity of the learners of the L2 that make them motivated to learn. These four types of motivation are treated as complimentary rather than distinct and oppositional. Learners can both be motivated instrumentally and integratively, one at the same time.
Second language acquisition
Psycholinguistics SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION / LEARNING
Second Language Learning <ul><li>foreign language setting – learning language that is not generally spoken in the surrounding community. </li></ul><ul><li>second language setting – learning language that is spoken in the surrounding community. </li></ul>
Two ways of developing L2 <ul><li>Acquisition – the gradual development of ability in a first or second language by using it naturally in communicative situations with others who know the language. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning – the conscious process of accumulating knowledge, in contrast to acquisition. </li></ul>
Acquisition Barriers <ul><li>Insufficient time devoted in the process </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient incentive </li></ul><ul><li>Critical period has passed </li></ul>
<ul><li>Joseph Conrad (1857-1924), Polish-born English novelist, considered to be among the great modern English writers. </li></ul>
Affective Factors <ul><li>The negative feelings or experiences which can create a barrier to acquisition. </li></ul><ul><li>- STRESS </li></ul><ul><li>- UNCOMFORTABLE </li></ul><ul><li>- SELF-CONSCIOUS </li></ul><ul><li>- UNMOTIVATED </li></ul>
Computational model of L2 acquisition Comprehensible Foreigner Talk Short term memory Long term memory Negotiation of meaning input output intake L2 knowledge
<ul><li>Type of talk Example </li></ul><ul><li>Baseline talk You won’t forget to buy an ice-cream on your way home, will you? </li></ul><ul><li>Ungrammatical No forget buying ice-cream, eh? </li></ul><ul><li>Foreigner talk The ice-cream—You will not forget to buy it on your way home—Get it when you are coming home. All right? </li></ul>
Comprehensible Foreigner Talk Negotiation of meaning input output intake L2 knowledge
<ul><li>NS : Like part of a triangle? </li></ul><ul><li>NNS : What is triangle? </li></ul><ul><li>NS : A triangle is a shape um it has three sides </li></ul><ul><li>NNS : A peak? </li></ul><ul><li>NS : Yes it does look like a mountain peak, yes </li></ul><ul><li>NNS : Only line only line? </li></ul><ul><li>NS : Okay two of them, right? One on each side? A line on each side? </li></ul><ul><li>NNS : Yes </li></ul><ul><li>NS : Little lines on each side? </li></ul><ul><li>NNS : Yes </li></ul><ul><li>NS : Like a mountain? </li></ul><ul><li>NNS : Yes </li></ul>Negotiation on the meaning of a Triangle
Comprehensible Foreigner Talk Negotiation of meaning input output intake L2 knowledge
<ul><li>Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Using sounds, expressions and structures from the L1 while performing in an L2. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive transfer – the use of a feature from the L1 that is similar to the L2 while performing in the L2. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative transfer – the use of a feature from the L1 ( that is really different from the L2) while performing in the L2. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. (spanish speaker) take it from the side inferior. </li></ul><ul><li>English equivalent – take it from the inferior side. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Errors of Omission </li></ul><ul><li>Deviations in usage that arise when learners leave some of words. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>John went into shop. </li></ul><ul><li>My boss will give me increase of salary. </li></ul><ul><li>Overgeneralization Errors </li></ul><ul><li>The oversuppliance of a feature in contexts in which it does not occur in target-language use. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>He ated ice-cream. </li></ul><ul><li>She appear to be more happy compared to her sister. </li></ul>Types of Error
<ul><li>Transfer Errors </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect learner’s attempts to make use of their L1feature in producing L2. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. I want a room single for one persona. (L2 output) </li></ul><ul><li>Quiero una habitaci ón individual para una persona. (L1 output) </li></ul>Two kinds of error: Global Errors – errors that affect overall sentence structure. Local Errors – errors that affect single elements in a sentence.
Error Mistake – reflect gaps in a learner’s knowlede – reflects occasional lapses in performance
Interlanguage <ul><li>Coined by the American linguist, Larry Selinker </li></ul><ul><li>refer to the interim system, which has some features of the L1 and L2 plus some that are independent of either the L1 and L2. –a unique linguistic system that has its own rules odd to either L1 or L2. </li></ul>Example: (Spanish speaker) - She name is Maria.
Concepts of Interlanguage <ul><li>Learner constructs its own system of linguistic rules. </li></ul><ul><li>Learner’s grammar is transitional. </li></ul>3. eated 4. ated 5. ate 1. eat 2. ate U-shaped course of development
<ul><li>Learner employ their various learning strategies to develop their interlanguages. </li></ul><ul><li>Learner’s grammar is likely to fossilize </li></ul><ul><li>Fossilization – the processes responsible for the cessation of learning while still short of target-language competence. Most of L2 learners’ interlanguages fossilize. </li></ul>
Communicative Competence – the general ability to use language accurately, appropriately and flexibly. <ul><li>Grammatical competence – the ability to use words and structures accurately with the ability to interpret or produce L2 expressions appropriately. </li></ul><ul><li>Sociolinguistic competence – the ability to use language appropriately according to the social context. </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic competence – the ability to use language to organize effective messages and to overcome potential communication problems. </li></ul>
Communicative Strategy – a way of overcoming a gap between communicative intent and a limited ability to express that intent, as part of the strategic competence. Ex. herradura (horseshoe) – the things that horses wear under their feet. itik (duck) – an animal who sounds quack-quack and has a flat beak.
<ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>- involves the attitudes and affective states that influence the degree of effort that learners make to learn an L2. </li></ul><ul><li>Kinds: </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumental motivation </li></ul><ul><li>- when learners make efforts to learn an L2 for some functional reason </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. </li></ul><ul><li>pass an examination </li></ul><ul><li>to get a better job </li></ul>
<ul><li>Integrative motivation </li></ul><ul><li>- when learners want to learn the L2 for social purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Resultative motivation </li></ul><ul><li>- the motivation that learners develop as a result of their success in learning an L2. </li></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic motivation </li></ul><ul><li>- the degree of effort a learner makes to learn L2 as a result of the interest generated by a particular learning activity. </li></ul>