Heise; Loosen; Reimer; Schmidt: Comparing attitudes and expectations towards audience participation in news journalism. ICA London, June 21st 2013
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Heise; Loosen; Reimer; Schmidt: Comparing attitudes and expectations towards audience participation in news journalism. ICA London, June 21st 2013

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Presentation at the International Communication Association's 63rd annual conference "Challenging Communication Research", June 21st 2013, London

Presentation at the International Communication Association's 63rd annual conference "Challenging Communication Research", June 21st 2013, London

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Heise; Loosen; Reimer; Schmidt: Comparing attitudes and expectations towards audience participation in news journalism. ICA London, June 21st 2013 Heise; Loosen; Reimer; Schmidt: Comparing attitudes and expectations towards audience participation in news journalism. ICA London, June 21st 2013 Presentation Transcript

  • “What  is  it  good  for?  Absolutely  nothing!?”      Comparing  a+tudes  and  expecta3ons  of  journalists  and  users  towards  audience  par3cipa3on  in  news  journalism  Nele  Heise,  Wiebke  Loosen,  Julius  Reimer,  Jan-­‐Hinrik  Schmidt  @jpub20team            ICA  |  London  |  June  21st  2013    
  • Source:  Loosen  &  Schmidt  2012:  874  Audience  par:cipa:on  in  journalism  Audience  Inclusion  performance  Inclusion  expecta:ons  Inclusion  performance  Features  f.  audience  par3cipa3on  Work  process/rou3nes  Journalis3c  output/products  Inclusion  expecta:ons  Journalis3c  role  concep3on  Images  of  the  audience  Strategic  ra3onales  Journalists  Par3cipatory  prac3ces  Degree  of  community  orienta3on  Mo3va3ons  for  pa3cipa3on  Expecta3ons  concerning  impact/influence  of  audience  par3cipa3on  on  journalism  2  
  • Source:  Loosen  &  Schmidt  2012:  874  Audience  par:cipa:on  in  journalism  Audience  Inclusion  performance  Inclusion  expecta:ons  Inclusion  performance  Features  f.  audience  par3cipa3on  Work  process/rou3nes  Journalis3c  output/products  Inclusion  expecta:ons  Journalis3c  role  concep3on  Images  of  the  audience  Strategic  ra3onales  Journalists  Par3cipatory  prac3ces  Degree  of  community  orienta3on  Mo3va3ons  for  pa3cipa3on  Expecta3ons  concerning  impact/influence  of  audience  par3cipa3on  on  journalism  3  Inclusion  distance  Inclusion  level  
  • Source:  Loosen  &  Schmidt  2012:  874  Audience  par:cipa:on  in  journalism  Audience  Inclusion  performance  Inclusion  performance  (Expected)  inclusion  expecta:ons  Journalists  Inclusion  level  Inclusion  distance  4  Inclusion  level  (Expected)  inclusion  expecta:ons  3.  Assumed  importance  of  par1cipatory  func1ons  Importance  of  par3cipatory  func3ons  2.  Self  image  of  journalis3c  role   External  image  of  journalis1c  role  1.  Assumed  mo1va1ons    Mo3va3ons  for  par3cipa3on  4.  General  assessment  of  part.:  •  Strategic  ra3onales  •  Impact  on  journalism  General  assessment  of  part.:  •  Strategic  ra3onales  •  Impact  on  journalism  
  • In-­‐depth  interviews   Standardized  online  surveys  Content/feature  analyses  Journalists   n  =  10    leading  editors  TV  /  online  2x  TV  /  2x  online  managing  editor  2x  social  media  editor  2x  „mul3media  assistant“  [=  community  manager]  n  =  63  out  of  130  people  in  editorial  staff  of  Tagesschau  and  tagesschau.de  Par3cipatory  features        &  social  media  profiles    Integra3on  of  UGC  &  audience  in  8  p.m.  newscast  (n=8)    User  comments  on  Meta,  Facebook,  blog  (n=350)  Audience   n  =  6    with  varying  degrees  of  engagement    n  =  4.686  random  sample  of  tagesschau.de  users;  nth-­‐visitor  method  Methods  5        Example  here:  1st  case  study  at  the  Tagesschau  (newscast)  4  case  studies:   TV   Print  Informa:on  oriented   daily  newscast   daily  newscast  Debate  oriented   weekly  poli1cal  TV  talk   weekly  poli1cal  TV  talk  
  • Case  study  1  of  4:  the  Tagesschau  6  • Main  German  evening  newscast  • Up  to  10  mio.  viewers  (33%  market  share)  • Since  1952  • Produced  by  public  service  broadcaster  tagesschau.de  1996  YouTube  2006  TwiXer  2007  Blog  2008  Comment.  sec:on  “Meta”  2009  Facebook  2010  Google+  2012  Discussion  boards  2004  +  non-­‐public  features:  audience  mail  (leners,  e-­‐mail),  viewers‘  calls  
  • 1.  To  have  journalists  be  present  (and  responsive)  on  social  media  2.  To  be  able  to  provide  own  material  (text,  pictures,  videos)  for  news  repor3ng  3.  To  have  a  plaporm  for  discussing  the  quality  of  news  repor3ng  (agenda,  form,  tone  etc.)  4.  To  get  informa3on  on  editorial  rou3nes/prac3ces/decisions  5.  To  be  able  to  forward/recommend  journalis3c  content  fast  and  easily  to  friends  and  family  6.  To  be  able  to  suggest  topics  for  repor3ng  7.  To  be  able  to  comment/rate  journalis3c  items  8.  To  make  transparent  how  many  other  people  view/comment  certain  stories***  9.  To  be  able  to  contact/discuss  with  editorial  staff  directly  10.  To  discuss  the  topics  of  news  repor3ng***  11.  To  publicly  show  their/my  anachment  to  the  Tagesschau***  12.  To  get  addi3onal  informa3on  on  the  sources  of  a  journalis3c  item***  13.  To  be  taken  seriously  by  journalists***  14.  To  have  editorial  staff  introduced  to  them/me***  15.  To  be  able  to  interact  and/or  make  contact  with  other  viewers/users  (and  exchange  opinions)***  5-­‐point-­‐Likert-­‐scale  with  1  =  ”Completely  unimportant”  to  5  =  ”Very  important”;    6  =  ”Don’t  know  /  Can’t  say”  (excluded  for  calcula1on  of  mean).  //  ***  p  <  .001  (t-­‐test)  7  Findings:  (assumed)  importance  of  par:cipatory  func:ons  15  14  13  12  11  10  9  8  7  6  5  4  3  2  1  11,522,533,544,551 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5ActualimportanceforusersImportance for users as assumed by journalists
  • 1.  To  have  journalists  be  present  (and  responsive)  on  social  media  2.  To  be  able  to  provide  own  material  (text,  pictures,  videos)  for  news  repor3ng  3.  To  have  a  plaporm  for  discussing  the  quality  of  news  repor3ng  (agenda,  form,  tone  etc.)  4.  To  get  informa3on  on  editorial  rou3nes/prac3ces/decisions  5.  To  be  able  to  forward/recommend  journalis3c  content  fast  and  easily  to  friends  and  family  6.  To  be  able  to  suggest  topics  for  repor3ng  7.  To  be  able  to  comment/rate  journalis3c  items  8.  To  make  transparent  how  many  other  people  view/comment  certain  stories***  9.  To  be  able  to  contact/discuss  with  editorial  staff  directly  10.  To  discuss  the  topics  of  news  repor3ng***  11.  To  publicly  show  their/my  anachment  to  the  Tagesschau***  12.  To  get  addi3onal  informa3on  on  the  sources  of  a  journalis3c  item***  13.  To  be  taken  seriously  by  journalists***  14.  To  have  editorial  staff  introduced  to  them/me***  15.  To  be  able  to  interact  and/or  make  contact  with  other  viewers/users  (and  exchange  opinions)***  5-­‐point-­‐Likert-­‐scale  with  1  =  ”Completely  unimportant”  to  5  =  ”Very  important”;    6  =  ”Don’t  know  /  Can’t  say”  (excluded  for  calcula1on  of  mean).  //  ***  p  <  .001  (t-­‐test)  8  Findings:  (assumed)  importance  of  par:cipatory  func:ons  15  14  13  12  11  10  9  8  7  6  5  4  3  2  1  11,522,533,544,551 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5ActualimportanceforusersImportance for users as assumed by journalists
  • 1.  To  have  journalists  be  present  (and  responsive)  on  social  media  2.  To  be  able  to  provide  own  material  (text,  pictures,  videos)  for  news  repor3ng  3.  To  have  a  plaporm  for  discussing  the  quality  of  news  repor3ng  (agenda,  form,  tone  etc.)  4.  To  get  informa3on  on  editorial  rou3nes/prac3ces/decisions  5.  To  be  able  to  forward/recommend  journalis3c  content  fast  and  easily  to  friends  and  family  6.  To  be  able  to  suggest  topics  for  repor3ng  7.  To  be  able  to  comment/rate  journalis3c  items  8.  To  make  transparent  how  many  other  people  view/comment  certain  stories***  9.  To  be  able  to  contact/discuss  with  editorial  staff  directly  10.  To  discuss  the  topics  of  news  repor3ng***  11.  To  publicly  show  their/my  anachment  to  the  Tagesschau***  12.  To  get  addi3onal  informa3on  on  the  sources  of  a  journalis3c  item***  13.  To  be  taken  seriously  by  journalists***  14.  To  have  editorial  staff  introduced  to  them/me***  15.  To  be  able  to  interact  and/or  make  contact  with  other  viewers/users  (and  exchange  opinions)***  5-­‐point-­‐Likert-­‐scale  with  1  =  ”Completely  unimportant”  to  5  =  ”Very  important”;    6  =  ”Don’t  know  /  Can’t  say”  (excluded  for  calcula1on  of  mean).  //  ***  p  <  .001  (t-­‐test)  9  Findings:  (assumed)  importance  of  par:cipatory  func:ons  15  14  13  12  11  10  9  8  7  6  5  4  3  2  1  11,522,533,544,551 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5ActualimportanceforusersImportance for users as assumed by journalists
  • 1.  To  have  journalists  be  present  (and  responsive)  on  social  media  2.  To  be  able  to  provide  own  material  (text,  pictures,  videos)  for  news  repor3ng  3.  To  have  a  plaporm  for  discussing  the  quality  of  news  repor3ng  (agenda,  form,  tone  etc.)  4.  To  get  informa3on  on  editorial  rou3nes/prac3ces/decisions  5.  To  be  able  to  forward/recommend  journalis3c  content  fast  and  easily  to  friends  and  family  6.  To  be  able  to  suggest  topics  for  repor3ng  7.  To  be  able  to  comment/rate  journalis3c  items  8.  To  make  transparent  how  many  other  people  view/comment  certain  stories***  9.  To  be  able  to  contact/discuss  with  editorial  staff  directly  10.  To  discuss  the  topics  of  news  repor3ng***  11.  To  publicly  show  their/my  anachment  to  the  Tagesschau***  12.  To  get  addi3onal  informa3on  on  the  sources  of  a  journalis3c  item***  13.  To  be  taken  seriously  by  journalists***  14.  To  have  editorial  staff  introduced  to  them/me***  15.  To  be  able  to  interact  and/or  make  contact  with  other  viewers/users  (and  exchange  opinions)***  5-­‐point-­‐Likert-­‐scale  with  1  =  ”Completely  unimportant”  to  5  =  ”Very  important”;    6  =  ”Don’t  know  /  Can’t  say”  (excluded  for  calcula1on  of  mean).  //  ***  p  <  .001  (t-­‐test)  10  Findings:  (assumed)  importance  of  par:cipatory  func:ons  15  14  13  12  11  10  9  8  7  6  5  4  3  2  1  11,522,533,544,551 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5ActualimportanceforusersImportance for users as assumed by journalists
  • 11  15  14  13  12  11  10  9  8  7  6  5  4  3  2  1  11,522,533,544,551 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5ActualimportanceforusersImportance for users as assumed by journalistsFindings:  (assumed)  importance  of  par:cipatory  func:ons  1.  To  have  journalists  be  present  (and  responsive)  on  social  media  2.  To  be  able  to  provide  own  material  (text,  pictures,  videos)  for  news  repor3ng  3.  To  have  a  plaporm  for  discussing  the  quality  of  news  repor3ng  (agenda,  form,  tone  etc.)  4.  To  get  informa3on  on  editorial  rou3nes/prac3ces/decisions  5.  To  be  able  to  forward/recommend  journalis3c  content  fast  and  easily  to  friends  and  family  6.  To  be  able  to  suggest  topics  for  repor3ng  7.  To  be  able  to  comment/rate  journalis3c  items  8.  To  make  transparent  how  many  other  people  view/comment  certain  stories***  9.  To  be  able  to  contact/discuss  with  editorial  staff  directly  10.  To  discuss  the  topics  of  news  repor3ng***  11.  To  publicly  show  their/my  anachment  to  the  Tagesschau***  12.  To  get  addi3onal  informa3on  on  the  sources  of  a  journalis3c  item***  13.  To  be  taken  seriously  by  journalists***  14.  To  have  editorial  staff  introduced  to  them/me***  15.  To  be  able  to  interact  and/or  make  contact  with  other  viewers/users  (and  exchange  opinions)***  5-­‐point-­‐Likert-­‐scale  with  1  =  ”Completely  unimportant”  to  5  =  ”Very  important”;    6  =  ”Don’t  know  /  Can’t  say”  (excluded  for  calcula1on  of  mean).  //  ***  p  <  .001  (t-­‐test)  
  • 1.  To  have  journalists  be  present  (and  responsive)  on  social  media  2.  To  be  able  to  provide  own  material  (text,  pictures,  videos)  for  news  repor3ng  3.  To  have  a  plaporm  for  discussing  the  quality  of  news  repor3ng  (agenda,  form,  tone  etc.)  4.  To  get  informa3on  on  editorial  rou3nes/prac3ces/decisions  5.  To  be  able  to  forward/recommend  journalis3c  content  fast  and  easily  to  friends  and  family  6.  To  be  able  to  suggest  topics  for  repor3ng  7.  To  be  able  to  comment/rate  journalis3c  items  8.  To  make  transparent  how  many  other  people  view/comment  certain  stories***  9.  To  be  able  to  contact/discuss  with  editorial  staff  directly  10.  To  discuss  the  topics  of  news  repor3ng***  11.  To  publicly  show  their/my  anachment  to  the  Tagesschau***  12.  To  get  addi3onal  informa3on  on  the  sources  of  a  journalis3c  item***  13.  To  be  taken  seriously  by  journalists***  14.  To  have  editorial  staff  introduced  to  them/me***  15.  To  be  able  to  interact  and/or  make  contact  with  other  viewers/users  (and  exchange  opinions)***  12  15  14  13  12  11  10  9  8  7  6  5  4  3  2  1  11,522,533,544,551 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5ActualimportanceforusersImportance for users as assumed by journalistsFindings:  (assumed)  importance  of  par:cipatory  func:ons  5-­‐point-­‐Likert-­‐scale  with  1  =  ”Completely  unimportant”  to  5  =  ”Very  important”;    6  =  ”Don’t  know  /  Can’t  say”  (excluded  for  calcula1on  of  mean).  //  ***  p  <  .001  (t-­‐test)  
  • 1.  To  have  journalists  be  present  (and  responsive)  on  social  media  2.  To  be  able  to  provide  own  material  (text,  pictures,  videos)  for  news  repor3ng  3.  To  have  a  plaporm  for  discussing  the  quality  of  news  repor3ng  (agenda,  form,  tone  etc.)  4.  To  get  informa3on  on  editorial  rou3nes/prac3ces/decisions  5.  To  be  able  to  forward/recommend  journalis3c  content  fast  and  easily  to  friends  and  family  6.  To  be  able  to  suggest  topics  for  repor3ng  7.  To  be  able  to  comment/rate  journalis3c  items  8.  To  make  transparent  how  many  other  people  view/comment  certain  stories***  9.  To  be  able  to  contact/discuss  with  editorial  staff  directly  10.  To  discuss  the  topics  of  news  repor3ng***  11.  To  publicly  show  their/my  anachment  to  the  Tagesschau***  12.  To  get  addi3onal  informa3on  on  the  sources  of  a  journalis3c  item***  13.  To  be  taken  seriously  by  journalists***  14.  To  have  editorial  staff  introduced  to  them/me***  15.  To  be  able  to  interact  and/or  make  contact  with  other  viewers/users  (and  exchange  opinions)***  13  15  14  13  12  11  10  9  8  7  6  5  4  3  2  1  11,522,533,544,551 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5ActualimportanceforusersImportance for users as assumed by journalistsFindings:  (assumed)  importance  of  par:cipatory  func:ons  5-­‐point-­‐Likert-­‐scale  with  1  =  ”Completely  unimportant”  to  5  =  ”Very  important”;    6  =  ”Don’t  know  /  Can’t  say”  (excluded  for  calcula1on  of  mean).  //  ***  p  <  .001  (t-­‐test)  
  • 14  15  14  13  12  11  10  9  8  7  6  5  4  3  2  1  11,522,533,544,551 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5ActualimportanceforusersImportance for users as assumed by journalistsFindings:  (assumed)  importance  of  par:cipatory  func:ons  1.  To  have  journalists  be  present  (and  responsive)  on  social  media  2.  To  be  able  to  provide  own  material  (text,  pictures,  videos)  for  news  repor3ng  3.  To  have  a  plaporm  for  discussing  the  quality  of  news  repor3ng  (agenda,  form,  tone  etc.)  4.  To  get  informa3on  on  editorial  rou3nes/prac3ces/decisions  5.  To  be  able  to  forward/recommend  journalis3c  content  fast  and  easily  to  friends  and  family  6.  To  be  able  to  suggest  topics  for  repor3ng  7.  To  be  able  to  comment/rate  journalis3c  items  8.  To  make  transparent  how  many  other  people  view/comment  certain  stories***  9.  To  be  able  to  contact/discuss  with  editorial  staff  directly  10.  To  discuss  the  topics  of  news  repor3ng***  11.  To  publicly  show  their/my  anachment  to  the  Tagesschau***  12.  To  get  addi3onal  informa3on  on  the  sources  of  a  journalis3c  item***  13.  To  be  taken  seriously  by  journalists***  14.  To  have  editorial  staff  introduced  to  them/me***  15.  To  be  able  to  interact  and/or  make  contact  with  other  viewers/users  (and  exchange  opinions)***  5-­‐point-­‐Likert-­‐scale  with  1  =  ”Completely  unimportant”  to  5  =  ”Very  important”;    6  =  ”Don’t  know  /  Can’t  say”  (excluded  for  calcula1on  of  mean).  //  ***  p  <  .001  (t-­‐test)  
  • •  Dimension  „journalis:c  role  concep:on“  •  J  &  A:  audience  par3cipa3on  not  good  for  much,  since  Tagesschau  supposed  to  disseminate  precise  informa3on  as  fast  as  possible  &  explain  complex  topics  and  events  (tradi3onal  role)  •  J  &  A:  ac3ve  users  &    new  newsroom  roles  (e.g.  social  media  editors)  anach  more  importance  to  new  tasks  like  dialogue  &  making  the  journalis3c  process  transparent  •  Dimension  „(assumed)  mo:va:ons  for  par:cipa:on“  •  J:  good  for  users  to  fulfil  affec3ve,  self-­‐centered  mo3va3ons  •  A:  good  for  widening  knowledge  &  contact  with  others  •  J  &  A:  good  for  users  to  publicly  state  opinion  •  Dimension  „general  assessment  of  par:cipa:on“  •  J  &  A:  good  for  reaching  new  target  groups;  not  good  for  reducing  costs,  increasing  entertainment  value,  changing  power  rela3ons  (journalists  keep  upper  hand  in  selec3ng/producing  news)  •  J:  good  for  Tagesschau,  since  dialogue  &  exchange  are  considered  essen3al  element  •  A:  does  not  experience  dialogue  &  exchange  being  an  essen3al  element  Findings:  “What  is  it  good  for?”  15  
  • •  Comparing  •  groups  of  different  homogeneity  and  size  (editorial  staff  vs.  disperse  audience)  •  online-­‐  and  TV-­‐journalists  and  online-­‐only  audience  •  individual  self-­‐assessment  with  assessment  of  groups  of  others  •  Taking  into  considera:on  •  absolute  differences  of  means  •  posi3ons  of  means  compared  on  the  scale  •  rela3ve  rankings  of  one  banery‘s  items  •  Missing  reference  values    à  More  case  studies  needed  to  compare  inclusion  distances  at  different  journalis:c  media  16  Challenges  of  comparing  adtudes  and  expecta:ons  
  • (Re-­‐)discovering  the  audience.    Journalism  under  social  media  condi3ons.  Project  funded  by  the  German  Research  Founda3on  (DFG)  a.k.a.  jpub  2.0  Team:  Nele  Heise,  Wiebke  Loosen,  Julius  Reimer,  Jan-­‐Hinrik  Schmidt  Blog:  hnp://jpub20.hans-­‐bredow-­‐ins3tut.de/  TwiXer:  @jpub20team  
  • Literatur  •  Früh,  W.,  &  Schönbach,  K.  (2005):  Der  dynamisch-­‐transak3onale  Ansatz  III:  Eine  Zwischenbilanz.  In:  Publizis1k  50(1),  pp.  4-­‐20.  •  Heinonen,  A.  (2011):  The  journalist’s  rela3onship  with  users.  New  dimensions  to  conven3onal  roles.  In:  Singer,  J.  B.  et  al.  (Hrsg.):  Par1cipatory  journalism.  Guarding  open  gates  at  online  newspapers.  Chichester:  Wiley-­‐Blackwell,  pp.  34-­‐55.  •  Himelboim,  I.,  &  McCreery,  S.  (2012):  New  technology,  old  prac3ces:  Examining  news  websites  from  a  professional  perspec3ve.  In:  Convergence:  The  Interna1onal  Journal  of  Research  into  New  Media  Technologies,  published  online  February  2,  2012.  Retrieved  from  hnp://con.sagepub.com/content/early/2012/01/30/1354856511429648  (October  9,  2012).  •  Jeffres,  L.,  &  Scheufele,  D.  (2009):  What  is  the  field  of  communica3on?  Seeking  answers  from  a  survey  of  scholars  …  and  –  more  importantly  –  from  Klaus  Schönbach.”  In:  Holtz-­‐Bacha,  C.,  Reus,  G.,  &  Becker,  L.  B.  (Hrsg.):  Wissenscha[  mit  Wirkung.  Beiträge  zu  Journalismus-­‐  und  Medienwirkungsforschung.  Wiesbaden:  VS  Verlag,  pp.  73-­‐84.  •  Meikle,  G.,  &  Young,  S.  (2012):  Media  convergence.  Networked  digital  media  in  everyday  life.  Basingstoke:  Palgrave  Macmillan.  •  Neuberger,  C.  (2009):  Internet,  Journalismus  und  Öffentlichkeit:  Analyse  des  Medienumbruchs.  In:  Neuberger,  C.,  Nuernbergk,  C.,  &  Rischke,  M.  (Eds.):  Journalismus  im  Internet:  Profession,  Par1zipa1on,  Technisierung.  Wiesbaden:  VS  Verlag,  pp.  19-­‐105.  •  Loosen,  W.,  &  Schmidt,  J.-­‐H.  (2012):  (Re-­‐)Discovering  the  audience:  The  rela3onship  between  journalism  and  audience  in  networked  digital  media.  In:  Informa1on,  Communica1on  &  Society,  15(6),  pp.  867-­‐887.  •  Loosen,  W.,  Schmidt,  J.-­‐H.,  Heise,  N.,  Reimer,  J.,  &  Scheler,  M.  (2013):  Publikumsinklusion  bei  der  Tagesschau.  Fallstudienbericht  aus  dem  DFG-­‐Projekt  „Die  (Wieder-­‐)Entdeckung  des  Publikums“  (Arbeitspapiere  des  Hans-­‐Bredow-­‐Ins3tuts  Nr.  26).  Available  online:  hnp://www.hans-­‐bredow-­‐ins3tut.de/webfm_send/709.  •  Singer,  J.  B.,  Hermida,  A.,  Domingo,  D.,  Heinonen,  A.,  Paulussen,  S.,  &  Quandt,  T.  (Eds.),  (2011):  Par1cipatory  journalism:  Guarding  open  gates  at  online  newspapers.  Chichester:  Wiley-­‐Blackwell.    18/16