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GRAPHIC INQUIRY:How to use graphics in any classroomFor Rato Bangala Visiting Student TeachersBy Jennifer Alevy,Head LibrarianLincoln School, Kathmandu
Lamb, Annette C., and Daniel Callison. Graphic inquiry. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Libraries Unlimited, 2012. Print.http://covers.booktopia.com.au/big/9781591587453/graphic-inquiry.jpg
VISUAL LITERACY Visual literacy is the ability to understand and use images. This includes to think, learn, and express oneself in terms of images (graphically). Photographs, cartoons, line drawings, diagrams, concept maps, and other visual representations are all important in visual literacy. "Virtual Information Inquiry: Inquiry." Virtual Information Inquiry: Student Information Scientists and Instructional Specialists in the Learning Laboratory. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Aug. 2012. <http://virtualinquiry.com/inquiry/visual.htm>.
VISUAL LITERACY Visual resources are important in all content areas. In social studies, students can learn about history by analyzing historical photographs and posters. Student use photographs to explore scientific processes and relationships. Photographs can stimulate emotions for creative writing.
TEACHING VISUAL LITERACY In Teaching Visual Literacy, Nancy Frey and Douglas Fisher…state that “visual literate learners are able to make connections, determine importance, synthesize information, evaluate and critique. Further, these visual literacies are interwoven with textual ones, so that their interaction forms the basis for a more complete understanding.” (p.4)
GRAPHIC LITERACY Graphic literacy involves more than simply illustrating a term paper. Students build skills by learning how to read, interpret, apply and create graphics. Activities may involve seeking patterns in graphs, categorizing items using graphic organizers, using photos as evidence in an argument, or building diagrams to represent scientific processes. (p.6).
GRAPHIC INQUIRY Graphic inquiry is a cyclical, recursive process of investigation using visual information resources and tools to question, explore, assimilate, infer, and reflect. http://eduscapes.com/sessions/science/inquirylogo1.jpg
GRAPHIC LITERACY “As we think about graphic inquiry and life-long learning, consider how we can provide experiences in school that can be applied to life outside the classroom…mature information scientists are independent thinkers who use visual resources to collect evidence and graphic tools to build effective communications.” (p.17)
GRAPHIC LITERACY “As school, work, and play, graphics can play a role throughout the inquiry process. As you think about graphic literacy….consider the many ways that educators can support visual learning.” (p.18) “Select a topic you‟d like to investigate, a problem you need to solve, or a question that‟s been on your “to do” list. Conduct your own graphic inquiry by placing emphasis on the visual aspects of your investigation. During your investigation, you may read, comprehend, analyze, interpret, use, apply, d esign, and create graphics.” (p.18)
TYPES OF GRAPHICS Charts and Graphs Diagrams Illustrations Maps Organizers Images Symbols
TYPES OF CHARTS AND GRAPHS Activity/Time Chart – Relative events & activities to time Area Graph – Show trends & relationships Bar/Column Graph – Compare data points of distinct items Cosmograph – Uses images to show parts to wholes Line/Area Graph – Trace or compare changes over time Matrix/Table – Visualize data in rows & columns Number Line/Scale – A one-dimensional picture of a line Picture Chart/Pictograph – Images depict quantities Pie/Circle/Donut Chart – Depict how parts are related to wholes Scatter Graph – Visualize patterns using data points Spider/Radar Chart – Show more data on three or more variables Sparkline – Show trends and variations
CHARTS AND GRAPHS Charts usually give information in tabular format using rows and columns. Graphs show how one variable quantity changes in relation to another variable and may show trends
CHARTS AND GRAPHS Questioning & Exploring Think about how a chart might help you get started with an inquiry. Use graphs to identify problems, arrange background information, and organize ideas. Assimilating & Inferring Charts are powerful tools to display data, but it‟s important to select the best type of visual for the job. Table work well for data presented in rows and columns, while pie charts work for showing parts of wholes Reflecting & Sharing Charts can be used in presenting conclusions to others. Online tools such as Create a Graph are useful in creating simple chards and graphs
TYPES OF DIAGRAMS Architectural Drawing – Accurately represents an object Chain/Cycle – Depicts relationships among items Cross Section – Shows how an object would look like if it were sliced Decision Tree – Shows options in decision-making Exploded View – Shows individual pieces of an object Family Tree – Show relationships in a family Floor Plan – Provides an overhead view of a location Flowchart – Shows processes and relationships Graphical Projection – Shows an imaginary 3-dimensional object Schematic – Represents the elements of a system Structure Diagram – Shows the parts that make up the whole Timeline – Shows the progression of time
DIAGRAMS Diagrams often show the relationships among parts and wholes such as the anatomy of the human body or the operation of a machine A simplified visual representation of an object, concept, or idea is often called a diagram The ability to show complex concepts using simple lines and shapes is the key to effective diagrams
DIAGRAMS Questioning & Exploring Diagrams can jumpstart an inquiry by stimulating questions, providing background information, and visualizing problems or procedures. Assimilating & Inferring Diagrams are helpful in providing visual explanations and information. Use diagrams as you look for insights, make comparisons, and build connections between existing knowledge and new information. Ask yourself: how does this diagram help me better understand this object, system, or procedure? Reflecting & Sharing Building a diagram is an excellent way to demonstrate understanding and share this knowledge with others. In addition, use diagrams as a way to reflect on learning and generate new questions.
TYPES OF ILLUSTRATIONS Cartoon Collage – Assemblage of varied forms into one visual Drafting/Technical Drawing – Communicate technical information Drawing – Visuals created by marking a surface Graffiti – Images marked on property Information Graphic – Represents info, data, or knowledge Poster Painting – Process that applies color to surface Printmaking – Impression created from a matrix Sequential Art – Series of images to convey a story Sketch – Quick drawing to record impressions Visualization – Communicates a visual message
ILLUSTRATIONS Drawings, paintings, sketches, and etchings are examples of illustrations. These visual representations are intended to communicate an informational or artistic message Essential ideas sometimes become lost in text heavy communications. Use illustrations along with a few key words to produce memorable messages
ILLUSTRATIONS Questioning & Exploring Use illustrations you find in books, newspapers, and websites to stimulate thinking and questions about a topic. When were these visuals created? How do they reflect a particular time, place, or situation? What questions do the images trigger? Assimilating & Inferring As you examine illustrations, create visual notes such as sketches to remind you of what you‟ve seen and read. Continue to enhance your graphic notes as you find new information. Reflecting & Sharing As you think about what you‟ve learned, go back and revisit illustrations you examined earlier in your investigation. What new questions have emerged?
TYPES OF MAPS Advertising Map – Selective features to Focus attention Cartogram – Map is distorted to convey information Cosmological Map – Represent cultural beliefs about world Military Map – Show events or battle plans Pictorial Map – Reflects a place, but may not be accurate or to scale Projection Map – Flatten out the spherical earth; translate 3D to 2D Propaganda Map – Intend to influence a target audience Reference Map – Show human on environmental details accurately Relief/Tactile Map – Relief maps show 3D; some are also tactile Star/Celestial Map – Show constellations; represents sky view Thematic Map – Portray a pattern of human or environmental data Topographical Map – Show elevation as contour lines
MAPS A map provides a visual representation of an idea showing relationships in space. When you hear the word „map‟ you probably think of geography. Cartography is the practice of creating maps on the Earth including road maps and treasure maps… …however there are may different types of maps. A knowledge domain map is used to visualize information making it easier to understand and access Consider how maps can be used by students to draw inferences Before using a map, try to determine who created the map and why. Was it designed by a well-known cartographer or respected historian? Was it created for advertising or propaganda? Does it exaggerate data? Do the symbols, lines, and colors contribute or distract from the map?
MAPS Questioning & Exploring Use maps to jumpstart inquiry. Maps ignite curiosity, generate questions, visualize patterns of movement, and stimulate brainstorming activities Assimilating & Inferring As you examine maps, think about ways to adapt and build your own maps as a way to organize what you‟re learning. Add notes, symbols, and color to help you record information. Reflecting & Sharing As you think about what you‟ve learned, consider new questions. Think about the many types of maps that could be used to convey data and information. Ask yourself: how could maps show movement or changes over time?
TYPES OF ORGANIZERS Cause/Effect Classification Compare/Contrast Idea Pie KWL Persuasion Map PMI (Edward deBono) Story Web Topicing Venn Diagram Webbing What if?
ORGANIZERS Organizers can be complex or simples Organizers are effective for showing relationships among data, connections like cause and effect, chronologies of events, and comparisons such as the pros and cons of alternative solutions Organizers can take many forms. However the key is selecting the most effective method of structuring the data. Ask yourself: What information needs to be organized? How can visuals convey this structure?
ORGANIZERS Questioning & Exploring Consider how graphic organizers can be used to help you visualize concepts and explore „big ideas.‟ Use organizers to visualize topics and subtopics. Assimilating & Inferring Organizers can provide scaffolding for learning new concepts and assist you in visualizing the relationships among the data and information. Ask yourself: what‟s the best way to organize these ideas? How can a visual help me understand? Reflecting & Sharing Think about how to apply the things you‟ve learned to new situations inside and outside the school setting. Use organizers in real-world settings.
TYPES OF IMAGES Aerial Photography – Images taken from the air of the ground Astrophotography – Images taken of astronomical images Digiscoping – Obtaining photos through a spotting scope or telescope Multi-spectrum Imaging – Light captured beyond the visible light range Macro Photography – A close-up that shows actual size Microscopy Imaging – Using a camera on a microscope Panoramic Photography – Images with a wide field of vision Radar Imaging – Images produced by radar detection Remote Sensing – Visual data from aircraft or satellite Ultrasonography – Visualize muscles and internal organs X-Ray Imaging – A radiographic image is created to show structure Time-lapse Photography – A series of photos take over time
IMAGES Many devices can be used to capture an image, for example a camera for photography Photographs are useful in reflecting real people, places, and things. They capture the moment in time, show a sequence of activities, and provide different perspectives on an event By providing images of changes over time, people can start a dialog about issues such as water use, natural disaster preparation, urban development, and climate change. Different views can facilitate learning for example straight on view, cross-section view, top down view…
IMAGES Questioning & Exploring Images jumpstart inquiry by prompting questions and stimulating comparisons. Photographs serve as useful evidence Assimilating & Inferring Images serve as useful evidence in problem-solving and decision-making, however it‟s important that images are carefully analyzed and evaluated. Ask yourself: what‟s the perspective of the photograph? Why was the photo taken? Are different views available that can be compared? Reflecting & Sharing Images are helpful in sharing ideas and communicating conclusions. Photos taken during the inquiry process can be useful to review progress and justify decisions. Scrapbooks of images are helpful in sharing understandings.
TYPES OF SYMBOLS Avatar – Representations of self for virtual environment Emoticon – Graphic used to convey emotional content Glyph – Graphic used in written language Ideogram/Ideograph – Picture that represents an idea Insignia – Visual representing status or jurisdiction Logo – Graphic forming a trademark or brand Logogram – Uses a visual to represent words Map Symbol – Graphic used on a map to represent a location Musical Notation – Graphics are used to visualize music Network Symbol – Graphic used in networking Pictogram/Pictograph – Image that resembles what it signifies Scientific/Math Symbols – Graphic used to represent a concept
SYMBOLS Semiotics is the science of signs and symbols. Symbols are visuals used to represent ideas, concepts, or other abstractions. They can serve as a common language for giving directions or warnings and are often used to represent groups or causes such as pink ribbon for breast cancer research From culture to culture, symbols and colors may be interpreted differently. A leaf may represent nature to some, but to Canadians it‟s a national symbol. Many of the most common symbols are part of the ISOTYPE – International System of Typographic Picture Education developed by Otto Neurath. A standard set of pictograms are also defined by the international standard ISO 7001. These Public Information Symbols provide a standard so that food handling and chemical hazards are always labeled in the same manner.
SYMBOLS Questioning & Exploring Symbols are useful springboards for inquiry. They can stimulate questions and provide a focus for exploration. They may also be used to organize information and express ideas Assimilating & Inferring Symbols are powerful tools for communication, however it‟s important to have a clear understanding of their meaning. Ask yourself: what‟s the origin of this symbol? What‟s the meaning and how has it been used? How is the symbol like and unlike other symbols? Reflecting & Sharing From scientific notation to map production, symbols are often used to provide communications and share conclusions. Think about the many types of symbols that can be used to share understandings.