The 1967 Riots• Impatient with the reforms promised by the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and in reaction to over-zealous police, African American’s rioted and burned Detroit in 1967• The authorities countered with brutal force• These 5 days of rioting are considered the worst civil disorder in 20th-century history – 43 dead – 2250 injured » Pgs 169-70
The Murder of MLK, Jr.• On April 4, 1968, James Earl Ray, a fugitive from a Mississippi prison assassinated Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, TN.• Riots erupted in the nation’s capitol, Washington D.C. and throughout cities in the U.S.
“As described by Newsweek, the more than 700 fires inthe national capital, [was] the worst conflagration in thecity since the British burned it during the War of 1812…” -Rockin’ in Time
Leaders for the rights of African Americans• Malcolm X• Stokely Carmichael – coined the term “Black Power”• H. Rap Brown• Black Panther Party• Some began non-violently, but after MLK’s murder they abandoned this for a more militant stance
Soul• African American soul music echoed and expresses the frustrations of the times• The word soul had been adopted in the 1950s by jazz musicians – By 1965 it equaled the struggle to re-establish dignity – Swagger, “uninhibited self-expression” • Soul food • Soul brothers and sisters • Soul hair styles and clothing • Soul music• Musically it is a fusion of Rhythm & Blues and Gospel
Soul Music• Ray Charles – “Genius of Soul”• James Brown – “Soul Brother Number One”• Otis Redding – “The King of Soul”• Aretha Franklin – “Lady Soul” & “The Queen of Soul”• They all have in common an intensity and depth to their music
Ray Charles• Born Ray Charles Robinson (1930-2004)• Initially an R&B artist• Created his unique soul sound which is a blend of his gospel, jazz, blues and R&B roots with hits in the 1950s – “I’ve Got A Woman” – a re-worked gospel song – “What’d I Say”• His religious upbringing was evident in the songs he converted from sacred to secular
James Brown (1933-2006)• Gained fame earlier as an R&B singer – “Please, Please, Please” – 1956• Known for his spectacular stage act – Dramatics – Fast footwork – Splits – Costumes (capes)• He recorded at his own expense his album Live at the Apollo - 1963 – Spent 66 weeks in the Billboard top of the pops chart, peaking at #2 • No other black artist had done this – “I Got You” – “Papas Got A Brand New Bag” – “Say it Loud” – anthem for the late civil rights movement
Otis Redding (1941-67)• Although he had already recorded some of his hits in 1962 & 63, Otis Redding captured a wider audience attention at the Monterey Pop festival of 1967• Hits from 1962-66 – “These Arms of Mine” – “Mr. Pitiful” – “Try a Little Tenderness”
Otis Redding• In December of 1967 while flying from a gig in Ohio to Wisconsin, Otis, his manager and 4 members of band were killed in a plane crash – he was 26• He had recorded what would be his biggest hit only three days earlier – “(Sittin’ on) The Dock of the Bay”
Aretha Franklin ( b. 1942)• Strong church connection – Father was a Baptist pastor• Influences include: – James Cleveland, Mahalia Jackson, Clara Ward – all gospel greats• African Amer soul crossed over to white audiences with Aretha Franklin – “Respect” – a hit for Otis Redding (song writer) 2 years earlier – Huge success for Aretha, crossing over to white listeners
Aretha Franklin• Signed with Atlantic records which becomes the label of soul artists• After Aretha’s crossover other artists began to attract a more mainstream audience• Some of Aretha’s other crossover hits include: – “Natural Woman” – “Chain of Fools” – “Since You’ve Been Gone” – “Baby, I Love You”
Psychedelic Blues• As the summer of love ended a more angry music became the voice of militant youths• This music was even harder edged than the folk based acid rock – Screaming vocals and screaming guitar – Heavier Blues based Rock than Acid • The Yardbirds • Cream • Jimi Hendrix • Janis Joplin • Led Zeppelin “I Had Too Much To Dream Last Night” – The Electric Prunes “Pushin’ Too Hard” – The Seeds
The Yardbirds• British – Formed in 1963• A revolving door for some of rocks best guitarists – 1963 Eric Clapton – 1965 Jeff Beck – 1966 Jimmy Page • “For Your Love” • “I’m a Man” • “Heart full of Soul”• They disbanded in 1968 but paved the way for what would eventually become heavy metal
Cream• Formed by Eric Clapton in 1966 – Bass/vocals – Jack Bruce – Drums – Ginger Baker• They redefined the importance of instrumental music in rock – Played up-tempo blues – speed playing – Long jams and solos• Their motto: – “Forget the message, forget the lyrics, just play” • “Crossroads” • “Sunshine of Your Love” • “White Room” – Each player was a virtuoso • Internal bickering and the end of the band in 1968
• Seattle born and raised (1942-1970)• His style is hard to categorize since he was so ahead of his time• His style of playing guitar has influenced all aspects of hard rock• He is probably the single most influential instrumentalist in the history of rock• Jim Hendrix’s grew up poor and from a broken home – He brought his frustrations out in his music
• His performances combined the emotion of the blues, the free spirit of jazz, the angst of African American soul, with flamboyance and virtuosity• He got his first guitar at 12 – His large hands allowed him to excel as a guitarist – He could play either left-handed or right-handed without re-stringing the guitar – He could wrap his thumb completely around the neck of the guitar and sound like 2 or more guitarists
• He formed The Jimi Hendrix Experience (his band) in 1966 – “Hey Joe” – clear blues influence – “Purple Haze” – captures the dissolution of the times – “The Wind Cries Mary” – “Burning the Midnight Lamp” – “All Along the Watchtower”• His album Are You Experienced includes revolutionary guitar playing, many textures, controlled feedback and distortion• He gained wide spread American attention at the 1967 Monterey Pop festival – Set his guitar on fire
Purple Haze – Jimi Hendrix Purple Haze all in my brain, lately things dont seem the same, actin funny but I dont know why scuse me while I kiss the sky. Purple Haze all around, dont know if Im comin up or down. Am I happy or in misery?Whatever it is, that girl put a spell on me. Help me, help me. Purple Haze all in my eyes, dont know if its day or night,youve got me blowing, blowing my mind is it tomorrow or just the end of time?
Jimi Hendrix• In 1970 he was found dead in his girlfriend’s London apartment of an apparent overdose of sleeping pills and alcohol – He was 27 – Scandal and mystery surround his death • Accidental? Suicide? Murder?• His meteoric career spanned only 4 years
Janis Joplin (1943-1970) From Port Arthur, Texas A conservative community She was different from the rest She was teased as a child and not accepted by her peers Her high school voted her the “ugliest man on campus” She hated Port Arthur, Texas Her bluesy rough style of singing was inspired by the music across the gulf in Louisiana and of other early blues women Bessie Smith – Janis bought her a proper tomb stone Big Mamma Thorton Leadbelly
Janis Joplin (1943-1970) Her music expressed her frustrations She revolted against conventional femininity She caught wide attention with the band Big Brother and the Holding Company at the Monterey Pop festival (same festival as Hendrix) She was successful because (like Elvis) she was a white singer who sounded black She also had the added element of being a woman “Piece of My Heart”
Janis Joplin (1943-1970) Janis lived her life much like her music; rough, hard and often fast She was an active drug user and abuser of alcohol In October 1970 she was found dead on the floor of her hotel room of a heroin overdose – age 27 She is listed at no. 28 in Rolling Stone’s list of the 100 greatest singers of all time
Woodstock – August 1969 “3 Days of Peace and Music” 500,000 concert goers It symbolized unity of purpose among 60s youths The music reflected the antiauthoritarian attitude of the late 60s Considering the crowds it is historic as one of the few, if only, free concerts relatively free of violence
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