Dr JP Singh,
Assistant Professor,
Dept of Community Medicine,
SRMS IMS Bareilly
NUTRITIONAL ANEMIA
NUTRITIONALANEMIA
DEFINITION
It is a disease syndrome caused
by Malnutrition.
Acc to WHO –
A condition in which
haemoglob...
NUTRITIONAL ANEMIA
Deficiency of
A. Iron
B. Folate
C. B12
D. Protein
corrected by supplementation
NUTRITIONAL ANEMIA
Examples: Iron deficiency anemia and
pernicious anemia.
A. Micro-: Iron deficiency anemia
A. Plummer-Vi...
ANEMIA
ANEMIA - Insufficient Hb to carry out O2 requirement by
tissues.
WHO definition : Hb conc.  11 gm %
CDC definition...
Adult man 13 gm/dl
Adult woman (non
pregnant)
12 gm/dl
Adult woman (pregnant) 11 gm/dl
Child above 6 yrs 12 gm/dl
Child be...
A) IRON DEFECIENCY ANEMIA
INTRODUCTIÓN
Iron deficiency (ID) is one of the most
frequent nutrition deficiency all round th...
WORLD
It is a world wide problem with highest prevalence in
developing countries.
It affect nearly 2/3 of pregnant and ½ o...
Vulnerable groups % of Population with
Anemia
Adult male 20
children 40
Adolescent girls 56
Adult female 60
Pregnant mothe...
PREVALANCE % PUBLIC HEALTH
PROBLEMS
Less than 5 % Not a problem
5-19.9 Low magnitude (Mild)
20-39.9 Moderate magnitude (Mo...
SOURCES OF IRON
Animal- meat, liver, kidney, egg yolk.
Veg.- pulses, beans, peas, green vegetables and
fruits
Milk- Human ...
CAUSES OF IDA
1. Diminished stores
2. Diminished intake: d/t cereals & pulse based diet
3. Diminished absorption
4. Increa...
1. Pregnancy: Increases risk of maternal & fetal
morbidity & mortality (INDIA: 19% maternal
deaths).
2. Infection: Anemia ...
HIGH RISK FACTORS
SYMPTOMS OF ANEMIA
Infectio
n
Lack of
Concentration
Weakness
Irritability
Palpitatio
n
Fatigue
Dizziness
Symptoms
SIGNS
Pallor of skin
And m/m
Edema
Platynychia
Koilonychia
Glossitis
Stomatitis
Tachycard
ia
Soft ejection
systolic
murmur...
ASSESSMENT OF IDA
I. Clinical and
II. Laboratory indices.
Laboratory indices are the most common
methods used to assess ir...
I. CLINICAL INDICES
Pallor of the:
Conjunctiva,
Tongue,
Nail bed and palm
II. LABORATORY INDICES
1. Low Hemoglobin
2. Low Hematocrit
3. Low Mean Corpuscular Volume
4. Serum Ferritin <10ng/ml
5. Tr...
1. Adequate nutrition
2. Nutrition education to improve
dietary habit
3. Breast feeding and appropriate
weaning diet
4. Ir...
1. Infants b/w 5-12 months should also be included as
beneficiaries for iron supplementation, under ICDS
Scheme.
2. Liquid...
BENEFICIERIES:
A. Pregnant mothers
B. Lactating mothers &
C. Children b/w 1-12 yrs
BENEFITS: Iron & folic acid (IFA) tabs ...
• Iron & Folic Acid (IFA) supplementation: National Nutritional Anemia
Prophylaxis Programme (NNAPP):
• Eligibility criter...
GRADE (WHO) DEGREE OF
ANMIA
TREATMENT
11-14 gm/dl Normal Nothing required
9-11 gm Mild Oral iron therapy
required
7-9 gm M...
TREATMENT OF IDA
1. Treat underlying cause (hook worm etc)
2. Oral iron therapy: 3-6mg/kg in 3 divided doses ( Hb rises
by...
B) FOLIC ACID DEF
1. Necessary for DNA synthesis.
2. SOURCES: Liver, soya bean, dark green leafy
vegetables
3. CAUSES: Str...
C) B12 DEFICIENCY
Necessary for DNA synthesis.
SOURCES: Foods of animal origin only (fish, egg, meat)
DISEASES: Megaloblas...
CLINICAL FEATURES
1. Pale
2. Very sick
3. Irritable
4. Severe anorexia
5. Failure to thrive
6. Knuckle pigmentation (hands...
Thank You
Nutritional anemia -Dr JP Singh, Dept, of community medicine, SRMS IMS Bareilly
Nutritional anemia -Dr JP Singh, Dept, of community medicine, SRMS IMS Bareilly
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  • Introduction
    Despite the fact that iron is the fouth most common element on earth, Iron deficiency (ID) is one of the most frequent nutrition deficiency all round the world, in developing as well as in developed countries,
    its prevalence, which is arround 50% in developing and 10% in developed countries,
    the higher prevalence in children and childbearing age women, and
    the consequences of Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) on child behaviour and development, work performance and immunity,
    make IDA a very important problem from a public health perspective.
  • Assessment of IDA

    Several indices have been applied in assessing nutrition Iron status. They can be classified as Clinical and Laboratory indices.

    Laboratory indices are the most common methods used to assess iron nutrition status.
    Hemoglobin: Hemoglobin concentration varies considerably with age. Even when hemoglobin is related to iron deficiency and the definition of IDA is based on hemoglobin concentration, some authors have stated that it is not an adequate indicator when it is applied as the only measurement, specially in populations with low prevalence (it will be discussed later).

  • Transferrin Saturation: corresponds to plasma iron divided by plasma total iron-binding capacity X 100. Percentages below 16% in adults and children and below 12% in infants suggest insufficient iron delivery to the hematopoietic tissues
    Serum Transferrin receptors: Serum transferrin receptors reflect the number of receptors in immature red blood cells and thus the level of erythropoiesis. It is unaffected by infection or inflammation what makes Serum Transferrin receptors concentration be an accurate index of Iron nutrition status.
    Erythrocyte protoporphyrin: protoporphyrin combines with iron to form heme. Under ID conditions, the lack of iron determines an increase in erythrocyte protoporphyrin, which can not combined with Iron.
    Increased values of erythrocyte protoporphyrin indicate impaired erythropoyesis due to iron deficiency. Values greater than 100 ug/dl and 120 ug/dl have been used as cutoff points

    Pallor of the conjunctiva, tongue, nail bed and palm can be used as clinical indices of ID what is due to the low hemoglobin concentration in areas with high vascularization. Even when they are easily and inexpensively obtained, subjectivity is the main problem of clinical indicators.
  • Mean corpuscular volume: It depends on hemoglobin content in the red blood cell, so in absence of other conditions a decrease in hemoglobin is associated with a decrease in MCV.
    Ferritin: Even when ferritin is present within cells, a small amount circulates in plasma and permits estimation of total ferritin, been the earliest indicator of ID.
    As it has been mentioned before, Serum Ferritin expresses Iron Stores. During infancy Serum Ferritin concentration below 10 ng/ml are considered as the expression of depleted iron stores (Siimes et al, 1974; Thomas et al, 1977; Dallman et al, 1981). During infection or inflammation Serum Ferritin increases like other acute phase proteins, and then SF is not an accurate indicator in such situations.
  • Nutritional anemia -Dr JP Singh, Dept, of community medicine, SRMS IMS Bareilly

    1. 1. Dr JP Singh, Assistant Professor, Dept of Community Medicine, SRMS IMS Bareilly NUTRITIONAL ANEMIA
    2. 2. NUTRITIONALANEMIA DEFINITION It is a disease syndrome caused by Malnutrition. Acc to WHO – A condition in which haemoglobin content of blood is lower than normal, as a result of deficiency of one or more essential nutrient, specially iron.
    3. 3. NUTRITIONAL ANEMIA Deficiency of A. Iron B. Folate C. B12 D. Protein corrected by supplementation
    4. 4. NUTRITIONAL ANEMIA Examples: Iron deficiency anemia and pernicious anemia. A. Micro-: Iron deficiency anemia A. Plummer-Vinson syndrome B. Macro-: Megaloblastic anemia A. Pernicious anemia
    5. 5. ANEMIA ANEMIA - Insufficient Hb to carry out O2 requirement by tissues. WHO definition : Hb conc.  11 gm % CDC definition : Hb conc. < 11gm % in 1st and 3rd trimesters and < 10.5 gm% in 2nd trimester For developing countries : cut off level suggested is 10 gm % - WHO technical report Series no. 405, Geneva 1968 Centre for disease control, MMWR 1989;38:400-4
    6. 6. Adult man 13 gm/dl Adult woman (non pregnant) 12 gm/dl Adult woman (pregnant) 11 gm/dl Child above 6 yrs 12 gm/dl Child below 6 yrs 11 gm/dl WHO CUT OFF CRITERIA OF HB% (IN VENOUS BLOOD)
    7. 7. A) IRON DEFECIENCY ANEMIA INTRODUCTIÓN Iron deficiency (ID) is one of the most frequent nutrition deficiency all round the world.( In India - 50%) Its prevalence is higher in children and childbearing age women. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) mainly affects child behavior and development, work performance and immunity.
    8. 8. WORLD It is a world wide problem with highest prevalence in developing countries. It affect nearly 2/3 of pregnant and ½ of non pregnant. INDIA- Overall , 72.7 % of children up to age of 3 year in urban and 81.2% in rural are anaemic . It was found that , except for Punjab , all other state had more than 50% prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women. PROBLEM STATEMENT
    9. 9. Vulnerable groups % of Population with Anemia Adult male 20 children 40 Adolescent girls 56 Adult female 60 Pregnant mothers 80 % OF IDA IN INDIA IN VULNERABLE GROUPS
    10. 10. PREVALANCE % PUBLIC HEALTH PROBLEMS Less than 5 % Not a problem 5-19.9 Low magnitude (Mild) 20-39.9 Moderate magnitude (Moderate) 40 and above High magnitude (Severe) MAGNITUDE OF IDA
    11. 11. SOURCES OF IRON Animal- meat, liver, kidney, egg yolk. Veg.- pulses, beans, peas, green vegetables and fruits Milk- Human milk -0.29- 0.45mg/dl (Cow’s milk –poor source with 0.01 – 0.38mg/dl)
    12. 12. CAUSES OF IDA 1. Diminished stores 2. Diminished intake: d/t cereals & pulse based diet 3. Diminished absorption 4. Increased demands: During pregnancy & infections 5. Defective metabolism 6. Infections: Ankylostomiasis, PU, Ulcerative colitis, hemorrhoids
    13. 13. 1. Pregnancy: Increases risk of maternal & fetal morbidity & mortality (INDIA: 19% maternal deaths). 2. Infection: Anemia can be caused by infections (malaria, intestinal parasites) and may increase susceptibility to infections. 3. Decreased work capacity. 4. Growth failure among children DETRIMENTAL EFFECTS OF IDA
    14. 14. HIGH RISK FACTORS
    15. 15. SYMPTOMS OF ANEMIA
    16. 16. Infectio n Lack of Concentration Weakness Irritability Palpitatio n Fatigue Dizziness Symptoms
    17. 17. SIGNS Pallor of skin And m/m Edema Platynychia Koilonychia Glossitis Stomatitis Tachycard ia Soft ejection systolic murmur Signs
    18. 18. ASSESSMENT OF IDA I. Clinical and II. Laboratory indices. Laboratory indices are the most common methods used to assess iron nutrition status.
    19. 19. I. CLINICAL INDICES Pallor of the: Conjunctiva, Tongue, Nail bed and palm
    20. 20. II. LABORATORY INDICES 1. Low Hemoglobin 2. Low Hematocrit 3. Low Mean Corpuscular Volume 4. Serum Ferritin <10ng/ml 5. Transferrin Saturation<15% 6. TIBC>350µg/dl 7. Increased free erythrocyte protoporphiryn
    21. 21. 1. Adequate nutrition 2. Nutrition education to improve dietary habit 3. Breast feeding and appropriate weaning diet 4. Iron rich food 5. Increase ascorbic acid 6. Health education 7. Periodical deworming specially among children and at least once during IInd trimester of pregnancy 8. Nutritional supplementation 9. Foot wear use 10. Safe drinking water 1. Food fortification 2. National nutritional anemia prophylaxis program (NNAPP) 3. National nutritional anemia control program (NNACP): The elemental iron was increased from 60 mg to 100 mg per tablet in 1992 I. HEALTH PROMOTION II. SPECIFIC PROTECTION PREVENTION OF NUTRITIONAL ANEMIA
    22. 22. 1. Infants b/w 5-12 months should also be included as beneficiaries for iron supplementation, under ICDS Scheme. 2. Liquid formulations to be prepared, each ml containing 20 mg of iron & 100 mcg of folic acid 3. For children b/w 6-10 yrs, 30 mg of iron and 250 mcg of folic acid. 4. For children b/w 10-18 yrs (adult dose) also to be included as beneficiaries for iron supplementation. NEW RECOMENDATIONS
    23. 23. BENEFICIERIES: A. Pregnant mothers B. Lactating mothers & C. Children b/w 1-12 yrs BENEFITS: Iron & folic acid (IFA) tabs are distributed free of cost. BENEFICIERIES & BENEFITS
    24. 24. • Iron & Folic Acid (IFA) supplementation: National Nutritional Anemia Prophylaxis Programme (NNAPP): • Eligibility criteria: Hb level 10-12 receives IFA tablets; <10 referred to PHC (MO). • Dosage: 1. Mothers: One IFA tablet (100 mg elemental iron + 500 μgm folic acid) X 2- 3 months after Hb level returned to normal. 2. Children: Screening for anemia at 6 mths, 1 yr & 2 yrs of age. 3. Children upto 6 yrs: One IFA tablet (20 mg elemental iron + 100 μgm folic acid) X 100 days. 4. Children 6-10 yrs: One IFA tablet (30 mg elemental iron + 250 μgm folic acid) X 100 days. DOSES
    25. 25. GRADE (WHO) DEGREE OF ANMIA TREATMENT 11-14 gm/dl Normal Nothing required 9-11 gm Mild Oral iron therapy required 7-9 gm Moderate Parenteral iron therapy Less than 7 gm Severe Blood transfusion GRADING & T/T OF ANEMIA
    26. 26. TREATMENT OF IDA 1. Treat underlying cause (hook worm etc) 2. Oral iron therapy: 3-6mg/kg in 3 divided doses ( Hb rises by 0.4g/day) 3. Vit C, empty stomach or in between meals: For 6-8 wks after Hb is normal 4. Parental iron therapy ( Iron in mg=wt in kg× Hb deficit in gm/dl×4) 5. Blood transfusion –rarely when Hb<4gm/dl, CCF, severe infection with poor iron utilisation
    27. 27. B) FOLIC ACID DEF 1. Necessary for DNA synthesis. 2. SOURCES: Liver, soya bean, dark green leafy vegetables 3. CAUSES: Strict vegetarian, Tape worm anemia, Repeated Pregnancy, Chronic diarrhea, malabsorption and recurrent infections 4. Cooking destroys folic acid 5. Deficiency disease: Megaloblastic anemia in children & pregnant mothers 6. Treatment with phenytoin / antimetabolites 7. T/T: Folic acid 2-5 mg/day 8. RDA: 500 mcg/day for pregnant mother
    28. 28. C) B12 DEFICIENCY Necessary for DNA synthesis. SOURCES: Foods of animal origin only (fish, egg, meat) DISEASES: Megaloblastic anemia, parasthesia of fingers & toes. It is observed in breast fed infants of vit. B 12 deficient mother & delayed weaning child RDA: Vit. B12 1µg/day
    29. 29. CLINICAL FEATURES 1. Pale 2. Very sick 3. Irritable 4. Severe anorexia 5. Failure to thrive 6. Knuckle pigmentation (hands and nose) 7. Tremor and developmental regression
    30. 30. Thank You

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