Relative clauses commas reductions

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Relative clauses commas reductions

  1. 1. Relative Clauses: -when to use commas -reduced relative clauses
  2. 2. When to use commas in relative clauses <ul><li>No Comma: </li></ul><ul><li>Students who cheat only harm themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>The baby that is wearing a yellow jumpsuit   is my niece. </li></ul><ul><li>The candidate who had the least money lost the election. </li></ul><ul><li>With Comma: </li></ul><ul><li>Fred , who often cheats,  is just harming himself. </li></ul><ul><li>My niece , who is wearing a yellow jumpsuit,  is playing in the living room. </li></ul><ul><li>The Green party candidate , who had the least money,  lost the election. </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the difference? </li></ul><ul><li>Try writing the sentences above without the clauses. </li></ul>
  3. 3. When to use commas in relative clauses <ul><li>No Comma: </li></ul><ul><li>Students harm themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>The baby   is my niece. </li></ul><ul><li>The candidate lost the election. </li></ul><ul><li>With Comma: </li></ul><ul><li>Fred is just harming himself. </li></ul><ul><li>My niece is playing in the living room. </li></ul><ul><li>The Green party candidate lost the election. </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the difference? </li></ul><ul><li>Essential Information vs. Non-Essential Information </li></ul>
  4. 4. When to use commas in relative clauses <ul><li>No Comma: </li></ul><ul><li>Students  who cheat harm themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>The baby  that is wearing a yellow jumpsuit is my niece. </li></ul><ul><li>The candidate who had the least money  lost the election. </li></ul><ul><li>With Comma: </li></ul><ul><li>Fred is just harming himself. </li></ul><ul><li>My niece is playing in the living room. </li></ul><ul><li>The Green party candidate lost the election. </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the difference? </li></ul><ul><li>Essential Information vs. Non-Essential Information </li></ul>
  5. 5. When to use commas in relative clauses <ul><li>No Comma: </li></ul><ul><li>Students  who cheat harm themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>The baby  that is wearing a yellow jumpsuit is my niece. </li></ul><ul><li>The candidate who had the least money  lost the election. </li></ul><ul><li>With Comma: </li></ul><ul><li>Fred, who often cheats , is just harming himself. </li></ul><ul><li>My niece, who is wearing a yellow jumpsuit, is playing in the living room. </li></ul><ul><li>The Green party candidate , who had the least money,  lost the election. </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the difference? </li></ul><ul><li>Essential Information vs. Non-Essential Information </li></ul>
  6. 6. Reduced Relative Clause <ul><li>A. The man  who is in the house  likes to watch television all day. </li></ul><ul><li>B. The man  in the house  likes to watch television all day. </li></ul><ul><li>A. The man  who is swimming in the lake  is my father. </li></ul><ul><li>B. The man  swimming in the lake  is my father. </li></ul><ul><li>A. The survey  which was conducted by the government  did not indicate true public opinion. </li></ul><ul><li>B. The survey  conducted by the government  did not indicate true public opinion. </li></ul><ul><li>A. This is the house  that Jack built . </li></ul><ul><li>B. This is the house Jack built. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>they are followed by a  prepositional phrase . </li></ul><ul><li>A. The man  who is in the house  likes to watch television all day. </li></ul><ul><li>B. The man  in the house  likes to watch television all day. </li></ul><ul><li>A. The books  that are on the desk  are mine. </li></ul><ul><li>B. The books  on the desk  are mine.  </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>2. the main verb in the relative clause is  progressive . </li></ul><ul><li>A. The man  who is swimming in the lake  is my father. </li></ul><ul><li>B. The man  swimming in the lake  is my father. </li></ul><ul><li>A. The clothes  that are lying on the floor  belong to me. </li></ul><ul><li>B. The clothes  lying on the floor  belong to me.  </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>3. the main verb in the relative clause is  passive . </li></ul><ul><li>A. The survey  which was conducted by the government  did not indicate true public opinion. </li></ul><ul><li>B. The survey  conducted by the government  did not indicate true public opinion. </li></ul><ul><li>A. The food  that was eaten  by the mice was poisonous. </li></ul><ul><li>B. The food  eaten by the mice  was poisonous. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>The  relative pronoun  can be deleted if there is a  new  subject and verb following it: </li></ul><ul><li>A. This is the house  that Jack built . </li></ul><ul><li>B. This is the house Jack built. </li></ul><ul><li>A. The person  whom you see  is my father. </li></ul><ul><li>B. The person you see is my father. </li></ul><ul><li>A. This is the place  where I live . </li></ul><ul><li>B. This is the place I live. </li></ul>

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