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Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12

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Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12 Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12 Presentation Transcript

  • Roots of Rock Music 28 Saddleback College
  • Roots of Rock
    • Africa
      • Blues, Rhythm & Blues, Jazz,
      • Gospel
        • Call & Response
        • Natural Delivery
        • Improvised
        • Shouter
    • Europe
      • US Country, Rockabilly
      • Scales, Harmony
      • Rhythm, Song Forms
      • Band organization
  • The Blues
    • Developed in the American South after the Civil War
    • An expression of the despair and hostile environment of newly emancipated slaves.
      • Call and Response
      • Sacred – they sang their sermons
      • Bending notes – blue notes
      • Foot Stomp – juba body rhythms
    • Evolved through the decades
      • A strong emphasis on rhythm
      • 12 bar blues – a standard format for the Blues
    “ Aberdeen Mississippi Blues” Bukka White
  • Blues Singers
    • Many Blues singers had similar backgrounds
      • Born in the South
      • Raised in fundamentalist churches
      • Fled from home. Music making became their ticket to a better life
  • Son House
    • Born Eddie James “Son” House (ca. 1902-88)
    • Trained as a preacher
    • Taught himself the guitar in his 20s
    • Known for:
      • Strong rhythms
      • Slide guitar
      • Gospel style of singing
      • Metal guitar
    • A Delta Blues Pioneer
      • Influenced many blues and rock artists
    “Walking Blues”
  • Robert Johnson
    • Mississippi Delta Blues master (1911-38) – only 27 years
    • Extremely talented guitarist
      • Played in many styles
      • Sounded like 2 or more guitarists playing
    • Sang using microtones
      • Bending pitch for emotional emphasis
    • Young death lead to devil legend
      • Crossroads
      • Johnson’s own admission or sarcasm?
    “Hellhound on My Trail”
  • Many types of Blues
    • Traditional country blues – a general term that refers to blues from the Mississippi delta and other rural areas of the south
      • Son House
      • Robert Johnson
      • Blind Lemon Jefferson
      • Leadbelly
    • Chicago blues – Delta blues electrified
      • Muddy Waters
      • John Lee Hooker
    • Classic blues – sometimes called classic female blues
      • A combination of traditional blues and vaudeville theater
      • More traditional instrumentation
      • Traditional blues artists benefited
  • Women Blues Singers
    • Achieved high celebrity status
      • Mamie Smith - first woman to record the Blues
      • Gertrude “Ma” Rainey popularized the Blues
        • A.k.a., “The Mother of the Blues” was Paramount’s biggest selling artist in 1920
      • Bessie Smith sold over 10 million copies of her songs – “Empress of the Blues”
  • What did Women Sing About?
    • Love gone bad
    • Shattered dreams
    • Sexual politics
    • Racism & sexism
    • Triumph through adversity
      • Empowering for other African American women
    • Identity
      • The Blues provided a genre where women could transform private expression into public music making
  • Bessie Smith (1892 – 1937)
    • Born in Tennessee
      • Orphaned by age 8
    • Worked with Ma Rainey
    • Husband left her for another woman
    • Drinking problem
    • Died in a car crash in 1937
    • At one time she was the highest paid black performer of her era.
  • Bessie Smith (1892 – 1937)
    • “Lost Your Head Blues”
      • Recorded in 1926
      • Displays Bessie’s huge, sweeping voice
      • Includes the bends and dips on notes indicative of the blues style
  • The Blues Travels North
    • The Blues was carried to Chicago by African Americans seeking better lives
    • Chicago blues thrived during and after WW II
      • Chicago Blues discovered a new sound
        • Electric guitar
    “Sweet Home Chicago” Johnny Shines
  • Electric Guitar Origi n s
    • 1930s – Charlie Christian
      • One of the first to play an electric guitar
    • 1942 – T-Bone Walker
      • First blues recording with an amplified guitar
    • 1946 – Muddy Waters
      • First electric guitar combo
    • 1948 – Leo Fender
      • First solid body electric guitar in mass
      • production
    • 1950s – Les Paul
      • Helped popularize the instrument in the 1950s
  • The Birth of Chicago Rhythm & Blues
    • In the 1940s Muddy Waters (1913-83) plugged in his guitar since he felt he could not be heard in the loud city streets of Chicago
    “Mannish Boy”
  • Howlin’ Wolf
    • Chester Burnett (Howlin’ Wolf) – (1910-76) began as a Tennessee delta blues man.
      • He howled like a wolf
      • He plugged in his guitar in 1948 while still in Memphis
      • He eventually moved north to Chicago rooming with Muddy Waters
      • He had wild stage antics
      • A Shouter
    • Hubert Sumlin (1931-2011)
    • Guitarist for HW
    • RS Top 100 Guitarists list
    “Smokestack Lightening” 1956
  • Segregated Music
    • Rhythm & Blues music was not readily available to white audiences
      • Early days only sold to black audiences
        • Race records
        • Jerry Wexler of Atlantic records coined the term R&B
      • Separate (if any) radio play
      • Separate record labels (Chess, Atlantic)
      • Sold via mail order or in five & dime stores
  • Chess Records
    • Chicago based recording company
      • First to sign and release Rhythm & Blues records
      • They discovered Bo Diddley
        • His self titled hit has been covered by many artists
  • Bo Diddley (1928-2008)
    • Early Rhythm & Blues artist
      • Characteristics:
        • Heavily rhythmic
        • Choppy guitar
        • Extensive use of riffs
        • Call and response vocal style
    “ Bo Diddley” - 1955
  • Fats Domino (b. 1928)
    • New Orleans based, piano Rhythm & Blues artist
      • Suggestive lyrics
        • “ Blueberry Hill” – a 1956 cover
      • Pounding piano chords
      • Loud full vocals
    • Flooded out during Katrina
      • Now an activist for the restoration of New Orleans
  • European/US Influence
    • Country & Country Blues
      • Hank Williams – “Lovesick Blues” – 1949
    • Rockabilly
    • A combination of blues & country/western music
      • Characteristics:
        • Twangy vocals
        • Strong emphasis on the backbeat
        • Slap bass
      • Rockabilly artists spread early Rock and Roll to white audiences
  • Rockabilly
    • Artists
      • Carl Perkins writer of “Blue Suede Shoes”
      • Jerry Lee Lewis
      • Elvis Presley
      • The Everly Brothers
      • Buddy Holly
  • The Spread of R&B
    • Early Rhythm and Blues had mostly an African American audience.
      • As it spread, white teens adopted the style and made it more popular
    • R&B sub-categories
      • Doo Wop groups
        • Vocal R&B originating in the street of NYC, Philly, & Chicago
        • Usually 4-6 men sang in harmony
          • The Jewels
          • The Coasters
          • The Drifters
    “ Yakety, Yak” by The Coasters - 1958
  • The Spread of R&B
    • Teen Hits
      • Frankie Lymon and the Teenagers
        • “ I’m not a Juvenile Delinquent” - 1957
    • Crooner Style
      • Johnny Ace “Pledging My Love” – posth. 1955
    • Cruising Music
      • The car was a cool place teens could be away from parents
        • The Turbans “When You Dance” - 1955
        • Ritchie Valens “Come On Let’s Go”, “Donna” & “La Bamba”
        • 1958
  • The Spread of R&B
    • Novelty Music
      • “Beetle Bug Bop” – explained how to do the dance
      • “Chantilly Lace” – The Big Bopper
      • “Witch Doctor”
  • Roots of Rock
    • Where did the term Rock and Roll originate?
    • The legend is wrong
      • 1955 Bill Haley’s “Rock Around the Clock”
      • Alan Freed DJ
    • 1930 “Rockin & Rollin Momma”
    • 1944 “Rock me Momma” Arthur Crudup
    • 1946 a review of a record in Billboard magazine used the term
    • Buddy Jones lyrics “I love the way you rock and roll”
    • Early 50s “Rockin & Rollin” – Little Son Jackson
  • Alan Freed - R&R Promoter
    • Early 50s disc Jockey in Cleveland, Ohio
    • Played R&B (Rhythm & Blues) records
    • Hosted racially integrated concerts in Cleveland
    • Moved to New York. Introduced white East coast teens to rhythm and blues
    • Refused to play covers of the original artists
    • Convicted of payola and tax evasion
    • Died at 43 from the effects of alcoholism
    • He is considered Rock & Roll’s early super promoter
  • Social Change and Rock and Roll
    • Television popularity
      • More radio air time available
    • New portable transistor radio
      • Teens could carry their music with them
    • Radio DJ act as advocates of R&B
      • Rock’s super promoter was Cleveland DJ Alan Freed
    • The car radio
    • The civil rights movement
      • White teens were more accepting of African American-inspired music
    • Financial wealth
      • American teens had money to spend on music
  • Unstoppable Rock
    • Despite congressional subcommittee hearings on music corruption and payola, rock flourished
    • Record companies got on the money bandwagon
      • Signed white artists to cover African American R&B – “The Blanching of Rock”
        • Pat Boone
      • Infiltrated stores with white cover versions
    • Rarely did the original African American artist receive any money for these stolen hits.
  • Unstoppable Rock
    • Bill Haley and the Comets
      • Often covered R&B hits
      • Made rock history when their hit
      • “ Rock Around the Clock” was featured in a popular movie Blackboard Jungle
      • No. 1 hit in 1955
    • Other hits include:
      • “ Shake Rattle and Roll” – original by Big Joe Turner
      • “ See You Later, Alligator”
  • The Big Five
    • Each contributed in his own way to the style, spread and history of early rock and roll
    • All had vibrant musical careers
    • All eventually left their rock careers, which signaled to many the end of rock and roll
  • The Big Five
    • Little Richard
    • Chuck Berry
    • Jerry Lee Lewis
    • Buddy Holly
    • Elvis Presley
  • Little Richard (b. 1932)
    • Baptist choir background
      • Family gospel group the Penniman Family
    • Style
      • Shout, holler vocals
      • High energy
      • Flamboyant clothing
    • He is often called the Father of Rock and Roll
    • His hits include many rock standards:
      • “ Long Tall Sally”
      • “ Slippin’ and Slidin’”
      • “ Tutti Frutti”
      • “ Good Golly Miss Molly”
      • “ Lucille”
  • Little Richard
    • In 1957 Little Richard disavowed R&R and became a minister
  • Chuck Berry (b. 1926)
    • Sang in Baptist church choir
    • The greatest influence on rock guitar styles until the appearance of Jimi Hendrix
    • Style
      • Memorable riffs
      • Flamboyant stage antics – duck walk
      • 12 bar blues form
    • His hits have been covered my hundreds of other bands
      • “ Back in the USA”
      • “ School Days”
      • “ Johnny B. Goode”
      • “ No Particular Place to Go”
      • “ Reelin’ and Rockin’”
      • “ Maybelline”
  • Chuck Berry
    • 1959 Berry was arrested for violating the Mann Act
  • Jerry Lee Lewis (b. 1935)
    • Attended religious evangelist meetings as a youth where he heard pounding piano styles
    • Style
      • Pounding piano, glissandi, boogie bass lines
      • Shouting style of singing
      • 12 bar blues form
    • His hard driving rockabilly style attracted a wider, white audience
    • Hits
      • “ Great Balls of Fire”
      • “ Whole Lotta Shakin’ Going On”
      • “ Breathless”
      • “ High School Confidential”
  • Jerry Lee Lewis
    • His marital escapades, which culminated with his third marriage to his 13 or 14 year old-second cousin, severely hindered his music career
    Jerry Lee Lewis was 23
  • Buddy Holly (1936-1959)
    • His music background was almost exclusively Country & Western
      • Rockabilly
    • Style
      • “ hiccup” vocal style
      • Strong backbeat
      • Geek-like persona
      • Softer sound
      • Conservative stage presence and personal life
    • Hits
      • “ That’ll Be the Day”
      • “ Peggy Sue”
      • “ Words of Love”
      • “ Maybe Baby”
      • “ Heartbeat”
  • Buddy Holly
    • Holly’s life and career ended in 1959 when he and two other 50s rock legends (Richie Valens and The Big Bopper) were killed in a plane crash while touring the U.S.
  • Elvis Presley (1935-1977)
    • Discovered while making a record for his mother
      • Gained in popularity because he was a white man who sounded black
    • Hits
      • His first major hit was “Heartbreak Hotel” in 1956
      • “ Hound Dog”
      • “ Don’t Be Cruel”
      • “ Love Me Tender”
    • In 1956 alone his sales exceeded the 10 million mark
  • Elvis Presley
    • In 1958 Elvis was inducted into the U.S. army which signaled to many the end of his career.
      • After his return in 1960 he resumed his music and film career
  • The Day the Music Died
    • For many, the years 1958 & 59 were the beginning of the end for rock and roll
      • Little Richard found religion
      • Jerry Lee Lewis marries his under-age cousin
      • Chuck Berry is imprisoned
      • Elvis Presley enters the army
    • The 1959 plane crash that killed Buddy Holly, The Big Bopper and Richie Valens seemed to seal the end
    • Why did Rock and Roll survive?
  • Why Did Rock Survive?
    • Rock and Roll succeeded in the decades following the 1950s for a variety of reasons
      • Teen appeal
      • Vehicle for expression
        • Love – both lost and gained
        • Angst – misunderstood youth
        • Social conflict – civil rights, women’s liberation
        • Anarchy – war, politics
      • Financial prosperity
        • Rock sold internationally