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Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12
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Music 28 Slides No. 2 - S12

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  • 1. Roots of Rock Music 28 Saddleback College
  • 2. Roots of Rock • Africa – Blues, Rhythm & Blues, Jazz, Gospel • Call & Response • Natural Delivery • Improvised • Shouter • Europe – US Country, Rockabilly – Scales, Harmony – Rhythm, Song Forms – Band organization
  • 3. The Blues • Developed in the American South after the Civil War • An expression of the despair and hostile environment of newly emancipated slaves. – Call and Response – Sacred – they sang their sermons – Bending notes – blue notes – Foot Stomp – juba body rhythms • Evolved through the decades – A strong emphasis on rhythm – 12 bar blues – a standard format for the Blues “Aberdeen Mississippi Blues” Bukka White
  • 4. Blues Singers • Many Blues singers had similar backgrounds – Born in the South – Raised in fundamentalist churches – Fled from home. Music making became their ticket to a better life
  • 5. Son House • Born Eddie James “Son” House (ca. 1902-88) • Trained as a preacher • Taught himself the guitar in his 20s • Known for: – Strong rhythms – Slide guitar – Gospel style of singing – Metal guitar • A Delta Blues Pioneer – Influenced many blues and rock artists “Walking Blues”
  • 6. Robert Johnson • Mississippi Delta Blues master (1911-38) – only 27 years • Extremely talented guitarist – Played in many styles – Sounded like 2 or more guitarists playing • Sang using microtones – Bending pitch for emotional emphasis • Young death lead to devil legend – Crossroads – Johnson’s own admission or sarcasm? “Hellhound on My Trail”
  • 7. Many types of Blues • Traditional country blues – a general term that refers to blues from the Mississippi delta and other rural areas of the south – Son House – Robert Johnson – Blind Lemon Jefferson – Leadbelly • Chicago blues – Delta blues electrified – Muddy Waters – John Lee Hooker • Classic blues – sometimes called classic female blues – A combination of traditional blues and vaudeville theater – More traditional instrumentation – Traditional blues artists benefited
  • 8. Women Blues Singers • Achieved high celebrity status – Mamie Smith - first woman to record the Blues – Gertrude “Ma” Rainey popularized the Blues • A.k.a., “The Mother of the Blues” was Paramount’s biggest selling artist in 1920 – Bessie Smith sold over 10 million copies of her songs – “Empress of the Blues”
  • 9. What did Women Sing About? • Love gone bad • Shattered dreams • Sexual politics • Racism & sexism • Triumph through adversity – Empowering for other African American women • Identity – The Blues provided a genre where women could transform private expression into public music making
  • 10. Bessie Smith (1892 – 1937) • Born in Tennessee – Orphaned by age 8 • Worked with Ma Rainey • Husband left her for another woman • Drinking problem • Died in a car crash in 1937 • At one time she was the highest paid black performer of her era.
  • 11. Bessie Smith (1892 – 1937) • “Lost Your Head Blues” – Recorded in 1926 – Displays Bessie’s huge, sweeping voice – Includes the bends and dips on notes indicative of the blues style
  • 12. The Blues Travels North • The Blues was carried to Chicago by African Americans seeking better lives • Chicago blues thrived during and after WW II – Chicago Blues discovered a new sound • Electric guitar “Sweet Home Chicago” Johnny Shines
  • 13. Electric Guitar Origins • 1930s – Charlie Christian – One of the first to play an electric guitar • 1942 – T-Bone Walker – First blues recording with an amplified guitar • 1946 – Muddy Waters – First electric guitar combo • 1948 – Leo Fender – First solid body electric guitar in mass production • 1950s – Les Paul – Helped popularize the instrument in the 1950s
  • 14. The Birth of Chicago Rhythm & Blues • In the 1940s Muddy Waters (1913-83) plugged in his guitar since he felt he could not be heard in the loud city streets of Chicago “Mannish Boy”
  • 15. Howlin’ Wolf • Chester Burnett (Howlin’ Wolf) – (1910-76) began as a Tennessee delta blues man. – He howled like a wolf – He plugged in his guitar in 1948 while still in Memphis – He eventually moved north to Chicago rooming with Muddy Waters – He had wild stage antics – A Shouter • Hubert Sumlin (1931-2011) • Guitarist for HW • RS Top 100 Guitarists list “Smokestack Lightening” 1956
  • 16. Segregated Music • Rhythm & Blues music was not readily available to white audiences – Early days only sold to black audiences • Race records • Jerry Wexler of Atlantic records coined the term R&B – Separate (if any) radio play – Separate record labels (Chess, Atlantic) – Sold via mail order or in five & dime stores
  • 17. Chess Records • Chicago based recording company – First to sign and release Rhythm & Blues records – They discovered Bo Diddley • His self titled hit has been covered by many artists
  • 18. Bo Diddley (1928-2008) • Early Rhythm & Blues artist – Characteristics: • Heavily rhythmic • Choppy guitar • Extensive use of riffs • Call and response vocal style “Bo Diddley” - 1955
  • 19. Fats Domino (b. 1928) • New Orleans based, piano Rhythm & Blues artist – Suggestive lyrics • “Blueberry Hill” – a 1956 cover – Pounding piano chords – Loud full vocals • Flooded out during Katrina – Now an activist for the restoration of New Orleans
  • 20. European/US Influence • Country & Country Blues – Hank Williams – “Lovesick Blues” – 1949 • Rockabilly • A combination of blues & country/western music – Characteristics: • Twangy vocals • Strong emphasis on the backbeat • Slap bass – Rockabilly artists spread early Rock and Roll to white audiences
  • 21. Rockabilly • Artists – Carl Perkins writer of “Blue Suede Shoes” – Jerry Lee Lewis – Elvis Presley – The Everly Brothers – Buddy Holly
  • 22. The Spread of R&B • Early Rhythm and Blues had mostly an African American audience. – As it spread, white teens adopted the style and made it more popular • R&B sub-categories – Doo Wop groups • Vocal R&B originating in the street of NYC, Philly, & Chicago • Usually 4-6 men sang in harmony – The Jewels – The Coasters – The Drifters “Yakety, Yak” by The Coasters - 1958
  • 23. The Spread of R&B • Teen Hits – Frankie Lymon and the Teenagers • “I’m not a Juvenile Delinquent” - 1957 • Crooner Style – Johnny Ace “Pledging My Love” – posth. 1955 • Cruising Music – The car was a cool place teens could be away from parents • The Turbans “When You Dance” - 1955 • Ritchie Valens “Come On Let’s Go”, “Donna” & “La Bamba” 1958
  • 24. The Spread of R&B • Novelty Music – “Beetle Bug Bop” – explained how to do the dance – “Chantilly Lace” – The Big Bopper – “Witch Doctor”
  • 25. Roots of Rock • Where did the term Rock and Roll originate? • The legend is wrong – 1955 Bill Haley’s “Rock Around the Clock” – Alan Freed DJ • 1930 “Rockin & Rollin Momma” • 1944 “Rock me Momma” Arthur Crudup • 1946 a review of a record in Billboard magazine used the term • Buddy Jones lyrics “I love the way you rock and roll” • Early 50s “Rockin & Rollin” – Little Son Jackson
  • 26. Alan Freed - R&R Promoter • Early 50s disc Jockey in Cleveland, Ohio • Played R&B (Rhythm & Blues) records • Hosted racially integrated concerts in Cleveland • Moved to New York. Introduced white East coast teens to rhythm and blues • Refused to play covers of the original artists • Convicted of payola and tax evasion • Died at 43 from the effects of alcoholism • He is considered Rock & Roll’s early super promoter
  • 27. Social Change and Rock and Roll • Television popularity – More radio air time available • New portable transistor radio – Teens could carry their music with them • Radio DJ act as advocates of R&B – Rock’s super promoter was Cleveland DJ Alan Freed • The car radio • The civil rights movement – White teens were more accepting of African American-inspired music • Financial wealth – American teens had money to spend on music
  • 28. Unstoppable Rock • Despite congressional subcommittee hearings on music corruption and payola, rock flourished • Record companies got on the money bandwagon – Signed white artists to cover African American R&B – “The Blanching of Rock” • Pat Boone – Infiltrated stores with white cover versions • Rarely did the original African American artist receive any money for these stolen hits.
  • 29. Unstoppable Rock • Bill Haley and the Comets – Often covered R&B hits – Made rock history when their hit – “Rock Around the Clock” was featured in a popular movie Blackboard Jungle – No. 1 hit in 1955 • Other hits include: – “Shake Rattle and Roll” – original by Big Joe Turner – “See You Later, Alligator”
  • 30. The Big Five • Each contributed in his own way to the style, spread and history of early rock and roll • All had vibrant musical careers • All eventually left their rock careers, which signaled to many the end of rock and roll
  • 31. The Big Five Little Richard Chuck Berry Jerry Lee Lewis Buddy Holly Elvis Presley
  • 32. Little Richard (b. 1932) • Baptist choir background – Family gospel group the Penniman Family • Style – Shout, holler vocals – High energy – Flamboyant clothing • He is often called the Father of Rock and Roll • His hits include many rock standards: – “Long Tall Sally” – “Slippin’ and Slidin’” – “Tutti Frutti” – “Good Golly Miss Molly” – “Lucille”
  • 33. Little Richard • In 1957 Little Richard disavowed R&R and became a minister
  • 34. Chuck Berry (b. 1926) • Sang in Baptist church choir • The greatest influence on rock guitar styles until the appearance of Jimi Hendrix • Style – Memorable riffs – Flamboyant stage antics – duck walk – 12 bar blues form • His hits have been covered my hundreds of other bands – “Back in the USA” – “School Days” – “Johnny B. Goode” – “No Particular Place to Go” – “Reelin’ and Rockin’” – “Maybelline”
  • 35. Chuck Berry • 1959 Berry was arrested for violating the Mann Act
  • 36. Jerry Lee Lewis (b. 1935) • Attended religious evangelist meetings as a youth where he heard pounding piano styles • Style – Pounding piano, glissandi, boogie bass lines – Shouting style of singing – 12 bar blues form • His hard driving rockabilly style attracted a wider, white audience • Hits – “Great Balls of Fire” – “Whole Lotta Shakin’ Going On” – “Breathless” – “High School Confidential”
  • 37. Jerry Lee Lewis • His marital escapades, which culminated with his third marriage to his 13 or 14 year old-second cousin, severely hindered his music career Jerry Lee Lewis was 23
  • 38. Buddy Holly (1936-1959) • His music background was almost exclusively Country & Western – Rockabilly • Style – “hiccup” vocal style – Strong backbeat – Geek-like persona – Softer sound – Conservative stage presence and personal life • Hits – “That’ll Be the Day” – “Peggy Sue” – “Words of Love” – “Maybe Baby” – “Heartbeat”
  • 39. Buddy Holly • Holly’s life and career ended in 1959 when he and two other 50s rock legends (Richie Valens and The Big Bopper) were killed in a plane crash while touring the U.S.
  • 40. Elvis Presley (1935-1977) • Discovered while making a record for his mother – Gained in popularity because he was a white man who sounded black • Hits – His first major hit was “Heartbreak Hotel” in 1956 – “Hound Dog” – “Don’t Be Cruel” – “Love Me Tender” • In 1956 alone his sales exceeded the 10 million mark
  • 41. Elvis Presley • In 1958 Elvis was inducted into the U.S. army which signaled to many the end of his career. – After his return in 1960 he resumed his music and film career
  • 42. The Day the Music Died • For many, the years 1958 & 59 were the beginning of the end for rock and roll – Little Richard found religion – Jerry Lee Lewis marries his under-age cousin – Chuck Berry is imprisoned – Elvis Presley enters the army • The 1959 plane crash that killed Buddy Holly, The Big Bopper and Richie Valens seemed to seal the end • Why did Rock and Roll survive?
  • 43. Why Did Rock Survive? • Rock and Roll succeeded in the decades following the 1950s for a variety of reasons – Teen appeal – Vehicle for expression • Love – both lost and gained • Angst – misunderstood youth • Social conflict – civil rights, women’s liberation • Anarchy – war, politics – Financial prosperity • Rock sold internationally

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