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Gamification summit nyc_2011 Gamification summit nyc_2011 Presentation Transcript

  • What Motivates Gamers?
    Jon Radoff
    Gamification Summit, New York City
    September 16, 2011
  • B. F. Skinner
    Behaviorism posited that learning is the key instinct animals have—and that all behaviors result from reward reinforcements.
  • Many game designers think of humans as rats in a cage.
  • The cognitive niche: stories, language, symbols, ideas,
    theories, thought experiments, simulations…
    Leaf van Boven and Thomas Gilovich. “To Do or to Have? That is the Question.” American Psychological Association. 85.6 (2003): 1198. Reprinted with permission.
  • The social niche: humans spread across the globe due to our social cooperation, and our social interconnectedness continues to grow.
    Photo Credit alexkess(Flickr)
  • Digital connections yield social and neural connections.
    Flickr Image CreditLHijodHuskona
  • Distribution of Smiling Faces on Facebook
    Happy people cluster.
    Unhappy people cluster.
    SOCIAL NETWORKS AND HAPPINESS
By Nicholas A. Christakis & James H. Fowler
  • Experiences = More Happiness than Things
    Leaf van Boven and Thomas Gilovich. “To Do or to Have? That is the Question.” American Psychological Association. 85.6 (2003): 1198. Reprinted with permission.
  • Distribution of Smiling Faces on Facebook
    Happy people cluster.
    Unhappy people cluster.
    SOCIAL NETWORKS AND HAPPINESS
By Nicholas A. Christakis & James H. Fowler
  • MarnGrook ball
  • Backgammon Board from Ancient Rome
    Photo Credit: Ian W Scott
  • Medieval backgammon players from the Codex Manesse (14th Century Zurich)
  • Mathiak & Weber (2006),
    “Toward brain correlates of natural behavior: fMRI during violent video games.” Human Brain Mapping.
    Research showed that violent as well as prosocial behaviors in video games approximate exposure to natural experiences;
    Games activate a lot of brain regions!
  • Bartle’s Player Motivations
    Richard Bartle (1996), "Hearts, Clubs, Diamonds, Spades: Players Who suit MUDs,"
  • Evolution
    Development
    Neurons
    Hormones
    Seconds
    Days
    Years
    Eons
  • Evolutionary Gameplay Motivations
  • Immersion: storytelling, practicing theory of mind, adopting new viewpoints, imagining cause and effect, recognizing patterns, appreciating beauty.
    Flickr Image by Express Monorail
  • Achievement: mastering skills.
    Csikszentmihalyi has created the theory of Flow to explain why people are happy when they’re applying skills that they’re good at. Evolutionary explanations for positive psychology are emerging.
  • Flickr image by HaagsUitburo.
    Cooperation: altruism, coordination, coalition-building, grouping.
  • Competition: for attention, for resources, for recognition, for physical domination, mates, etc.
  • Thank you!
    Jon Radoff
    CEO, Disruptor Beam
    Email: jradoff AT disruptorbeam.com
    Twitter: @jradoff