THE      ROLE            OF     DISTRIBUTED             GENERATION               IN        INDIANELECTRICITY PARADIGMJITEN...
decade, there has been renewed interest in       made DG an attractive option that has beenDG. The relevance of these opti...
gas), hydro, nuclear elements. Due to the      any high voltage transmission system, etc.economy of scale with large unit ...
and photovoltaic systems, fuel cells, wind      distributed      power    generation    unitturbines, micro turbines, engi...
customer loads or distribution and sub-              accounted for by thermal power plants,   transmission substations as ...
of the energy generation from DG is             308MW (10.3%), with most of it comingmarginal   (about2–3%      of   the  ...
for service providers in rural areas and       2. The D.G. technologies in Indiaexempts them from licensing obligations.  ...
4. As   regards     the    remaining     un             systems selected are likely to be   electrified         villages, ...
connecting to the distribution network;       try of Energy. After a decade, thetherefore it can be considered as DG.     ...
diesels as a backup. Though the diesel                the use of trees, crop residues,engine is efficient, starts up relat...
using   various        chemical      or   iii.   Micro-turbines:                     Micro           physical processes to...
1-50-kilowatt           (kW)         wind          small,modular, and dish/ design     turbines are being developed for   ...
application of SPV systems.                      stacks whose sizes can be       R&D work has been undertaken             ...
structure       i.e.     Deenabandhu          weaker sections as well. Biogas is       model        are         among     ...
cogeneration of more than one energy         manufactured in the country. Technology                                      ...
of land availability for wind         Solar Power Programme: The solarpower generation in potential         power     prog...
subsidized. Only 3 MW out of the total         distribution     level   results   in      severalaggregate capacity of 96 ...
economic and technical implications and               .       Compared        to     traditionalthey are interrelated.    ...
due    to     lesser      complexity       more   most      village    power    applications    independability with simpl...
fuel utilization.                                 policy    vis-à-vis    support   as     well   as(vi) Grid support – Pow...
[5] T. Ackerman, G. Anderson, and L.           Business Opportunities, Government ofSoder,     “Distributed    generation:...
IEEE                                            Aashish Kumar Bohre,[18] Q. Kejun , Z.Chengake “ Analysis ofthe Environmen...
Dr. Manisha DubeyDr. Manisha Dubey was born in Jabalpurin India on 15th December 1968. Shereceived her B.E (Electrical), M...
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Bhopal conference @ oriental

  1. 1. THE ROLE OF DISTRIBUTED GENERATION IN INDIANELECTRICITY PARADIGMJITENDRA SINGH BHADORIYA1 ,School of Instrumentation ,DAVV, IndoreAASHISH KUMAR BOHRE2,Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, BhopalDr. GANGA AGNIHOTRI3, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, BhopalDr. MANISHA DUBEY4, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, BhopalAbstract—this paper is an overview of Keywords- Distributed Generation , DGsome of the main issues in distributed Technologies , Smart Grid .generation (DG). It discusses variousaspects of DG such as definitions, I. INTRODUCTION-technologies, distributed power The concept of distributed generation,application, economics, environmental which is now gaining worldwideperformance, reliability issues, the role acceptance, was started in the USA almostof DG in the new electricity paradigm of a decade ago. The earliest electric powerIndia, and the comparative study of DG systems were distributed generation (DG)in India with respect to some developed systems intended to cater to thecountry. It also presents some of the requirements of local areas. Subsequentchallenges that DG systems are technology developments driven byconfronting today. In this article, some economies of scale resulted in thebenefits and potential problems of DG development of large centralized gridssystems are brought out, and the connecting up entire regions and countries.current status of DG systems operation The design and operating philosophies ofis presented. power systems have emerged with a focus on centralized generation. During the last
  2. 2. decade, there has been renewed interest in made DG an attractive option that has beenDG. The relevance of these options for a reconsidered by various entities in the newdeveloping country context is examined electricity market such as customers,using data for India. power distributors, power producers,New concerns are emerging in the power regulators and researchers.industry today. For example, although II. DG Definitionshydro power plants are recognized to be As per Wikipedia collections Distributedenvironmentally friendly, it is difficult to Generation (DG) is also known as on-sitefind new sites for hydro power plant generation, dispersed generation,installations in developed countries. embedded generation, decentralizedFurthermore, some countries such as generation, etc. It varies from country toGermany and Sweden have enacted laws country. Over the last century, be itto decommission nuclear power plants, developed nation or developing nation, onand under public pressure, retired nuclear account of rapid industrialization causingpower plants would not be replaced [1]. high rate of growth in the demand forAdditionally, in the deregulated power electricity, everyone resorted tosector of today, it is not easy to convince establishment of large scale centralizedmarket players to invest in multibillion generation facility. IEEE defines thedollar power generation and transmission generation of electricity by facilitiesprojects where the payback period may be sufficiently smaller than central plants,very long [2].These issues, and the usually 10 MW or less, so as to allowdecentralization of power systems and interconnection at nearly any point in theliberalization of the electricity sector, power system, as Distributed Resourcesalong with dramatically growing demand [2] The plants concerned were based onfor electricity in developed countries has use of fossil-fuel (solid, liquid as well as
  3. 3. gas), hydro, nuclear elements. Due to the any high voltage transmission system, etc.economy of scale with large unit size, it lead to flourishing of this type ofbecame possible to have big centralized decentralized generation. Advancement ofpower stations near the sources to deliver technology with renewable energy sources,power to load centers through the medium gradual reduction in cost, ease of operationof high voltage transmission lines over a and maintainability, etc., all go in favor oflong distance. From environment point of Distributed Generation as source of greenview as well due to limitation of natural power. Also if it is not as replacement toresources, it is in fact advantageous too to centralized large generation, it is at least tohave the plants away from populated areas. supplement the entire effort of generatingOf course like power grid, gas grid has capacity addition to a great extent. Furtheralso been constructed that allows use of in the context of absence of right-of wayless polluting natural gas-based plants for drawing new high voltage lines, it is aright at the load center, where it may not boon as it envisages connectivity throughbe uncommon to have waste heat recovery low voltage networks only and that tooand use combined cycle plant to achieve over short distance. In UK Distributedhigher efficiency and at the same time for Generation is defined [3] as a generationheating in winter days, if the need be. On plant that is connected to a distributionthe other hand Distributed Generation too network and not to a transmission a method to reckon with, particularly The US Department of Energy (DOE)when unbundling of power sector has defines DG as follows: “Distributed powercome up with generation, transmission, is modular electric generation or storageand distribution recognized as distinct located near the point of use. Distributedentities. Low capital investment, local use systems include biomass-based generators,of generated power by the load, absence of combustion turbines, thermal solar power
  4. 4. and photovoltaic systems, fuel cells, wind distributed power generation unitturbines, micro turbines, engines/generator regardless of the technology, and whethersets, and storage and control technologies. it is connected to the grid orDistributed resources can either be grid completely independent of the grid [5] Inconnected or independent of the grid. India too effectively it means decentralizedThose connected to the grid are typically small scale generation directly supplyinginterfaced at the distribution system” [4].In load and having interconnection at lowa similar tone in USA it is referred to as voltage with distribution network.small scale generation of electric power by Moreover it is very often in the context ofa unit sited close to the load being served. electrification of rural areas includingBoth of these justify terming Distributed remote villages / hamlets. The aboveGeneration as embedded to distribution definitions do not specify any criterion orsystem. However, as per American classification of DG based on theirCouncil for an Energy Efficient Economy capacity. Although, there is no generallyfor Distribution Power Generation, its is accepted rule or standard, the followingalso known as any technology that ratings are used in different countries andproduces power outside of the utility, situations:which is in fact the case for this type of 1) The DOE considers distributed powergeneration. Furthermore, in the literature, systems to typically range from less than aterms such as embedded generation, kilowatt (kW) to tens of megawatts (MW)dispersed generation, distributed energy in size as DG unit [4].resources or DER and decentralized 2) The Electric Power Research Institutegeneration, have also been used in the (EPRI) considers small generation unitscontext of DG. The term dispersed from a few kW up to 50 MW and/orgeneration is usually referred to a energy storage devices typically sited near
  5. 5. customer loads or distribution and sub- accounted for by thermal power plants, transmission substations as distributed 39,339.40MW of large hydro plants and energy resources [6]. 4,780.00 MW of nuclear, 25,856.14 MW 3) According to the Gas Research Institute, of renewable energy resources (Shown in typically between 25 kW to 25 MW Table 1). The focus of power planning has generation units are considered as DG [5]. been to extend the centralized grid 4) Swedish legislation treats generating throughout the country. However the units under 1500 kW differently from capacity addition has not been able to keep those unit capacities higher than 1500 kW. pace with the increasing demand for Then, it can be considered that DG electricity. This is reflected by the capacity in Sweden is defined as those persistent energy and peak shortages in the units under 1500 kW [7]. country. This requires an average capacity From the above discussion, it is evident addition of more than 10,000MW per year. that capacity specification for DG units is Centralized generation alone is unlikely to not universally defined. Various meet this target. In this context DG is generating schemes under completely likely to be important. DG also has the diverse rating, behavior, regulation, advantage of improving tail-end voltages, purpose and locations are currently being reducing distribution losses and improving considered as DG in the power industry. system reliability. The present installed capacity of DG is about 13,000MWIII. Indian power sector (10,000MW diesel, 3000MW renewable).India had an installed capacity of 2, The majority of this is accounted for by10,951.72 MW (Ministry of Power,) in the diesel engines that are used for back-upcentralized power utilities on 31st power (in the event of grid failure) andMarch2012. Of this 140976.18 MW is operate at very low load factors. The share
  6. 6. of the energy generation from DG is 308MW (10.3%), with most of it comingmarginal (about2–3% of the total from biogases based cogeneration. Most ofgeneration). Apart from the diesel engines, the installed capacity available fromthe DG options that have been promoted in renewable is accounted for by gridIndia are modern renewable. India is connected systems (wind, small hydro andprobably the only country with a separate biomass cogeneration). These accounts forMinistry of Non-conventional Energy about 3% of India’s installed capacitySources (MNES). The renewable energy contribute to about 1–2% of the totalinstalled capacity was 205.5MW in 1993 generation (due to low capacity factors on(104.6MW small hydro, 39.9MW Wind). renewable). The growth rate has beenThis increased to 2978 MW in 2001 (as on significant (above 30% per year). This has31st March2001) and accounted for almost been facilitated by an enabling policy3% of India’s installed power capacity environment and a supportive government.(MNES, 2001; Annual Reports MNES, Despite the emphasis on extending the2000, 2001, 2002). The growth rate of centralized grid to the rural areas, 78installed renewable power capacity during million rural households (Ministry ofthe period 1993–2001 was 39% per year. Power, 2003b) or 56.5% of ruralDuring the period January 2000–April households are still un electrified. The2001the installed capacity increased from recently passed Electricity Act (2003) has1600MW to 2978MW (an annual growth made it a statutory obligation to supplyrate of 49%).. The major contributors are electricity to all areas including villagessmall hydro 25MW which accounts for and hamlets. The act suggests a two1341MW (45%) and wind which accounts pronged approach encompassing gridfor 1267MW (42%). The installed capacity extension and through standalone Biomass based power generation is The act provides for enabling mechanisms
  7. 7. for service providers in rural areas and 2. The D.G. technologies in Indiaexempts them from licensing obligations. relate to turbines, micro turbines,MNES has been given the responsibility of wind turbines, biomass, andelectrification of 18,000 remote villages gasification of biomass, solarthrough renewable. The ministry has set up photovoltaics and hybrid ambitious target of meeting 10% of the However, most of the decentralizedpower requirements of India from plants are based on wind power,renewable by 2012. In most cases, the hydra power and biomass andareas to be electrified do not have biomass gasification. Thesufficient paying capacity.. The main technology of solar photovoltaic isrecommendations of the Committee are as costly and fuel cells are yet to beunder :- commercialized. 3. In so far as the 18,000 villages in 1. The concept of Distributed remote and inaccessible areas are Generation (D.G.) has been taken concerned, the extension of grid as decentralized generation and power is not going to be distribution of power especially in economical. Decentralized plants the rural areas. In India, the based on biomass, gasification of deregulation of the power sector biomass, hydro power and solar has not made much headway but thermal power and solar the problem of T&D losses, the photovoltaic are the appropriate unreliability of the grid and the solution for these areas. A decision problem of remote and inaccessible with regard to the available options regions have provoked the debate will have to be taken depending on on the subject. the feature of each site/village.
  8. 8. 4. As regards the remaining un systems selected are likely to be electrified villages, the cost-effective. For a large and responsibility should rest primarily dispersed rural country, with the State Governments. The decentralized power generation Govt. of India would, however, act systems, where in electricity is as the facilitator to them. generated at consumer end and5. As people in many of the electrified thereby avoiding transmission and villages are very much dissatisfied distribution costs, offers a better with the quality of grid power, such solution. Gokak Committee had villages also encouraged to go gone into details about the concept ahead with the Distributed of decentralized generation to meet Generation Schemes. These should the needs of rural masses also be the responsibility of the State Governments.6. Though India has made IV. DG TECHNOLOGIES & considerable progress in adopting CHALLENGES IN INDIAN technologies based on renewable SCENERIO sources of energy these are not yet DG technologies are usually categorized as capable of commercial application renewable or non-renewable technologies on a large scale. (shown in table 2). Renewable Most systems are subsidized by the technologies comprise solar either thermal Government or the utility. The or photovoltaic, wind, geothermal or power sector has significant losses ocean. Usually the location and size of and needs to ensure that the DG wind power generators is suitable for
  9. 9. connecting to the distribution network; try of Energy. After a decade, thetherefore it can be considered as DG. department was elevated and convertedHowever, electricity generation from wind into a full-fledged Smalls try. Theusually takes place in wind farms, owned mounting burden of subsidy has also leadby large power generation companies; to the introduction of the new legislationhence these types of generation are usually referred to above. There are a number ofexcluded from DG in the literature and for technologies for distributed generation, thethe same reasons are also not considered detailshere. The internal combustion engines of which are given below:(ICE), combined cycles,combustion turbines, micro turbines and i. The Internal Combustion Engine.fuel cells are all examples of non- ii. Biomassrenewable DG technologies. Among all iii. Turbinesavailable technologies, combustion engines iv. Micro-turbinesand turbines, micro turbines, v. Wind Turbinesfuel cells and photovoltaic play an vi. Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)important role in DG applications [1]. The vii. PhotovoltaicsGovernment of India set up a Commission viii. Fuel Cellsfor Additional Sources of Energy in the ix. Small-Hydro plant.Department of Science and Technology on The Internal Combustion Engine: Thethe lines of the Space Commission and the most important instrument of the D. GAtomic Energy Commission to promote R systems around the world has been the& D activities in the area. In 1982, a Internal Combustion Engine. Hotels, tallseparate department of Non Conventional buildings, hospitals, all over the world useEnergy Sources was created in the Smalls
  10. 10. diesels as a backup. Though the diesel the use of trees, crop residues,engine is efficient, starts up relatively household or industrial residuesquickly, it is not environment friendly and for direct combustion to providehas high O & M costs. Consequently its heat. Animal and human wasteuse in the developed world is limited. In is also included in the definitionIndia, the diesel engine is used very widely for the sakes of convenience. Iton account of the immediate need for undergoes physical processingpower, especially in rural areas, without such as cutting and chipping,much concern either for long-term but retains its solid form.economics or for environment. Biogas is obtained by an i. Biomass: Biomass refers to aerobically digesting organic renewable energy resources material to produce the derived from organic matter, combustible gas methane There such as forest residues, are two common technologies, agricultural crops and wastes, one of fermentation of human wood, wood wastes that are and animal waste in specially capable of being converted to designed digesters, the other of energy. This was the only form capturing methane from of energy that was usefully municipal waste landfill sites. exploited till recently. The Liquid bio fuels, which are used extraction of energy from in place of petroleum derived biomass is split into three liquid fuels, are obtained by distinct categories, solid processing plants seeds or fruits biomass, biogas, and liquid bio of different types like fuels. Solid biomass includes sugarcane, oilseeds or nuts
  11. 11. using various chemical or iii. Micro-turbines: Micro physical processes to produce a turbines are installed combustible liquid fuel. commercially in many Pressing or fermentation is used applications, especially in to produce oils or ethanol from landfills where the quality of industrial or commercial natural gas is low. These are residues such as biogases or rugged and long lasting and from energy crops grown hold promise for Distributed specifically for this purpose. Generation in India. ii. Turbines: Turbines are a iv. Wind-turbines: Wind turbines commercialized power extract energy from moving air technology with sizes ranging and enable an electric generator between hundreds of kilowatts to produce electricity. These to several hundred megawatts. comprise the rotor (blade), the These are designed to burn a electrical generator, a speed wide range of liquid and control system and a tower. gaseous fuels and are capable of These can be used in a duel fuel operation. Turbines distributed generation in a used in distributed generation hybrid mode with solar or otherVary in size between 1-30 MW and their technologies. Research onoperating efficiency is in the range of 24- adaptation of wind turbines for35%. Their ability to adjust output to remote and stand-alonedemand and produce high quality waste applications is receivingheat makes them a popular choice in increasingly greater attentioncombined heat and power applications. and hybrid power systems using
  12. 12. 1-50-kilowatt (kW) wind small,modular, and dish/ design turbines are being developed for systems. generating electricity off the vi. Photovoltaics: Photovoltaic grid system. Wind turbines are power cells are solid state semi also being used as grid conductor devices that convert connected distributed resources. sunlight into direct current Wind turbines are commercially electrical power and the amount available in a variety of sizes of power generated is directly and power ratings ranging from related to the intensity of the one kW to over one MW. These light PV systems are most typically require a Smallmum commonly used for standalone 9-mph average wind speed applications and are sites. commercially available withv. Concentrating Solar Power: capacities ranging between one Various mirror configurations kW to one MW. The systems are used to concentrate the heat are commonly used in India and of the sun to generate electricity can contribute a great deal for for a variety of market rural areas, especially remote applications that range from and inaccessible areas. It can be remote power applications of up of great help in grid connected to 1- 2kW to grid connected applications where the quality applications of 200MW or of power provided by the grid is more. R & D efforts in the area low. This is yet to be proved. of distributed generation High initial cost is a major applications are focused on constraint to large-scale
  13. 13. application of SPV systems. stacks whose sizes can be R&D work has been undertaken varied (from one kW for mobile for cost reduction in SPV cells, applications to 100MW plants modules, and systems besides to add to base load capacity to improvements in operational utility plants) to meet customer efficiency. needs.vii. Fuel Cells: Fuel cells produce viii. Biomass Based Schemes: This direct current electricity using can be considered under three an electromechanical process distinct heads, National Project similar to battery as a result of on Biogas Development, which combustion and the National Programmed on Bio- associated environmental side Mass Power/Cogeneration and effects are avoided. Natural gas Bio-Mass Gasified or coal gas is cleaned in a fuel Programmer. The gas is piped cell and converted to a for use as cooking and lighting hydrogen rich fuel by a fuel in especially designed processor or internal catalyst. stoves and lamps respectively The gas and the air then flow and can also be used for over an anode and a cathode replacing diesel oil in fuel separated by an electrolyte and engines for generation of thereby produces a constant motive power and electricity. supply of DC electricity, which The Floating Gas Holder Type, is converted to high quality AC that is India or KVIC model and power by a power conditioner. Fixed Dome Type which is Fuel cells are combined into made of brick masonry
  14. 14. structure i.e. Deenabandhu weaker sections as well. Biogas is model are among the generally used for motive power and indigenous designs of biogas generation of electricity under the plants. A Bag Type Portable programme in addition to meet the Digester made of rubberized cooking fuel requirement. A total of nylon fabric, suitable for remote 3,901 plants, including 600 night soil and hilly areas, is being based Biogas plants had been installed promoted. The recently up to March 2002. developed methodology of on National Programme on Biomass sight construction of Power/Cogeneration: The Deenabandhu model with Ferro Government of India has initiated a cement, which costs about 10 to National Programme on Biomass 15% less as compared to the Power/Cogeneration. It aims at model constructed with bricks optimum utilization of a variety of and cement, is getting popular biomass materials such as agro- in the Southern States. residues, agro-industrial residues, andThe National Project on Biogas forestry based residues and dedicatedDevelopment was started in 1981- energy plantations for power82.About 33.68 lac families have been generation through the adoption ofbenefited upto March 2002. The latest conversion technologies. TheseCommunity and Institutional Biogas include combustion, incineration,Plants Programme was initiated in pyrolysis, gasification etc. using gas1992-93. In order to achieve recycling turbine, steam turbine, dual fuel engine,the cattle dung available in the villages gas engine or a combination there ofand institutions for the benefit of the either for power generation alone or
  15. 15. cogeneration of more than one energy manufactured in the country. Technology for producing biomass briquettes fromNational Biomass Gasifier Programme: agricultural residues and forest litter atBiomass gasification is the process by both household and industry levels haswhich solid biomass materials are broken been developed. A total capacity of 51.3down using heat to produce a combustible MW has so far been installed, mainl forgas, known as the producer gas. Common stand-alone applications.feedstocks for combustion include wood, ix. Wind Energy: The programmecharcoal, rice husks and coconut shells. was initiated in the year 1983-The producer gas can be used directly in a 84. A market-oriented strategyburner to provide process heat or it can be has been adopted right from theused in IC engines, but it requires cleaning beginning and henceand cooling for the latter application. It can commercial development of thealso be used as a substitute for diesel oil in technology has beenduel fuel engines for mechanical and successfully achieved.electrical applications Scientific assessment of windEncouragement to technologies such as resources throughout thebiomass briquetting and gasification for country and a series of othervarious applications in rural and urban systematic steps have facilitatedareas, and R and D on Biomass Production the emergence of a costand Gasification, are the important effective technology. The windobjectives of the programme. Biomass power potential of the countrygasifier systems of up to 500 kW capacity was initially assessed at 20000based on fuel wood have been MW and reassessed at 45000indigenously developed and being MW subsequently assuming 1%
  16. 16. of land availability for wind Solar Power Programme: The solarpower generation in potential power programme comprises Solarareas. The technical potential Photovoltaic Power Programme and Solarhas been assessed at 13000MW Thermal Power Programmes.assuming 20% grid penetration, Under the Solar Photovoltaicwhich will go up with the Programme:, 27 grid interactive SPVaugmentation of grid capacity projects have been installed, with anin potential States. The Centre aggregate capacity of 2.0 MW in Andhrafor wind energy technology (C- Pradesh, Chandigarh, Karnataka, Punjab,WET) is coordinating the Wind Kerala, Lakshadweep, Madhya Pradesh,Resource Assessment Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, andProgramme with the States and Uttar Pradesh. These are meant for voltageNodal Agencies. Wind diesel support applications in remote sections ofprojects are being taken up in weak grids, peak shaving applications inIsland regions and remote areas public buildings in urban centers and forwhich are dependent on costly saving diesel use in islands. These arediesel for power generation expected to generate and feed over 2.6.Two machines of 50 kW million units of electricity annually to thecapacity each have been respective grids. In addition, ten projects ofinstalled in the first phase of the 900 kW capacity, are under different stagesproject at Sagar Islands in West of implementation. The solar photovoltaicBengal. Similar projects are systems can be used for a variety ofbeing considered for applications, such as ruralLakshadweep and Andaman telecommunications, battery charging, roadand Nicobar Islands. and railway signaling which are non
  17. 17. subsidized. Only 3 MW out of the total distribution level results in severalaggregate capacity of 96 MW (9,80,000 benefits, among which are congestionsystems) is used by the power plants. In so relief, loss reduction, voltage support, peakfar as rural areas are concerned. shaving, and an overall improvement ofHowever, the technology is not yet ripe for energy efficiency, reliability, and powerbeing considered for DG application in quality[16]. The benefits obtained by theIndia, as it is very expensive, and has not introduction of DG should be weighedyet been commercially tried on a large against the costs involved before decidingscale even in the U. S.A. on the useThe technologies referred to above are of DG(shown in Table 3). As DGapplied under various schemes for technologies improve and cost decrease,generation of electricity from renewable their use is expected to risesources of energy in the country. A bird’seye view of the schemes would give a good Installing small-scale distributed DGsinsight into the status of Distributed instead of an aggregated large-scale DGGeneration based on renewable sources of can improve the system reliability indices,energy. depending on the locations of DGs, the number of customers and the sizes of theV. Benefits of distributed generation loads. The index improves if the DGs areUse of distributed generation is one of the located closer to the end of line. However,many strategies electric utilities are the reliability indices improve the mostconsidering to operate their systems in the when the aggregated DG is placed at thederegulated environment. Several DG end of the line [17].technologies are showing promise for this • Most of the benefits of employing DG inapplication. Inclusion of DG at the existing distribution networks have both
  18. 18. economic and technical implications and . Compared to traditionalthey are interrelated. centralized generation, DGThe major technical benefits are: possesses advantages as follows• reduced line losses. [18].• Voltage profile improvement. • Reducing the transmission and• reduced emissions of pollutants. distribution costs, thus reducing energy• increased overall energy efficiency. loss.• enhanced system reliability and security. • Providing black start capability and• improved power quality. spinning reserves, thus improving power• relieved T&D congestion. reliability. The major economic benefits are: • Providing improved security of supply.• deferred investments for upgrades of •Enabling development of sustainable andfacilities. green electricity thus reducing• reduced O&M costs of some DG environmental resources used by centraltechnologies. generation Easy and quicker installation on• enhanced productivity. account of prefabricated standardized• reduced health care costs due to improved components.environment. • Lowering of cost by avoiding long• reduced fuel costs due to increased distance high voltage transmissionoverall efficiency. • Environment friendly where renewable• reduced reserve requirements and the sources are used .associated costs. • Running cost more or less constant over• lower operating costs due to peak the period of time with the use ofshaving. renewable sources .• increased security for critical loads. • Possibility of user-operator participation
  19. 19. due to lesser complexity more most village power applications independability with simple construction, developing countries.and consequent easy operation and (iii) Supplemental Power- Under thismaintenance [19]. model, power generated by the grid isVI. Distributed Power Application augmented with distributed generation forDistributed power technologies are the following reasons: -typically installed for one or more of the a. Standby Power- Under this arrangementfollowing purposes: power availability is assured during grid(i)Overall load reduction – Use of energy outages.efficiency and other energy saving b. Peak shaving – Under this model themeasures for reducing total consumption of power that is locally generated is used froelectricity, sometimes with supplemental reducing the demand for grid electricitypower generation. during the peak periods to avoid the peak(ii) Independence from the grid – Power is demand charges imposed on big electricitygenerated locally to meet all local energy users.needs by ensuring reliable and quality (iv) Net energy sales – Individualpower under two different models. homeowners and entrepreneurs cana. Grid Connected – Grid power is used generate more electricity than they needonly as a back up during failure of and sell their surplus to the grid. Co-maintenance of the onsite generator. generation could fall into this category.b. Off grid – This is in the nature of stand- (v) Combined heat and power - Under thisalone power generation. In order to attain model waste heat from a power generatorself-sufficiency it usually includes energy is captured and used in manufacturingsaving approaches and an energy storage process for space heating, water heatingdevice for back-up power. This includes etc. in order to enhance the efficiency of
  20. 20. fuel utilization. policy vis-à-vis support as well as(vi) Grid support – Power companies resort regulatory mechanism in place is helpingto distributed generation for a wide variety to create conducive atmosphere to achieveof reasons. The emphasis is on meeting target set in this direction.higher peak loads without having to investin infrastructure (line and sub-station IX. REFERENCES :upgrades). [1] A. M. Borbely and J. F. Kreider,Most of the early adopters of distributed Distributed Generation The Powerpower wanted to stay connected to the grid, Paradigm for the Newwhich they used either as a backup or for Millennium. CRC Press, 2001.selling their surplus power to the power [2] “P1547 standard series forcompanies[ 17 ] interconnecting distributed resources with electric power systems,” IEEE, 1547 WorkVII. CONCLUSION Group, Tech. Rep., 2003.India is on right track to pursue [3] Suresh Agrawal, “Distributeddevelopment of Distributed Generation Generation using Renewable Sources ofwith the unbundling of power sector Energy – an Ideal Option for Remoteutilizing captive and co-generation, besides Village Electrification”, Proc. Internationalputting all out effort in harnessing various Himalayan Small Hydropower Summit,forms of new and renewable energy. Dehradun, India, Oct 12-13, 2006, pp. 114-Collective participation of industries, 121.private entrepreneurs, giant Corporations [4] The US Department of Energy, Officehitherto engaged in conventional power of Distributed Energy Resources, onlinedevelopment is the essence of such publications available at:venture. Liberalization of Government, 2003
  21. 21. [5] T. Ackerman, G. Anderson, and L. Business Opportunities, Government ofSoder, “Distributed generation: a India, March2001.definition,” Electric Power System [12]Ministry of Non Conventional EnergyResearch, vol. 57, pp. 195–204, 2001. Sources, 2002. Wind power development[6] The Electric Power Research Institute, in India: Towards global leadership; Newonline publications available at: Delhi, October 2002., 2002. [13]Ministry of Non Conventional Energy[7] B. M. Balmat and A. M. Dicaprio, Sources, Annual Reports, New Delhi,“Electricity market regulations and their 1993, 2000, 2001, 2002.impact on distributed generation,” in Proc. [14]Ministry of Power, 2001. Blueprint forConf. on Electric Utility Deregulation and Power Sector Development,Restructuring and Power Technologies [15]Government of India, New Delhi;(DRPT 2000), London, 2000, pp. 608–613. available at ASCENT,[8] Rodrigo “Dissertation on Renewable 1998. Status of Biomass GasificationEnergy Sources” dec 22 ,2012 in The Technology, India, October 1998;Write Pass Journal.[9]Ministry of Power, 2003a. Annual [16]P. Chiradeja “Benefit of DistributedReport 2002–2003, Government of India, Generation: A Line LossNew Delhi. Reduction Analysis”2005 IEEE/PES[10]Ministry of Power, 2003b. Discussion Transmission and Distribution ConferencePaper on Rural Electrification Policies, & Exhibition: Asia and Pacific Dalian,November 2003, Government of India, ChinaNew Delhi. [17] S.Rahman,M.Pipattanasomporn[11]Ministry of Non Conventional Energy “Reliability Benefits of DistributedSources, 2001. Renewable Energy in India, Generation as a Backup Source” 2009
  22. 22. IEEE Aashish Kumar Bohre,[18] Q. Kejun , Z.Chengake “ Analysis ofthe Environmental Benefits of DistributedGeneration “2008 IEEE[19] S.Mukhopadhyay,B.Singh Aashish Kumar Bohre was born in Distt.“Distributed Generation - Basic Policy, Hoshangabad, India, in 1984. He receivedPerspective Planning, and Achievement so BE degree (2009) from UIT- RGPVfar in India” 2009 IEEE Bhopal, and M-Tech degree (Power System) in 2011 from MANIT, Bhopal. At[20 ] H.D.Mathur “Enhancement of Power the moment he is PhD. scholar at MANIT,System Quality using Distributed Bhopal, India. Email:Generation” 2010 IEEE Conference on and energy (PECcon2010) nov29- Dr. Ganga Agnihotri,dec1 2010 Kuala Lumpur MalaysiaBIOGRAPHIES—Jitendra Singh Bhadoriya, Dr. Ganga Agnihotri received BE degree in Electrical engineering from MACT, Bhopal (1972), the ME degree (1974) andJitendra Singh Bhadoriya was born in PhD degree (1989) from University ofDistt. Bhopal , India, in 1989. He received Roorkee, India. Since 1976 she is withBE degree (2011) from UIT- RGPV Maulana Azad College of Technology,Bhopal in electrical engineering , and at the Bhopal in various positions. Currently shemoment he is an M-Tech (instrumentation) is professor. Her research interest includesscholar at SCHOOL OF Power System Analysis, Power SystemINSTRUMENTATION, Devi Ahilya Optimization and Distribution Operation.University (DAVV) , lndore, India. Email:JITENDRIY@INDIA.COM
  23. 23. Dr. Manisha DubeyDr. Manisha Dubey was born in Jabalpurin India on 15th December 1968. Shereceived her B.E (Electrical), M.Tech.(Power Systems) and Ph.D (ElectricalEngg.) in 1990, 1997 and 2006respectively. She is working as Professor atthe Department of Electrical Engineering,National Institute of