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2012 The EARLI SIG 4 Higher Education Conference
 

2012 The EARLI SIG 4 Higher Education Conference

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This paper was published in an international refereed journal (http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=17085284).

This paper was published in an international refereed journal (http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=17085284).

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    2012 The EARLI SIG 4 Higher Education Conference  2012 The EARLI SIG 4 Higher Education Conference Presentation Transcript

    • Factors affecting international doctoral students’academic progress, satisfaction, and dropping outYusuke Sakurai, Kirsi Pyhältö & Sari Lindblom-YlänneUniversity of Helsinki Yusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fi Centre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 29.8.2012 1
    • International doctoral students in Finland250020001500 2,1531000 2009 500 0 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006 2009 Yusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fi Centre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 2
    • Factors contributing to doctoral students’ study progress 研 究 Advisors Teaching Paper work Family CulturalColleagues Facilities Financing Language Yusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fi Centre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 3
    • Research tasks What factors promote international doctoral students’ studies?; What factors hinder international doctoral student engagement? Which factors are significantly associated with students’ satisfaction with their studies? and ; Which factors are significantly associated with their considering dropping out?Yusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 4
    • Finnish doctoral education Dissertation, coursework, & public defence Monograph or article-based dissertation 6 - 7 years – university recommendation: 4 years Work individually, in group or both No tuition feesYusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 5
    • Instrument Online survey (March 2011) - “Questionnaire on doctoral education and the implementation of guidelines for postgraduate degrees at the University of Helsinki” Saari, S. & Moilanen, A. 2012. International Evaluation of Research and Doctoral Training at the University of Helsinki 2005–2010. University of Helsinki, Administrative Publications 81. http://goo.gl/08ku9Yusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 6
    • Survey items “Name the three most important factors that have contributed/hindered to the progress of your postgraduate studies and doctoral dissertation”. “Have you considered withdrawing from your doctoral studies?”Yusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 7
    • Survey items My studies required for the doctoral degree have supported the research work conducted for the doctoral dissertation. My studies required for the doctoral degree have provided skills for research work. My studies required for the doctoral degree have provided skills for other expert assignments. My studies required for the doctoral degree have provided skills necessary on the labour market outside academia. Satisfaction scale My studies required for the doctoral degree have progressed as planned. a =.83 My studies required for the doctoral degree are of appropriate scope so that full-time students are able to complete the degree in four years. 1=fully disagree - 5=fully agree Please assess the level of your satisfaction with your doctoral education. 1=very dissatisfied - 5=very satisfiedYusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 8
    • Respondents (1) 120 students  85 (71%) full-time Response rate - 20 %  78 % - age from 25 to 34 62  No information about students’ nationalities (52%) womenYusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 9
    • Respondents (2)Faculty Dropping out Satisfactory level considered not considered M SDAgriculture and Forestry 6 18 3.64 0.9Biological and Environmental 4 10 3.43 0.56Medicine 5 11 3.31 0.59Science 5 10 3.38 0.95Social Sciences 6 7 3.26 0.87Arts 3 6 2.9 0.9Pharmacy 4 3 3.26 0.8Law 4 3 2.81 1.51Behavioural Sciences 1 4 3.63 0.52Veterinary Medicine 2 1 3.48 0.73Theology 0 0 - -Unknown 0 1 3.14 - Total 40 74 3.35 0.84Yusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 10
    • Respondents (3) Dropping out Satisfactory level considered not considered M SDStudent status Full time 28 52 3.35 0.91 Part time 12 22 3.34 0.67Gender Women 20 38 3.44 0.81 Men 19 36 3.30 0.84Science vs. Humanities Science 26 53 3.45 0.76 Humanities 14 20 3.13 0.98Yusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 11
    • Factors affecting study progress (1) Themes Subthemes Scholarly Community Supervision , Academic colleagues, Conferences Financing, Facilities, Administrative duties, Information, Departmental issues Teaching, Structural Subject Matter Courses, Research activity, Expertise, Writing Emotional Self-discipline, Motivation, Interest Cultural Language, Foreignness Student status, Family, Living condition, Support from Private Domain others, Physical condition MiscellaneousYusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 12
    • Factors affecting study progress (2) Promoting Hindering Themes f % f % Scholarly Community 139 41.0 55 19.4 Departmental issues 68 20.1 97 34.2 Subject Matter 55 16.2 53 18.7 Emotional 55 16.2 15 5.3 Cultural 4 1.2 31 10.9 Private Domain 8 2.4 21 7.4 Miscellaneous 10 2.9 12 4.2 Total 339 284Yusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 13
    • Regression analysis Independent variables - dummy variables Dependent variables Supervision Faculty - Arts or not Colleague Faculty - Medicine or not Satisfactory level Subject Matter Faculty - Law or not Multiple regression analysis Cultural Faculty - … or not Emotional Student status Departmental Format – monograph or not Consideration of dropout Private Domain Format – article-based or not Logistic regression analysis Gender Research group - individual Research group - groupYusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 14
    • Factors affecting academic satisfaction b SE Standardised b 95% CIIntercept 3.19** 0.14 2.90-3.48Promoting factor (identified=1, not identified=0) Supervision 0.33* 0.16 0.19 0.01-0.64 Private domain 0.55† 0.32 0.17 -0.08-1.17Hindering factor (identified=1, not identified=0) Supervision -0.34† 0.18 -0.17 -0.69-0.02Faculty Arts (1, other faculties=0) -0.48† 0.28 -0.16 -1.04-0.09Thesis format Undecided (1, monograph/article-based=0) 0.41* 0.20 0.19 0.01-0.81**. p<.001; *. p<.05; †. p<.10Yusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 15
    • Factors affecting 8 monograph Format undecided academic satisfaction16 9 83 Science work individually Hindering factors in: Humanities 9 . supervision 0.34 ↓ * 1 10 . 36 Arts students 0.38 ↓ † Promoting factors in Study satisfaction 0.33 ↑ supervision † private domain 0.55 ↑ † Stepwise method (entry:p<.05; Thesis format – not decided 0.41 ↑ * removal>.10), Adjusted R2 = 13%, unstandardised b values, *. p<.05; †. p<.10Yusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 16
    • Factors affecting consideration of dropout Coefficient (b) SE Wald Odds Ratio 95% CI pIntercept -1.60 0.41 15.55Hindering factor in Unidentified (0) Reference - - - - -supervision Identified (1) 1.43 0.47 9.40 4.16 1.67-10.37 0.00Hindering factor in Unidentified (0) Reference - - - - -departmental issues Identified (1) 0.92 0.45 4.20 2.51 1.04-6.07 0.04Forward & backward methods (entry:p<.05; removal>.10), 69% classfication rateYusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 17
    • Factors affecting consideration of dropout Hindering factors in supervision 4.16 times more likely Hindering factors in departmental issues 2.51 times more likely Consideration of dropout Forward & backward methods (entry:p<.05; removal>.10), 69% classfication rate, Supervision: 95% CI =1.67-10.37, p<.01, departmental issues: 95% CI =1.04-6.07, p<.05,Yusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 18
    • Reflections Little association with wider scholarly communities? Departmental resources (e.g., financing) & responsibilities (e.g., paper work & teaching) – need careful monitoring Balancing between academic work and private mattersYusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 19
    • Other reflections Methodological limitationsYusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 20
    • Major results 41% of “promoting” comments were about scholarly community. 34% of “hindering” comments were about departmental resources and responsibilities. Hindering factors in supervision: 0.34*↓ Arts students: 0.38†↓ Promoting factors in supervision: 0.33†↑ Promoting factors in private domain: 0.55†↑ Thesis format – not decided: 0.41*↑ Hindering factors in supervision: x 4.16 Hindering factors in departmental: x 2.51Yusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 21
    • Yusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto
    • 4 International students Worldwide3 3,673,925 200921 Europe 1,672,422 20090 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 OECD. (2011). Education at a Glance 2011: OECD Indicators: OECD Publishing. Yusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fi Centre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 23
    • Background Increase of international students Attracting more international doctoral studentsYusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 24
    • Rationale Engagement construct Learning outcome Preventing dropout Meaningful work Environmental Personal demands-resourcesYusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 25
    • Content analysis Promoting Hindering Themes f % Subthemes (f) f % Subthemes (f) Scholarly Community 139 41.0 Supervision (69), Academic colleagues 55 19.4 Supervision (34), Academic colleagues (68),Conference (13) (25),Conference (0) Departmental 68 20.1 Financing (35), Facilities (30), 97 34.2 Financing (47), Facilities (18), Administrative duties (0), Information (1), Administrative duties (22), Information (8), Teaching (3), Structural (2) Teaching (5), Structural (4) Subject Matter 55 16.2 Courses (16), Research activity (19), 53 18.7 Courses (23), Research activity (16), Expertise (19), Writing (4) Expertise (12), Writing (2) Emotional 55 16.2 Self-discipline (24), Motivation (16), 15 5.3 Self-discipline (6), Motivation (7), Interest Interest (16) (2) Cultural 4 1.2 Language (2), Foreignness (2) 31 10.9 Language (23), Foreignness (9) Private Domain 8 2.4 Student status (2), Family (5), Living 21 7.4 Student status (8), Family (5), Living condition (0), Support from others (1), condition (4), Support from others (0), Physical condition (0) Physical condition (4) Miscellaneous 10 2.9 12 4.2 Total 339 284Yusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 26
    • Factors affecting academic satisfaction Correlation b SE Standardised b 95% CI SATIS P-SV P-PD H-SV HU UDIntercept 3.19*** 0.14 2.90-3.48 -Promoting factor (identified=1, not identified=0) Supervision 0.33* 0.16 0.19 0.01-0.64 .269** - Private domain 0.55† 0.32 0.17 -0.08-1.17 .166† .142 -Hindering factor (identified=1, not identified=0) Supervision -0.34† 0.18 -0.17 -0.69-0.02 -.188† -.084 -.148 -Faculty Arts (1, other faculties=0) -0.48† 0.28 -0.16 -1.04-0.09 -.163† -.162† .192* -.090 -Thesis format Undecided (1, monograph/article-based=0) 0.41* 0.20 0.19 0.01-0.81 .190† -.036 -.120 -.015 -.138 -Notes. SATIS=satisfactory level; P-SV=promoting factor in supervision; P-PD=promoting factor in private domain; H-SV=hindering factor in supervision; HU=Faculty of Arts;UD=Thesis format undecided. ***. p<.001; **. p<.01; *. p<.05; †. p<.10 Yusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fi Centre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 27
    • Analytical procedures Preliminary analysis Regression analysis t-test - Satisfactory level faculties, gender, thesis Multiple regression analysis Satisfactory level as dependent variable Content format & student status analysisPromoting/hin Chi-square test -dering factors Consideration of dropout Logistic regression analysis faculties, gender, thesis Consideration of dropout as dependent format & student status variable Yusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fi Centre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 28