Texas Regional Report <ul><li>June 25, 2010 </li></ul>I have moved over a great part of Texas and I know that within its b...
General Climate Impacts <ul><li>A Summary </li></ul>I have moved over a great part of Texas and I know that within its bor...
The Big Hitters Drought Flooding Hurricanes Sea Level Rise
Drought
Drought From King of the Hill, Pilot Episode, 1997 Expected temperature rise: 3-10°F rise in winter lows and 3-7°F rise in...
Drought <ul><li>As of June 15th, 2010 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Record rainfall in Texas was worthy of a one- to two-category ...
Drought <ul><li>But Last Summer… </li></ul>Considered the “Worst Drought in the past 50 years”
Flooding <ul><li>So when it does rain, we get tons of flooding </li></ul>In 2002, a megaflood carved a 2.2km canyon in 3 d...
Flooding <ul><li>Before (2006) After (2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Hurricanes Don’t Help Either </li></ul>Hurricane Ike Floodin...
Hurricanes <ul><li>Hurricane Ike, September 2008 </li></ul>
Hurricanes <ul><li>The &quot;Weather and Climate Extremes in a Changing Climate” report concludes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&q...
Hurricanes <ul><li>Since our students have been born… </li></ul>Tropical Storm Fay Fei means “flying” in Chinese Year Name...
Hurricanes <ul><li>Estimated Cost of Ike: $22 Billion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hurricanes Ivan in 2004, Katrina, Rita and Wil...
Sea Level Rise <ul><li>The Gulf Coast is extremely vulnerable because </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s flat, making even small r...
Sea Level Rise
<ul><li>The H-town Breakdown </li></ul>Fei grew up in the ’burbs of Sugar Land, TX But she went to college in CA (ahem Go ...
Houston’s Regional Forest Report <ul><li>Studying the Economic and Environmental Benefits of Urban Trees </li></ul><ul><li...
HRF Report <ul><li>Major Findings and Conclusions </li></ul>
HRF Report <ul><li>UFORE Land Cover Map for Houston </li></ul><ul><li>Forests: The Forest areas contain 71% of the region'...
Houston Air Quality <ul><li>Since 1999, Houston has exchanged titles with Los Angeles as having the most polluted air in t...
Houston Air Quality <ul><li>Ozone has been Houston's main air quality concern for several years.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ar...
Houston Air Quality <ul><ul><li>Houstonians drive an average of > 140,000,000 miles/day, emissions from cars, trucks, and ...
Houston Air Quality <ul><li>Pasadena ISD: A Bittersweet Tale </li></ul>More than 800 solar panels, paid for with part of a...
<ul><li>Keep(ing) Austin Weird </li></ul>Now he lives in the state capital of Austin, TX He grew up in Fort Worth, TX Davi...
The Drought of  07-09 <ul><li>Drought hit the Austin area pretty hard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the Summer of 2009 </li></u...
Drought of 07-09 <ul><li>Effects on Lake Travis </li></ul>August 24, 2009
Effects on Lake Travis <ul><li>About Lake Travis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A reservoir on the Colorado River </li></ul></ul><u...
Drought of 07-09 <ul><li>Effects on Barton Springs </li></ul>
Effects on Barton Springs <ul><li>About Barton Springs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spring-fed pool that sees about 400,000 visit...
Thus, you know you’re in a TX summer when <ul><li>Some Texas Heat Humor </li></ul><ul><li>(Enjoy your cool summers, everyo...
<ul><li>The End </li></ul>You’re Welcome.
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Texas Climate Impacts

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  • From: How Will Climate Change Impact the EPA Region 6 Area?: http://www.epa.gov/region6/climatechange/impact-in-r6.htm Texas and the Southern Great PlainsTHE POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF GLOBAL WARMING ON TEXAS AND THE SOUTHERN  GREAT PLAINS: http://www.climatehotmap.org/impacts/texas.html
  • Union of Concerned Scientists, Climate Projections for Texas http://www.ucsusa.org/gulf/gcstatetex_cli.html
  • A combination of record-high heat and record-low rainfall has pushed south and central Texas into the region&apos;s deepest drought in a half century, with $3.6 billion of crop and livestock losses piling up during the past nine months. Nearly 80 of Texas&apos; 254 counties are in &amp;quot;extreme&amp;quot; or &amp;quot;exceptional&amp;quot; drought, the worst possible levels on the U.S. Department of Agriculture&apos;s index. Though other states are experiencing drought, no counties in the continental U.S. outside Texas currently register worse than &amp;quot;severe.&amp;quot; In late April, the USDA designated 70 Texas counties as primary natural-disaster areas because of drought, above-normal temperatures and associated wildfires. Wall Street Journal Article: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124872939604384837.html
  • During the summer of 2002, the river basin received nearly three feet of rain over the course of about a week. It was the first time the spillway became active, and the landscape below it would literally not be the same afterwards. Over the course of just a few days, the flood barreled through limestone-rich bedrock, carving out 1.2km of canyon with an average depth of over seven meters, and as deep as 12m in some spots. A 2002 Texas megaflood carved a 2.2km canyon in three days: http://arstechnica.com/science/news/2010/06/2002-megaflood-carved-22km-canyon-in-three-days.ars
  • The &amp;quot;Weather and Climate Extremes in a Changing Climate&amp;quot; report, discussed above, found evidence for a link between global warming and increased hurricane activity. It concludes, &amp;quot;It is very likely that the human-induced increase in greenhouse gases has contributed to the increase in sea surface temperatures in the hurricane formation regions. Over the past 50 years there has been a strong statistical connection between tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures and Atlantic hurricane activity.&amp;quot; The IPCC Fourth Assessment Report makes similar findings, as do more recent studies. The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, Colorado, working with federal agencies as well as the insurance and energy industries, has launched an intensive study to examine how global warming will influence hurricanes in the next few decades. http://www.climatescience.gov/Library/sap/sap3-3/final-report/default.htm
  • The &amp;quot;Weather and Climate Extremes in a Changing Climate&amp;quot; report, discussed above, found evidence for a link between global warming and increased hurricane activity. It concludes, &amp;quot;It is very likely that the human-induced increase in greenhouse gases has contributed to the increase in sea surface temperatures in the hurricane formation regions. Over the past 50 years there has been a strong statistical connection between tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures and Atlantic hurricane activity.&amp;quot; The IPCC Fourth Assessment Report makes similar findings, as do more recent studies. The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, Colorado, working with federal agencies as well as the insurance and energy industries, has launched an intensive study to examine how global warming will influence hurricanes in the next few decades. http://www.climatescience.gov/Library/sap/sap3-3/final-report/default.htm
  • &amp;quot;Freak&amp;quot; Hurricane Ike Will Cost $22 Billion http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/09/080915-hurricane-ike.html
  • Global Warming &amp; Sea Level Rise in the Gulf Coast Region, Union of Concerned Scientist report: http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/global_warming/acfvebkwm.pdf
  • For example, you can see in Brazoria county (a little south of Houston), the areas in which there is protection against increases in water levels available versus none to little protection From: Anticipated Local Response to Sea Level Rise along the Texas Coast: A first approximation http://www.rpts.tamu.edu/urban-nature/publications/documents/FinalDraft_AllCounties_Texas_SLR_Response_7_01_08.pdf
  • Houston&apos;s regional forest provides impressive value to its citizens: The replacement cost of the region&apos;s 663 million trees is valued at over $205 billion. Trees store $721 million worth of carbon. Trees generate $456 million worth of environmental benefits annually - amounting to $109 per person per year. Trees save $131 million in residential energy costs and avoided power plant emissions each year - almost $90 per household. Houston&apos;s trees remove over 60,000 tons of air pollution per year.
  • Large trees and urban trees have greater roles in producing forest benefits: Urban trees work harder. The average urban tree stores 75% more carbon and has a 76% higher replacement value than the average rural tree.
  • Getting the Big Picture on Houston’s Air Problem http://www.nasa.gov/vision/earth/everydaylife/archives/HP_ILP_Feature_03.html
  • http://www.greenhoustontx.gov/airquality.html
  • A Closer Look at Air Pollution in Houston: Identifying Priority Health Risks A summary of the Report of the Mayor’s Task Force on the Health Effects of Air Pollution (2007) http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/conference/ei16/session6/bethel.pdf
  • http://www.ultimatepasadena.com/2010/06/solar-project-help-power-2-pisd-schools
  • http://www.lcra.org/water/drought/index.html
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_Travis http://www.texarkanagazette.com/news/WireHeadlines/2009/07/25/low-lake-levels-yield-stolen-vehicles-12.php
  • http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/06/us/06drought.html
  • http://www.funny.com/cgi-bin/WebObjects/Funny.woa/wa/funny?fn=C4VMW&amp;Funny_Jokes=Texas_Heat
  • Texas Climate Impacts

    1. 1. Texas Regional Report <ul><li>June 25, 2010 </li></ul>I have moved over a great part of Texas and I know that within its borders I have seen just about as many kinds of country, contour, climate and conformation as there are in the world - John Steinbeck
    2. 2. General Climate Impacts <ul><li>A Summary </li></ul>I have moved over a great part of Texas and I know that within its borders I have seen just about as many kinds of country, contour, climate and conformation as there are in the world - John Steinbeck But now he is the King of Katy, TX He played college football in El Paso, TX AJ grew up on a farm in Mansfield, TX
    3. 3. The Big Hitters Drought Flooding Hurricanes Sea Level Rise
    4. 4. Drought
    5. 5. Drought From King of the Hill, Pilot Episode, 1997 Expected temperature rise: 3-10°F rise in winter lows and 3-7°F rise in summer highs. July heat index—a measure combining temperature and humidity to represent the temperature actually felt—could rise by 10-25°F. Dale, you giblet head, we live in Texas. It’s already 110 in the summer, and if it gets one degree hotter I’m gonna kick your ass! I say, let the world warm up…We’ll grow oranges in Alaska.
    6. 6. Drought <ul><li>As of June 15th, 2010 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Record rainfall in Texas was worthy of a one- to two-category improvement in a swath from San Antonio to Texarkana, resulting in no drought depiction.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elsewhere in Texas, the abnormally dry conditions expanded along the Gulf Coast from the Brazos River to Lake Charles, Louisiana.  This new area includes Beaumont, Houston and Galveston, all of which are reporting precipitation deficits of over an inch for the month.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For the year to date, Beaumont is 11.98 inches below normal, Houston 8.97 inches below normal, and Galveston 5.34 inches below normal.  </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Drought <ul><li>But Last Summer… </li></ul>Considered the “Worst Drought in the past 50 years”
    8. 8.
    9. 9. Flooding <ul><li>So when it does rain, we get tons of flooding </li></ul>In 2002, a megaflood carved a 2.2km canyon in 3 days at a site now called Canyon Lake Gorge a little north of San Antonio
    10. 10. Flooding <ul><li>Before (2006) After (2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Hurricanes Don’t Help Either </li></ul>Hurricane Ike Flooding in Katy, TX (where AJ lives) Areas of vegetation are in Red Storm Surge Flooding wiped most of it out
    11. 11. Hurricanes <ul><li>Hurricane Ike, September 2008 </li></ul>
    12. 12. Hurricanes <ul><li>The &quot;Weather and Climate Extremes in a Changing Climate” report concludes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;It is very likely that the human-induced increase in greenhouse gases has contributed to the increase in sea surface temperatures in the hurricane formation regions. Over the past 50 years there has been a strong statistical connection between tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures and Atlantic hurricane activity.”  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>U.S. Climate Change Service Program </li></ul>
    13. 13. Hurricanes <ul><li>Since our students have been born… </li></ul>Tropical Storm Fay Fei means “flying” in Chinese Year Name Max Wind Speed (mph) 1993 T.S. Arlene 40 1995 T.S. Dean 45 1998 T.S. Charley 70 1998 T.S. Frances 65 1999 T.S. Storm Bret 55 2001 T.S. Allison 60 2002 T.S. Bertha 40 2002 T.S. Fay 60 2003 Claudette 80 2005 Rita 120 2008 Dolly (Tex Mex Border) 100 2008 Ike 110
    14. 14. Hurricanes <ul><li>Estimated Cost of Ike: $22 Billion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hurricanes Ivan in 2004, Katrina, Rita and Wilma in 2005, and Ike in 2008 demonstrated that infrastructure along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico can be severely damaged by major hurricanes, which can produce national-level impacts, and require recovery times stretching to months to years. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ike was the third most expensive hurricane on record after Katrina in 2005 and Andrew in 1992  </li></ul>
    15. 15. Sea Level Rise <ul><li>The Gulf Coast is extremely vulnerable because </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s flat, making even small rises spread further inland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s sinking (subsidence), with varying rates, some as high as 31 inches per century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s growing in population and development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It gets a lot of major storms and, of course, hurricanes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not all areas are protected against flooding or storm surges </li></ul></ul>Climate models project an average sea-level rise along the Gulf Coast ranging from over 8 to almost 20 inches in the next century.
    16. 16. Sea Level Rise
    17. 17. <ul><li>The H-town Breakdown </li></ul>Fei grew up in the ’burbs of Sugar Land, TX But she went to college in CA (ahem Go Bears! Ahem) Now she’s back to being a Houstonian Focus: Houston Impacts
    18. 18. Houston’s Regional Forest Report <ul><li>Studying the Economic and Environmental Benefits of Urban Trees </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.houstonregionalforest.org/Report/ </li></ul>
    19. 19. HRF Report <ul><li>Major Findings and Conclusions </li></ul>
    20. 20. HRF Report <ul><li>UFORE Land Cover Map for Houston </li></ul><ul><li>Forests: The Forest areas contain 71% of the region's tree population. </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture and Rangelands: This is by far the largest land cover type, occupying 48% of the region, and although the tree density is low, there are over 100 million trees located in this land cover type. </li></ul><ul><li>Urban Lands: These lands occupy 24% of the Houston region and contain almost 84 million trees. Tree species are relatively diverse, approaching that of Forest areas </li></ul>
    21. 21. Houston Air Quality <ul><li>Since 1999, Houston has exchanged titles with Los Angeles as having the most polluted air in the United States defined by the number of days each city violates federal smog standards. </li></ul>Smoggy Day Clear Day YAAHOOO!!!?!!
    22. 22. Houston Air Quality <ul><li>Ozone has been Houston's main air quality concern for several years. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Area climate conditions combined with the variety of emissions from area industry and transportation make the city a prime media for ground level ozone formation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Houston-Galveston area (HGA) is classified as a severe nonattainment area for ozone. </li></ul>A typical ozone map of Houston in June (this is from June 29, 2009 at around noon) Sometimes ozone levels get so bad we are restricted from going outdoors between 10am-3pm
    23. 23. Houston Air Quality <ul><ul><li>Houstonians drive an average of > 140,000,000 miles/day, emissions from cars, trucks, and buses are a major source of airborne pollutants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moreover, Houston is home to > 400 chemical manufacturing facilities, including two of the biggest refineries in the United States. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The petrochemical complex along the Houston ship channel is the largest in the country, and the Port of Houston is the largest in the United States in terms of foreign tonnage and second largest in total tonnage. </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Houston Air Quality <ul><li>Pasadena ISD: A Bittersweet Tale </li></ul>More than 800 solar panels, paid for with part of a $6 million court settlement, will soon be on the roofs of Sam Rayburn and South Houston High schools. BUT: The project is the result of a negotiated settlement between Shell Oil Co. and two nonprofit environmental groups over accidental emissions from Shell’s Deer Park refinery that violated the Clean Air Act. As part of the April 2009 settlement with Environment Texas and the Sierra Club, Shell agreed to reduce emissions known as “upsets” from the Deer Park plant by 80 percent over three years. The company also agreed to fund two school-related projects in east Harris County.
    25. 25. <ul><li>Keep(ing) Austin Weird </li></ul>Now he lives in the state capital of Austin, TX He grew up in Fort Worth, TX David was born in Galveston, TX Focus: Austin Impact
    26. 26. The Drought of 07-09 <ul><li>Drought hit the Austin area pretty hard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the Summer of 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>67 out of 90 days were above 100 degrees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The average temperatures for 2009 beat the previous hottest summers of 2008 and 1998 by 1.7 degrees. </li></ul></ul></ul>Ironically, he was one of the first generals to employ “Scorched Earth” tactics in the Civil War “ If I owned Hell and Texas, I would rent out Texas and live in Hell” –Phillip Henry Sheridan
    27. 27. Drought of 07-09 <ul><li>Effects on Lake Travis </li></ul>August 24, 2009
    28. 28. Effects on Lake Travis <ul><li>About Lake Travis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A reservoir on the Colorado River </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for flood control, water supply, electrical power generation and recreation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The historic high level on the lake was 710.4 feet above msl on December 25, 1991. The historic low was 614.2 feet above msl on August 14, 1951. The drought brought the lake to its THIRD lowest level at 629.97 feet above msl on September 11, 2009 </li></ul></ul>It got SO low that police officers found three cars and bikes previously thought stolen!
    29. 29. Drought of 07-09 <ul><li>Effects on Barton Springs </li></ul>
    30. 30. Effects on Barton Springs <ul><li>About Barton Springs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spring-fed pool that sees about 400,000 visitors a year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robert Redford learned to swim in it when he was 5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major way to cool off during ACL </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More than 50,000 people in surrounding suburbs rely on the Barton Springs portion of the Edwards Aquifer </li></ul><ul><li>Last year residents were asked to cut back on water usage by 30% </li></ul>
    31. 31. Thus, you know you’re in a TX summer when <ul><li>Some Texas Heat Humor </li></ul><ul><li>(Enjoy your cool summers, everyone. Except ATL, we feel you) </li></ul>Hot water now comes out of both taps. You learn that a seat belt makes a pretty good branding iron. The temperature drops below 95 and you feel a bit chilly. You discover that in July it takes only two fingers to drive your car. You break a sweat the instant you step outside at 7:30 am. You realize that asphalt has a liquid state. The birds have to use potholders to pull worms out of the ground Cows are giving evaporated milk. The trees are whistlin' for the dogs. A sad Texan said once: 'I wish it would rain - not so much for me, cuz I've seen it, but for my 7-year-old.'
    32. 32. <ul><li>The End </li></ul>You’re Welcome.
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