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What Motivates Gamers?<br />Jon Radoff<br />Gamification Summit, New York City<br />September 16, 2011<br />
B. F. Skinner<br />  Behaviorism posited      that learning is the key instinct animals have—and that all behaviors result...
Many game designers think of humans as rats in a cage.<br />
The cognitive niche: stories, language, symbols, ideas, <br />theories, thought experiments, simulations… <br />Leaf van B...
The social niche: humans spread across the globe due to our social cooperation, and our social interconnectedness continue...
Digital connections yield social and neural connections.<br />Flickr Image CreditLHijodHuskona<br />
Distribution of Smiling Faces on Facebook<br />Happy people cluster.<br />Unhappy people cluster.<br />SOCIAL NETWORKS AND...
Experiences = More Happiness than Things<br />Leaf van Boven and Thomas Gilovich.  “To Do or to Have? That is the Question...
Distribution of Smiling Faces on Facebook<br />Happy people cluster.<br />Unhappy people cluster.<br />SOCIAL NETWORKS AND...
MarnGrook ball<br />
	Backgammon Board from Ancient Rome<br />					Photo Credit: Ian W Scott<br />
Medieval backgammon players from the Codex Manesse (14th Century Zurich) <br />
Mathiak & Weber (2006),<br />“Toward brain correlates of natural behavior: fMRI during violent video games.” Human Brain M...
Bartle’s Player Motivations<br />Richard Bartle (1996), "Hearts, Clubs, Diamonds, Spades: Players Who suit MUDs,"<br />
Evolution<br />Development<br />Neurons<br />Hormones<br />Seconds<br />Days<br />Years<br />Eons<br />
Evolutionary Gameplay Motivations<br />
Immersion: storytelling, practicing theory of mind, adopting new viewpoints, imagining cause and effect, recognizing patte...
Achievement: mastering skills.  <br />Csikszentmihalyi has created the theory of Flow to explain why people are happy when...
Flickr image by HaagsUitburo.<br />Cooperation: altruism, coordination, coalition-building, grouping.<br />
Competition: for attention, for resources, for recognition, for physical domination, mates, etc.<br />
Thank you!<br />Jon Radoff<br />CEO, Disruptor Beam<br />Email: jradoff AT disruptorbeam.com<br />Twitter: @jradoff<br />
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Transcript of "Gamification summit nyc_2011"

  1. 1. What Motivates Gamers?<br />Jon Radoff<br />Gamification Summit, New York City<br />September 16, 2011<br />
  2. 2. B. F. Skinner<br /> Behaviorism posited that learning is the key instinct animals have—and that all behaviors result from reward reinforcements.<br />
  3. 3. Many game designers think of humans as rats in a cage.<br />
  4. 4.
  5. 5.
  6. 6.
  7. 7. The cognitive niche: stories, language, symbols, ideas, <br />theories, thought experiments, simulations… <br />Leaf van Boven and Thomas Gilovich. “To Do or to Have? That is the Question.” American Psychological Association. 85.6 (2003): 1198. Reprinted with permission.<br />
  8. 8. The social niche: humans spread across the globe due to our social cooperation, and our social interconnectedness continues to grow.<br />Photo Credit alexkess(Flickr)<br />
  9. 9. Digital connections yield social and neural connections.<br />Flickr Image CreditLHijodHuskona<br />
  10. 10. Distribution of Smiling Faces on Facebook<br />Happy people cluster.<br />Unhappy people cluster.<br />SOCIAL NETWORKS AND HAPPINESS
By Nicholas A. Christakis & James H. Fowler<br />
  11. 11. Experiences = More Happiness than Things<br />Leaf van Boven and Thomas Gilovich. “To Do or to Have? That is the Question.” American Psychological Association. 85.6 (2003): 1198. Reprinted with permission.<br />
  12. 12. Distribution of Smiling Faces on Facebook<br />Happy people cluster.<br />Unhappy people cluster.<br />SOCIAL NETWORKS AND HAPPINESS
By Nicholas A. Christakis & James H. Fowler<br />
  13. 13. MarnGrook ball<br />
  14. 14. Backgammon Board from Ancient Rome<br /> Photo Credit: Ian W Scott<br />
  15. 15. Medieval backgammon players from the Codex Manesse (14th Century Zurich) <br />
  16. 16.
  17. 17. Mathiak & Weber (2006),<br />“Toward brain correlates of natural behavior: fMRI during violent video games.” Human Brain Mapping.<br />Research showed that violent as well as prosocial behaviors in video games approximate exposure to natural experiences;<br />Games activate a lot of brain regions!<br />
  18. 18. Bartle’s Player Motivations<br />Richard Bartle (1996), "Hearts, Clubs, Diamonds, Spades: Players Who suit MUDs,"<br />
  19. 19. Evolution<br />Development<br />Neurons<br />Hormones<br />Seconds<br />Days<br />Years<br />Eons<br />
  20. 20. Evolutionary Gameplay Motivations<br />
  21. 21. Immersion: storytelling, practicing theory of mind, adopting new viewpoints, imagining cause and effect, recognizing patterns, appreciating beauty.<br />Flickr Image by Express Monorail<br />
  22. 22. Achievement: mastering skills. <br />Csikszentmihalyi has created the theory of Flow to explain why people are happy when they’re applying skills that they’re good at. Evolutionary explanations for positive psychology are emerging.<br />
  23. 23. Flickr image by HaagsUitburo.<br />Cooperation: altruism, coordination, coalition-building, grouping.<br />
  24. 24. Competition: for attention, for resources, for recognition, for physical domination, mates, etc.<br />
  25. 25. Thank you!<br />Jon Radoff<br />CEO, Disruptor Beam<br />Email: jradoff AT disruptorbeam.com<br />Twitter: @jradoff<br />
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