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  • Second largest city
  • Manufacturing/industrial anchored neighborhoodsService concentrated in downtown
  • 1970s recession heavily impacted the northeast1980s recession the mid-west was hardest hit
  • 1976 Daley died while in officeTerm completed by Michael Anthony Bilandic
  • David Orr interim (8 days)Term completed by Eugene Sawyer

Chicago Ppp Chicago Ppp Presentation Transcript

  • Overview presented by:Julie RadaJune 28, 2010PUB650PR
  •  1975 – New York City in the midst of a major financial crisis The nation looked to Chicago  Remained stable while urban conditions were deteriorating elsewhere  No municipal labor strife  No budget deficits  No lack of public/private leadership  The envy of other major large cities
  •  1980’s – Chicago’s partnership model had fallen into disrepute  Local press – the “Vietnamization of Chicago”  National media - “Beirut on the Lake” What happened? What is happening?
  •  1920s: Exemplar of nineteenth-century city  Completely transitioned from agricultural to manufacturing basis of wealth  Productive power  Massed population  Industrial technology
  •  1950s – 1970s: Decomposition of industrial base  1957 – private sector jobs peaked at 1.4 million  ±120,000 jobs lost during 1979-83 economic downturn  1983 – 1.1 million jobs  Stockyards & appliance manufacturing disappeared  Steel & fabricated metals dropped  Machine dye, tools, and food processing declined
  •  1950s – 1970s: Decomposition of industrial base (continued)  Service sector increased  Industrial firms declined by 30%  Manufacturing employment fell more than 40% 1977 – 1983 change in property tax base:  26% decline in industrial property assessment  50% increase in commercial component
  •  1973-76 recession – Midwest had lowest unemployment rates through 1978 1980-83 recession – Chicago was the most severely affected area Employment rate dropped from 60% in the 1960s to 45% in 1983
  •  Impact to Chicago business community  Collapse of International Harvester, the Continental Illinois Bank, First Federal Savings, as well as several steel firms  Losses to merger/acquisitions, ownership changes or corporate relocation: Marshall Field, Montgomery Ward, Sunbeam, Chemetron, Fansteel, Transunion, an d Northwest Industries  Old families, wealth, and corporate traditions faded  Major industrialists, retailers, and packers departed  New wealth and power derived from real estate interests and financial exchanges
  •  1950: Population peaked at 3.6 million  1950s -2%  1960s -5%  1970s -10% 1982: Population fell below 3 million  lowest in 60 years  Los Angeles replaced Chicago as second largest city in the nation
  •  1923: Polish, Irish, German, Scandinavian, and Eastern European 1950 – 1970: Population remained stable in size, but underwent change in dynamics  Out-migration of predominantly white, middle- class  Immigration from the South, Puerto Rico, Mexico and Asia
  •  1970s: population became smaller, more black, and more poor  White population dropped by 600,000 (a reduction from the 700,000 out-migration during 1960s)  Black population increased from 33% to 40%  Hispanic composition rose to 14%  Number of residents living below the poverty line grew by nearly 40%
  •  2006-2008 American Community Survey  Non-Hispanic Whites 31.5%  Black/African American 34.6%  Hispanic/Latino 27.8% 2000 Census  19.6% of the population lived below the poverty line
  •  The ward system  Council composed of aldermen ▪ One from each of 50 wards ▪ Elected on nonpartisan basis
  •  The machine  Irish Catholic dominance 1933 – 1979 (46 years)  The Daley era – 1955 – 1976 (21 years) ▪ Public-private partnerships ▪ Strengthened mayor’s role in city government ▪ Upgraded municipal services ▪ Mutual self-interest with business and labor elites ▪ Patronage benefitted ward committeemen ▪ Effective political-government-private sector interest group system ▪ Highly personal system dependent upon interpersonal skills as well as formal powers of public office
  •  Shift in socioeconomic influences  1950s & 1960s: Political divisions ran along party lines and socioeconomic differences ▪ Lower classes in inner-city wards supported the machine ▪ Outlying middle-class supported Republicans and independent challenges  Late 1960s into 1970s: Race began to replace class and party as basic political divisions ▪ The most racially threatened White wards backed the organization against Black disaffection with the party ▪ Partisan labels became increasingly meaningless
  •  Shift in socioeconomic influences (continued)  Signs of change ▪ 1965-66: Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s open-housing marches ▪ 1968: West Side riots ▪ Anti-Vietnam demonstrations during 1968 Democratic Party Convention ▪ Restlessness of Young Turks within Democratic Party ▪ Defection of Daley’s newspaper support ▪ Neighborhood discontent over downtown focus of City Hall ▪ The negative impact to areas of the city as a result of a changing urban economy
  •  Shift in socioeconomic influences (continued)  1979: Administration paralyzed by worst snowstorm in city history ▪ Coalition of angry Blacks, lakefront liberals, and dissident white ethnic groups united against City Hall ▪ Elected Jane Byrne mayor, ending the Machine’s domination ▪ Byrne remained aligned with segments of the old machine
  •  Shift in socioeconomic influences (continued)  1983: Harold Washington elected as first Black mayor ▪ Washington declared the machine “to be dead” ▪ White politicians seized control of the City Council, resulting in “Council Wars” ▪ Served until his death in 1987
  •  1989 – present: Mayor Richard M. Daley
  •  Historical  Rebuilt city after the 1871 Chicago fire  Reversed the flow of the Chicago River  World’s Columbian Exposition in 1893  1909 Burnham plan sponsored by Commercial Club of Chicago – economic and physical development  1933-34 Century of Progress
  •  Machine Era  Chicago 21 / Dearborn Park Project helped preserve the Loop (Chicago’s central business district)  Possessed basic ingredients for successful public- private partnerships: ▪ Participatory civic culture ▪ Community vision ▪ Effective civic organizations ▪ Key group network ▪ Civic entrepreneurs ▪ Policy continuity
  •  Machine Era (continued)  Grass-roots reaction against “downtown attention”  Growing demand for partnerships that address neighborhood development, community services, housing and jobs
  •  Machine Era (continued)  1992 World’s Fair ▪ Gained momentum under Mayor Jane Byrne in 1980 ▪ Enlisted support from Chicago’s top chief executives and officials of major newspapers, labor unions, financial institutions, and city, state, and Federal governments ▪ Tens of millions of dollars expended for architectural renderings, intergovernmental accords, planning and feasibility studies, affirmative-action agreements, marketing and numerous public hearings
  •  Machine Era (continued)  1992 World’s Fair (continued) ▪ Perceived as an answer to infrastructure and unemployment problems ▪ Would be the culmination of the city’s transformation from a predominantly industrial economy to an international service center ▪ Failed due to lack of leadership, shared vision, and trust
  •  Post Machine  Commercial Club of Chicago ▪ Business-led task forces to capitalize on economic growth opportunities ▪ Chicagoland Enterprise Center ▪ Enhance small business access to managerial and financial resources ▪ Financial Planning Committee ▪ Develop a strategic plan for Chicago’s fiscal stability ▪ Information Industry Council ▪ Promote the area’s information-telecommunications position
  •  Post Machine (continued)  Chicago United ▪ Coalition of black, white, and Hispanic business leaders formed in the 1960s in response to urban upheavals ▪ School stabilization, minority purchasing, summer youth employment, and overall urban economic development  Chicago Central Area Committee ▪ Since 1950s had focused on the well-being of the central business district ▪ Redefined its master plan to include adjacent neighborhood development
  •  Post Machine (continued)  Chicago Energy Savers Fund ▪ Utilities response to more deregulated environment ▪ Promotes housing preservation and energy conservation  Community Equity Corporation ▪ Illinois Bell in partnership with local foundations ▪ Provides equity for small businesses in Chicago’s neighborhoods  Chicago Association of Neighborhood Development Organizations (CANDO) ▪ Key linkage in business-community partnerships
  •  Post Machine (continued)  Additional issue specific partnerships: ▪ Rehabilitation lending (housing) ▪ Public schools and human resource development ▪ Rebirth of civic groups having narrow focus and limited in effectiveness
  •  “Chicago is a study of contrasts – ethnic diversity and racial tensions, parochialism and internationalism, individualism and bold collective actions, old and new politics. Its transition has been noisier, livelier, and tougher than the transitions in other cities. Opportunities have been missed in Chicago, but more promising and perhaps durable foundations are emerging.” (Haider, p.12)