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Factors affecting international doctoral students’academic progress, satisfaction, and dropping outYusuke Sakurai, Kirsi P...
International doctoral students in                  Finland250020001500                                                   ...
Factors contributing to doctoral                    students’ study progress                                              ...
Research tasks What factors promote international doctoral students’ studies?; What factors hinder international doctora...
Finnish doctoral education Dissertation, coursework, & public defence Monograph or article-based dissertation 6 - 7 yea...
Instrument Online survey (March 2011) -  “Questionnaire on doctoral education and  the implementation of guidelines for  ...
Survey items “Name the three most important factors that    have contributed/hindered to the progress of    your postgrad...
Survey items   My studies required for the doctoral degree have supported the research work conducted    for the doctoral...
Respondents (1)     120               students                           85             (71%) full-time     Response ra...
Respondents (2)Faculty                      Dropping out                                Satisfactory level                ...
Respondents (3)                                              Dropping out               Satisfactory level                ...
Factors affecting study progress (1) Themes                                   Subthemes Scholarly Community               ...
Factors affecting study progress (2)                                                 Promoting                         Hin...
Regression analysis        Independent variables - dummy variables                                        Dependent variab...
Factors affecting     academic satisfaction                                                                 b            S...
Factors affecting       8                                                           monograph                             ...
Factors affecting    consideration of dropout                                                          Coefficient (b) SE ...
Factors affecting    consideration of dropout   Hindering factors in supervision   4.16                     times more lik...
Reflections Little association with wider scholarly communities? Departmental resources (e.g., financing) & responsibili...
Other reflections Methodological limitationsYusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student,                         Yusuke.sakurai@hels...
Major results 41% of “promoting” comments were about scholarly community. 34% of “hindering” comments were about departm...
Yusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student,                         Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of...
4               International students                                                                                    ...
Background Increase of international students Attracting more international doctoral      studentsYusuke SAKURAI, Doctor...
Rationale        Engagement construct                                                           Learning outcome          ...
Content analysis                                               Promoting                                                  ...
Factors affecting                                  academic satisfaction                                                  ...
Analytical procedures                               Preliminary analysis                                 Regression analys...
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2012 The EARLI SIG 4 Higher Education Conference

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This paper was published in an international refereed journal (http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=17085284).

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Transcript of "2012 The EARLI SIG 4 Higher Education Conference "

  1. 1. Factors affecting international doctoral students’academic progress, satisfaction, and dropping outYusuke Sakurai, Kirsi Pyhältö & Sari Lindblom-YlänneUniversity of Helsinki Yusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fi Centre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 29.8.2012 1
  2. 2. International doctoral students in Finland250020001500 2,1531000 2009 500 0 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006 2009 Yusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fi Centre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 2
  3. 3. Factors contributing to doctoral students’ study progress 研 究 Advisors Teaching Paper work Family CulturalColleagues Facilities Financing Language Yusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fi Centre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 3
  4. 4. Research tasks What factors promote international doctoral students’ studies?; What factors hinder international doctoral student engagement? Which factors are significantly associated with students’ satisfaction with their studies? and ; Which factors are significantly associated with their considering dropping out?Yusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 4
  5. 5. Finnish doctoral education Dissertation, coursework, & public defence Monograph or article-based dissertation 6 - 7 years – university recommendation: 4 years Work individually, in group or both No tuition feesYusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 5
  6. 6. Instrument Online survey (March 2011) - “Questionnaire on doctoral education and the implementation of guidelines for postgraduate degrees at the University of Helsinki” Saari, S. & Moilanen, A. 2012. International Evaluation of Research and Doctoral Training at the University of Helsinki 2005–2010. University of Helsinki, Administrative Publications 81. http://goo.gl/08ku9Yusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 6
  7. 7. Survey items “Name the three most important factors that have contributed/hindered to the progress of your postgraduate studies and doctoral dissertation”. “Have you considered withdrawing from your doctoral studies?”Yusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 7
  8. 8. Survey items My studies required for the doctoral degree have supported the research work conducted for the doctoral dissertation. My studies required for the doctoral degree have provided skills for research work. My studies required for the doctoral degree have provided skills for other expert assignments. My studies required for the doctoral degree have provided skills necessary on the labour market outside academia. Satisfaction scale My studies required for the doctoral degree have progressed as planned. a =.83 My studies required for the doctoral degree are of appropriate scope so that full-time students are able to complete the degree in four years. 1=fully disagree - 5=fully agree Please assess the level of your satisfaction with your doctoral education. 1=very dissatisfied - 5=very satisfiedYusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 8
  9. 9. Respondents (1) 120 students  85 (71%) full-time Response rate - 20 %  78 % - age from 25 to 34 62  No information about students’ nationalities (52%) womenYusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 9
  10. 10. Respondents (2)Faculty Dropping out Satisfactory level considered not considered M SDAgriculture and Forestry 6 18 3.64 0.9Biological and Environmental 4 10 3.43 0.56Medicine 5 11 3.31 0.59Science 5 10 3.38 0.95Social Sciences 6 7 3.26 0.87Arts 3 6 2.9 0.9Pharmacy 4 3 3.26 0.8Law 4 3 2.81 1.51Behavioural Sciences 1 4 3.63 0.52Veterinary Medicine 2 1 3.48 0.73Theology 0 0 - -Unknown 0 1 3.14 - Total 40 74 3.35 0.84Yusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 10
  11. 11. Respondents (3) Dropping out Satisfactory level considered not considered M SDStudent status Full time 28 52 3.35 0.91 Part time 12 22 3.34 0.67Gender Women 20 38 3.44 0.81 Men 19 36 3.30 0.84Science vs. Humanities Science 26 53 3.45 0.76 Humanities 14 20 3.13 0.98Yusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 11
  12. 12. Factors affecting study progress (1) Themes Subthemes Scholarly Community Supervision , Academic colleagues, Conferences Financing, Facilities, Administrative duties, Information, Departmental issues Teaching, Structural Subject Matter Courses, Research activity, Expertise, Writing Emotional Self-discipline, Motivation, Interest Cultural Language, Foreignness Student status, Family, Living condition, Support from Private Domain others, Physical condition MiscellaneousYusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 12
  13. 13. Factors affecting study progress (2) Promoting Hindering Themes f % f % Scholarly Community 139 41.0 55 19.4 Departmental issues 68 20.1 97 34.2 Subject Matter 55 16.2 53 18.7 Emotional 55 16.2 15 5.3 Cultural 4 1.2 31 10.9 Private Domain 8 2.4 21 7.4 Miscellaneous 10 2.9 12 4.2 Total 339 284Yusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 13
  14. 14. Regression analysis Independent variables - dummy variables Dependent variables Supervision Faculty - Arts or not Colleague Faculty - Medicine or not Satisfactory level Subject Matter Faculty - Law or not Multiple regression analysis Cultural Faculty - … or not Emotional Student status Departmental Format – monograph or not Consideration of dropout Private Domain Format – article-based or not Logistic regression analysis Gender Research group - individual Research group - groupYusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 14
  15. 15. Factors affecting academic satisfaction b SE Standardised b 95% CIIntercept 3.19** 0.14 2.90-3.48Promoting factor (identified=1, not identified=0) Supervision 0.33* 0.16 0.19 0.01-0.64 Private domain 0.55† 0.32 0.17 -0.08-1.17Hindering factor (identified=1, not identified=0) Supervision -0.34† 0.18 -0.17 -0.69-0.02Faculty Arts (1, other faculties=0) -0.48† 0.28 -0.16 -1.04-0.09Thesis format Undecided (1, monograph/article-based=0) 0.41* 0.20 0.19 0.01-0.81**. p<.001; *. p<.05; †. p<.10Yusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 15
  16. 16. Factors affecting 8 monograph Format undecided academic satisfaction16 9 83 Science work individually Hindering factors in: Humanities 9 . supervision 0.34 ↓ * 1 10 . 36 Arts students 0.38 ↓ † Promoting factors in Study satisfaction 0.33 ↑ supervision † private domain 0.55 ↑ † Stepwise method (entry:p<.05; Thesis format – not decided 0.41 ↑ * removal>.10), Adjusted R2 = 13%, unstandardised b values, *. p<.05; †. p<.10Yusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 16
  17. 17. Factors affecting consideration of dropout Coefficient (b) SE Wald Odds Ratio 95% CI pIntercept -1.60 0.41 15.55Hindering factor in Unidentified (0) Reference - - - - -supervision Identified (1) 1.43 0.47 9.40 4.16 1.67-10.37 0.00Hindering factor in Unidentified (0) Reference - - - - -departmental issues Identified (1) 0.92 0.45 4.20 2.51 1.04-6.07 0.04Forward & backward methods (entry:p<.05; removal>.10), 69% classfication rateYusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 17
  18. 18. Factors affecting consideration of dropout Hindering factors in supervision 4.16 times more likely Hindering factors in departmental issues 2.51 times more likely Consideration of dropout Forward & backward methods (entry:p<.05; removal>.10), 69% classfication rate, Supervision: 95% CI =1.67-10.37, p<.01, departmental issues: 95% CI =1.04-6.07, p<.05,Yusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 18
  19. 19. Reflections Little association with wider scholarly communities? Departmental resources (e.g., financing) & responsibilities (e.g., paper work & teaching) – need careful monitoring Balancing between academic work and private mattersYusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 19
  20. 20. Other reflections Methodological limitationsYusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 20
  21. 21. Major results 41% of “promoting” comments were about scholarly community. 34% of “hindering” comments were about departmental resources and responsibilities. Hindering factors in supervision: 0.34*↓ Arts students: 0.38†↓ Promoting factors in supervision: 0.33†↑ Promoting factors in private domain: 0.55†↑ Thesis format – not decided: 0.41*↑ Hindering factors in supervision: x 4.16 Hindering factors in departmental: x 2.51Yusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 21
  22. 22. Yusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto
  23. 23. 4 International students Worldwide3 3,673,925 200921 Europe 1,672,422 20090 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 OECD. (2011). Education at a Glance 2011: OECD Indicators: OECD Publishing. Yusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fi Centre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 23
  24. 24. Background Increase of international students Attracting more international doctoral studentsYusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 24
  25. 25. Rationale Engagement construct Learning outcome Preventing dropout Meaningful work Environmental Personal demands-resourcesYusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 25
  26. 26. Content analysis Promoting Hindering Themes f % Subthemes (f) f % Subthemes (f) Scholarly Community 139 41.0 Supervision (69), Academic colleagues 55 19.4 Supervision (34), Academic colleagues (68),Conference (13) (25),Conference (0) Departmental 68 20.1 Financing (35), Facilities (30), 97 34.2 Financing (47), Facilities (18), Administrative duties (0), Information (1), Administrative duties (22), Information (8), Teaching (3), Structural (2) Teaching (5), Structural (4) Subject Matter 55 16.2 Courses (16), Research activity (19), 53 18.7 Courses (23), Research activity (16), Expertise (19), Writing (4) Expertise (12), Writing (2) Emotional 55 16.2 Self-discipline (24), Motivation (16), 15 5.3 Self-discipline (6), Motivation (7), Interest Interest (16) (2) Cultural 4 1.2 Language (2), Foreignness (2) 31 10.9 Language (23), Foreignness (9) Private Domain 8 2.4 Student status (2), Family (5), Living 21 7.4 Student status (8), Family (5), Living condition (0), Support from others (1), condition (4), Support from others (0), Physical condition (0) Physical condition (4) Miscellaneous 10 2.9 12 4.2 Total 339 284Yusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fiCentre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 26
  27. 27. Factors affecting academic satisfaction Correlation b SE Standardised b 95% CI SATIS P-SV P-PD H-SV HU UDIntercept 3.19*** 0.14 2.90-3.48 -Promoting factor (identified=1, not identified=0) Supervision 0.33* 0.16 0.19 0.01-0.64 .269** - Private domain 0.55† 0.32 0.17 -0.08-1.17 .166† .142 -Hindering factor (identified=1, not identified=0) Supervision -0.34† 0.18 -0.17 -0.69-0.02 -.188† -.084 -.148 -Faculty Arts (1, other faculties=0) -0.48† 0.28 -0.16 -1.04-0.09 -.163† -.162† .192* -.090 -Thesis format Undecided (1, monograph/article-based=0) 0.41* 0.20 0.19 0.01-0.81 .190† -.036 -.120 -.015 -.138 -Notes. SATIS=satisfactory level; P-SV=promoting factor in supervision; P-PD=promoting factor in private domain; H-SV=hindering factor in supervision; HU=Faculty of Arts;UD=Thesis format undecided. ***. p<.001; **. p<.01; *. p<.05; †. p<.10 Yusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fi Centre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 27
  28. 28. Analytical procedures Preliminary analysis Regression analysis t-test - Satisfactory level faculties, gender, thesis Multiple regression analysis Satisfactory level as dependent variable Content format & student status analysisPromoting/hin Chi-square test -dering factors Consideration of dropout Logistic regression analysis faculties, gender, thesis Consideration of dropout as dependent format & student status variable Yusuke SAKURAI, Doctoral student, Yusuke.sakurai@helsinki.fi Centre for Research and Development of Higher Education www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto 28
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