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Human Interaction, Social Protocols and Collaborative Applications
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Human Interaction, Social Protocols and Collaborative Applications

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  • 1. Human Interaction, Social Protocols and Collaborative Applications (http://agws.dit.upm.es/Isabel/other/) Prof. Juan Quemada <jquemada@dit.upm.es> UPM - Universidad Politécnica de Madrid Wetice 2008, 23rd June 2008, Rome
  • 2. Social Intelligence* Humans are fundamentally social beings “We are wired to connect with others” We have a natural disposition to Empathy, cooperation, group work, altruism How does our social brain works on the Internet? *”Social Intelligence: The New Science of Human Relationships, by Daniel Goleman Prof. Juan Quemada Wetice 2008, 23rd June 2008, Rome 2
  • 3. The last 50 cms to the user Can we really connect with others over the Internet? And feel that there is somebody at the other side What is missing in the last 50 cms to the user? Technology, protocols, applications, etc. Or a sense of social linkage & empathy? Prof. Juan Quemada Wetice 2008, 23rd June 2008, Rome 3
  • 4. Social Protocols (other definitions) Standards of polite behaviour (CSCW) Netiquette: Conventions for correct use of Internet Technology Norms that enable to express social capabilities Including trust relationships XFN (Friend of a Friend) based Web annotations for incremental creation of social networks …… Prof. Juan Quemada Wetice 2008, 23rd June 2008, Rome 4
  • 5. Social Protocols (this view) Social protocols are part of our “Social Intelligence” Enabling us to create successful groups and societies Social protocols are Explicit representations of Interaction rules used in human groups and societies Social protocols map easily into our mental models of group interaction Triggering behavioural and cognitive human processes Prof. Juan Quemada Wetice 2008, 23rd June 2008, Rome 5
  • 6. The Collaborative Floor Collaboration on the Internet traditionally empasizes (floor) control rights We must rethink the floor (PC, PDA, Mobile, ..) as a place for human interaction As humans interact using Social protocols let’s do “Social Protocol Based Design” Design Prof. Juan Quemada Wetice 2008, 23rd June 2008, Rome 6
  • 7. The Isabel Application Isabel development started in 1993 For supporting distributed realisation of ABC93-6 RACE Advanced Broadband Communication Summer Schools Goal: Interaction across remote auditoriums similar to co-located Isabel develops a novel context aware service idea, where Interactions are context dependent Floor control manages context and interaction at diferent levels Isabel services were developed using Social Protocol Based Design Prof. Juan Quemada Wetice 2008, 23rd June 2008, Rome 7
  • 8. ABC´96 Iceland Ottawa Oslo Stockolm Groningen Berlin Paris Brussels Basel U.Linz Geneva Aveiro Turin Madrid Athens Naples - 4 day event in June 1996 with ~20 remote sites - Terrestrial and satellite ATM 6Mbit/s connections - Sites with speakers: Aveiro, Berlin, Brussels, Madrid, Naples - Other Sites: Athens, Barcelona, Bern, Den Haag, Linz, Oslo, Ottawa, Paris, Rejkiavik, Rome, Turin, ... Prof. Juan Quemada Wetice 2008, 23rd June 2008, Rome
  • 9. Defining Isabel services (Step 1) Identification of the different types of interactions Called Interaction Modes (IM) Feedback from events was useful to identify and tune IMs Examples different context during a congress a presentation, a question round or a panel discussion A different Interaction Mode is assigned for each one The target activities have been Congresses (program driven events) More informal meetings Classrooms But there are other Prof. Juan Quemada Wetice 2008, 23rd June 2008, Rome 9
  • 10. Defining Isabel services (Step 2) Define for each Interaction Mode Context and Interaction Model Context definition: Unique visual configuration Interaction Model definition Identification of existing roles Chair, speaker, attendee Identification of interaction events Hand raising, turn giving, time signalling, … Prof. Juan Quemada Wetice 2008, 23rd June 2008, Rome 10
  • 11. Defining Isabel services (Step 3) Implementation context and model in Isabel The context is introduced with a control protocol Configures all Isabel terminals with the same visual layout The Model has two floor control levels Level 1: Interaction mode change The panel for IM change is activated only in the control sites Level 2: Intra IM control Only sites with associated participation role will have control buttons and open audio and video channels Prof. Juan Quemada Wetice 2008, 23rd June 2008, Rome 11
  • 12. Evolution of Isabel Services Tele-conference (ABC’93-96): Congress realisation Script driven centralized floor Only way to assure program delivery Tele-meeting (Tecodis RACE Proj. 96-98): Enterprise project meetings Easy to use distributed floor Tele-class (Vodafone Master 98-00): Distributed classrooms with semi-centralized control Control by lecturer or operator Services have similar IMs, but floor control models differ Prof. Juan Quemada Wetice 2008, 23rd June 2008, Rome 12
  • 13. Interactionist School “Interactionists characterize the world in terms of sequences of fleeting actions where each is seen as a response to what came before and as a stimulus to what comes afterwards”* * H. Sacks, 1995, Lectures in Conversation, Cambridge Mass. * D. Gibson, 2005, Taking Turns and Talking Ties: Networks and Conversational Interaction, AJS Volume 110 Number 6 (may 2005): 1561-97. Prof. Juan Quemada Wetice 2008, 23rd June 2008, Rome 13
  • 14. Social Protocol Definition “Action (event, signal, message, ..) driven human interaction and context awareness rules to support effective group work or behaviour” Prof. Juan Quemada Wetice 2008, 23rd June 2008, Rome 14
  • 15. The model Social protocols can be modeled with: Context dependent event driven models Context dependent EFSMs (Extended Finite State Machines) The context is signaled to the user by some side message Usually of visual nature, but not only Participants must feel to be in the context The interaction is driven by human generated events or actions Voice messages, written messages, .. Visible actions, graphics, video, .. Technological interactions like mouse clicks, typed messages, .. Etc. Prof. Juan Quemada Wetice 2008, 23rd June 2008, Rome 15
  • 16. Context issues and types What is the mininum granularity level of Context and interaction Is it the P-shift (participation shift) of interactionists? Social protocols need a complex hierarchy or space of contexts Cultural dimension Synchronous or asynchronous Social, group, interpersonal, .. Activity dimension Interaction type Etc. Prof. Juan Quemada Wetice 2008, 23rd June 2008, Rome 16
  • 17. Interaction Actions Many types of interactions actions exist Speech based interaction Verbal messages of many kinds Visual interaction Based on: sign language, gestures, images, viewgraphs, .. Written interaction Based on: documents, editors, viewgraphs, … ……. Mapping of human interaction into tool state change is not easy Can include multimedia information and configurations Prof. Juan Quemada Wetice 2008, 23rd June 2008, Rome 17
  • 18. Example: Question IM EFSM Model 1) 3 actions mapped as panel clicks: EFSM language explanation: Any.RequestTurn, Chair.GiveTurn & Chair.ResetTurn Any.RequestTurn (SiteX) / Signal (Yellow, SiteX) 2) Additional actions occur as audio visual msg exchange: dialogue among speaker and Means: Any site can request turn. If person asking question, but have not been site X requests it, his name will be made explicit transitions, for simplicity. marked yellow in requests panel. Chair.GiveTurn (SiteX) . / Show_Video (Position2, SiteX) Any.RequestTurn (SiteX) Means: Only site with Chair role can Speaker / Signal (Yellow, SiteX) select video of requesting site. If selected 2nd video will be shown. Chair.ResetTurn Chair.GiveTurn (SiteX) / Hide_Video (Position2) / Show_Video (Position2, SiteX) Chair.GiveTurn (SiteX) Speaker Any.RequestTurn (SiteX) / Show_Video (Position2, SiteX) & / Signal (Yellow, SiteX) Question Prof. Juan Quemada Wetice 2008, 23rd June 2008, Rome 18
  • 19. Asynchronous Interaction Asynchronous interaction uses frequently The conversational protocol Spoken conversations Writing letters Sending emails Blog posting The basic interaction pattern of the conversational protocol is: Send message to person or group Then wait for answers or new messages It seems that the protocol is reused over new technologies Written language, clay, papyrus, paper or even spoken language Were also new technologies at some point of time Prof. Juan Quemada Wetice 2008, 23rd June 2008, Rome 19
  • 20. Collaborative Web tool design Folder based project repositories Based on rational order (not on a social protocol) We interact with the filing system not with persons Conversational protocol based project repositories Participants just post contributions to the repository As if they where posting to a blog Participants engage in conversations with other persons Regarding to the posts made by other members Group activity is easier to follow It is based on human interactions For example, a post by Barbara is answered by Andrew Prof. Juan Quemada Wetice 2008, 23rd June 2008, Rome 20
  • 21. Wikis Wikis are based also on social interaction Basic operation: file change by member of group It is an explicit human action we perceive as such It is not just a change of the file Interaction occurs with members of the group Wikis have also complex community management Wikipedia community management Has very complex structure and interrelations behind Prof. Juan Quemada Wetice 2008, 23rd June 2008, Rome 21
  • 22. Conclusions Social protocols explicit person to person interaction Which map into our mental models of group interaction In order to design human interaction aware applications Goal: Make users feel that there is somebody at the other side Social protocol based tool design methodology User perceived tool state changes should be associated only with human interactions Technology is only a means to interact with others Tool events must make persons behind explicit Identifying clearly the author(s) and relevant attributes Context changes must be made explicit with a side message Always use human oriented presentation formats Prof. Juan Quemada Wetice 2008, 23rd June 2008, Rome 22
  • 23. Further work Taxonomy of main collaborative social protocols For technology mediated interactions For example How many conversational protocols exist? Are similar protocols behind spoken conversations, letter writing, email, ..? What are the various types of turn management protocols? Is workflow automation based on social protocols? Is it a rationale procedure which needs a social reformulation? Formal models of social protocols should be developed With the same role as computer protocol models They helped in understanding them and developing implementations Prof. Juan Quemada Wetice 2008, 23rd June 2008, Rome 23
  • 24. Thanks Questions?