Mus 100 slides no. 1


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  • See page 7 of text
  • Play examples of Duple and Triple meters
  • Draw chords on the board and play examples.♫
  • Play examples of major and minor melodies.
  • Play examples of major and minor from LtoM intro CD track 6
  • Play Text CD 2/6 Mozart flute concerto for consonance and CD 4/11 Barber Adagio for dissonance
  • Schubert’s Erlking is an example of chromatic scale or Wagner’s Liebestodt. See text page 21. Debussy’s music is an example of whole tone scale. Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun. Play Amazing Grace for Pentatonic scale, triple meter and slow tempo.
  • Play examples of monophonic chant, polyphonic Josquin Ave Maria.
  • Play examples of Homophony – folk tunes any Indigo Girls
  • Draw hair-pins on the board Play Strauss page 9 of text. Also sprach Zarathustra example of dynamics. Play Ravel’s Balero – Kamien CD track 12 double check
  • Draw hair-pins on the board Play Strauss page 9 of text. Also sprach Zarathustra example of dynamics. Play Ravel’s Balero – Kamien CD track 12 double check
  • Mus 100 slides no. 1

    1. 1. Music 100 Music Appreciation
    2. 2. <ul><li>THERE ARE NO MAKE UP EXAMS FOR ANY REASON . </li></ul>
    3. 3. “ Failing to prepare is preparing to fail.” Coach John Wooden
    4. 4. Music Appreciation <ul><li>What is an appreciation anyhow? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>College Class Catalogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Art </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theater </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dance </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Writing about and describing something we hear can be challenging </li></ul><ul><li>The following tips can be used for your listening logs, concert reports or short answers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Start with the basics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fast – Slow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Voices – Instruments – Combo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loud – Soft </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Happy – Sad </li></ul></ul></ul>How to Write about Music
    6. 6. How to Write about Music <ul><li>Stating “I didn’t like it” or “It was amazing” is a place to start, but ask yourself “ why ?” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“I didn’t like it because the fast pace made me feel anxious” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“It was amazing when the singer sang so high and for so long on the final note” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“I was bored” – Better would be: “I was bored since the music seemed the same and it didn’t grab my attention.” </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Part One – Basic Concepts <ul><li>The term “music” can be defined in many ways. What is your definition? </li></ul><ul><li>An art of organized sound </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>In order to become informed listeners of music we must learn how and what to listen for. </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Melody </li></ul><ul><li>Sound </li></ul><ul><li>Rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>Harmony </li></ul><ul><li>Texture </li></ul><ul><li>Form </li></ul>Unit One
    9. 9. Tone <ul><li>Tone – A specific pitch (or a note). </li></ul><ul><li>Western music refers to tones with letter names A through G. </li></ul><ul><li>On a piano, these tones are assigned to the white notes of the keyboard. </li></ul><ul><li>Music tones (notes) are defined by their pitch and their duration – the length of time a tone’s sound vibrates </li></ul>
    10. 10. Piano Keyboard A B C D E F G
    11. 11. Music Notation <ul><li>Music is written on, or notated on a staff , consisting of 5 lines and 4 spaces. </li></ul><ul><li>A staff is a graphic representation of music tones. </li></ul><ul><li>Notes low on the staff sound low and those high on the staff sound high. </li></ul>C D E F G A B C
    12. 12. Melody <ul><li>An organization of musical tones. </li></ul><ul><li>A succession of tones (a melody) creates a linear pattern on the music staff. </li></ul><ul><li>Interval – the distance between 2 tones. The most common is an interval of an octave. </li></ul>Yankee Doodle
    13. 13. Piano Keyboard ↑ ↑ Interval of an Octave
    14. 14. Melody <ul><li>A melody is characterized by: </li></ul><ul><li>Its range – the distance between the highest and lowest tones in the melody </li></ul><ul><li>Its shape – the overall direction a melody takes as it moves up, down or remains fixed </li></ul><ul><li>Its movement – how a melody moves from tone to tone </li></ul><ul><li>conjunct movement – step by step movement, closely </li></ul><ul><li>related tones. </li></ul><ul><li>disjunct movement – wide movement, distantly </li></ul><ul><li>related tones. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Melody Shapes
    16. 16. Melody Shapes
    17. 17. Melody Movement Conjunct Disjunct
    18. 18. Melody <ul><li>A melody is much like a sentence. They contain phrases . </li></ul><ul><li>Phrases arrive at stopping points within a piece of music called cadences . </li></ul><ul><li>Cadences act much like punctuation marks such as commas, semi-colons and periods. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Phrase ↓ Cadence
    20. 20. Melody <ul><li>Phrases are often presented in alternating, pairs. One phrase often asks a question, while the alternating phrase answers the question, i.e., Row, Row, Row Your Boat </li></ul>
    21. 21. Rhythm <ul><li>Beat vs. Rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>The Beat is the steady pulse of music (what we often tap our feet to). </li></ul><ul><li>Rhythm is the arrangement of long and short sounds in music. </li></ul><ul><li>Rhythm is the earliest and most basic element of music. </li></ul><ul><li>Rhythm moves music forward </li></ul>
    22. 22. Meter <ul><li>The organization of rhythm into metrical patterns. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meter groups beats into stressed and unstressed patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meter organizes the beat and rhythm in units called measures. </li></ul>
    23. 23. One Measure (bar)
    24. 24. Meter <ul><li>The most common meters are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>duple (2 beats per measure) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>triple (3 beats per measure) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>quadruple (4 beats per measure) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meter is expressed in the beginning of a score with a time signature . </li></ul>
    25. 25. Conducting Patterns Duple Triple
    26. 26. Additional Rhythmic Terms <ul><li>Downbeat – the first beat of a measure. Indicated by the downward motion of a conducting pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>Upbeat – the last beat of a measure. Indicated by the upward motion of a conducting pattern. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upbeats and downbeats follow the direction of a conductor’s arm. </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Additional Rhythmic Terms <ul><li>Syncopation – purposely emphasizing the weak beats or offbeat. This is a distinct element of jazz. </li></ul><ul><li>Additive Meter – found often in non-Western music, irregular groupings of beats in a larger pattern. (10=2+3+2+3) </li></ul><ul><li>Nonmetric – music lacking any strong sense of beat or meter. Can be heard in Medieval chant. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Harmony – Musical Space <ul><li>Two or more different tones sounded together. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides support for melody. </li></ul><ul><li>Melody is horizontal (linear) </li></ul><ul><li>Harmony is vertical in music. </li></ul><ul><li>Chord – a combination of 3 or more pitches sounded simultaneously. A series of chords is called a chord progression. </li></ul><ul><li>Chord progressions create forward movement in music. </li></ul>
    29. 29. Harmony Triad – a special type of chord built of intervals of thirds. Triads or Chords can be played blocked or broken (arpeggios).
    30. 30. Scales <ul><li>Scales - A group of ascending or descending tones arranged in a set order. </li></ul><ul><li>The two most common scales in Western music are major and minor scales </li></ul>
    31. 31. Hearing Major and Minor <ul><li>Scales are like colors on an artists palette. </li></ul><ul><li>A composer will choose a specific scale to achieve a desired musical mood. </li></ul>
    32. 32. Hearing Major and Minor <ul><li>The specific mood a scale expresses is very subjective. It varies from person to person. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally, we hear major melodies as bright, cheery, optimistic. </li></ul><ul><li>Conversely, minor melodies are often dark, somber and even sinister in mood. </li></ul>
    33. 33. Harmony <ul><li>Tonality or Tonal music </li></ul><ul><li>Music centered around a single tone or tonic note of a major or minor scale. </li></ul><ul><li>i.e., a song in the key of C </li></ul>1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 do re mi fa sol la ti do
    34. 34. Harmony <ul><li>Consonant – restful, passive sounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Dissonant – unstable, active, tense sounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Dissonant sounds tend to move the listener forward in a desire for consonance. </li></ul><ul><li>Drone – a sustained tone against which melody and rhythm develop. Drones are common in non-Western music and Medieval chant. </li></ul>
    35. 35. More Types of Scales <ul><li>Chromatic Scale – comprised entirely of half steps. Creates a sense of tension. </li></ul><ul><li>Whole-Tone Scale – comprised entirely of whole steps. Creates a sense of floating or endlessness due to the lack of half steps. This scale is often used for a dreamy effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Pentatonic Scale – A five note scale with a range of an octave. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The most familiar is playing all the black notes on a keyboard. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Almost all cultures have some form of pentatonic scale. </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Chromatic Scale – comprised entirely of half steps. Creates a sense of tension. ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ Half steps
    37. 37. <ul><li>Pentatonic Scale – A five note scale with a range of an octave. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The most common is playing a group of five black notes on a keyboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The most universal global scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simple melodies lie within a comfortably vocal range </li></ul></ul></ul>
    38. 38. TEXTURE <ul><li>The ways in which melody and harmony are combined in music. </li></ul><ul><li>3 types of texture in music. </li></ul><ul><li>Monophonic </li></ul><ul><li>Polyphonic </li></ul><ul><li>Homophonic </li></ul>
    39. 39. Texture <ul><li>Monophonic – A single, unaccompanied melody. Gregorian chant is often sung in a monophonic texture. All voices sing in unison, the same melody. </li></ul>
    40. 40. Texture <ul><li>Polyphonic – More than one melody sounding simultaneously. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Songs in a round where a melody is preformed by 2 or more voices entering at different times is a type of polyphony. </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Special types of Polyphony <ul><li>Counterpoint – another term synonymous with polyphony </li></ul><ul><li>Imitation – a melody is presented in one voice then restated in one or more additional voices. This is also called canon or round . </li></ul>
    42. 42. Texture <ul><li>Homophonic – a melody accompanied by other voices or instruments creating harmony rather than melody. Hymns or folk songs are usually accompanied by chords on a piano, organ or guitar while singers sing the melody. </li></ul>
    43. 43. Musical Form <ul><li>Form </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The overall design of a piece of music. The big picture. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Significant for instrumental music since it lacks a text which helps determine form. </li></ul><ul><li>The Main principles of form: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repetition – provides unity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contrast – provides variety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variation – a blend </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Musical Form <ul><li>Strophic form – Same melody, different words </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most Christmas carols, hymns, popular songs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Binary form – two part form A-B </li></ul><ul><li>Ternary form – three part form A-B-A </li></ul><ul><li>Elements of Form </li></ul><ul><li>Theme – a melody that recurs throughout a piece, either in its original form or altered in some way. This is most easily heard in film scores. Themes create unity. </li></ul><ul><li>i.e., Star Wars </li></ul>
    45. 45. Musical Form <ul><li>Elements of Form </li></ul><ul><li>Motive or motivic melody – a short melodic phrase that constitutes the building blocks of a piece of music. Usually shorter than a theme. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beethoven’s 5th Symphony is an example of a motivic melody. </li></ul></ul>
    46. 46. Elements of Form <ul><li>Sequence – The repetition of a phrase either raised or lowered in pitch, i.e., opening of Tchaikovsky’s Trepak </li></ul>
    47. 47. Musical Expression – Tempo <ul><li>The rate of speed in music. </li></ul><ul><li>Indicated with Italian terms or metronome markings in the score. </li></ul><ul><li>Largo = slow </li></ul><ul><li>Adagio = slow </li></ul><ul><li>Andante = moderate </li></ul><ul><li>Moderato = moderate </li></ul><ul><li>Allegro = fast </li></ul><ul><li>Presto = very fast </li></ul><ul><li>Vivace = lively </li></ul>Text page 35
    48. 48. Musical Expression – Dynamics <ul><li>The level of volume in music </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamics (how loud to play or sing) were not indicated to performers until the seventeenth century. </li></ul><ul><li>The names and symbols for dynamics originated in Italy due to their strong influence in music during the seventeenth century. </li></ul>
    49. 49. Dynamics: Names and Symbols Text page 36
    50. 50. Dynamics: Names and Symbols <ul><li>Crescendo – Gradually becoming louder </li></ul><ul><li>Decrescendo or Diminuendo – Gradually becoming softer. </li></ul>
    51. 51. ↓ Tempo Marking ↓ Dynamic mark ↓ Crescendo Mark ↓ Dynamic mark Eighth Rests Quarter note
    52. 52. Timbre <ul><li>The quality of sound of a particular voice or instrument. </li></ul><ul><li>For example the difference between the same tone played on a piano, a trumpet and a violin. </li></ul>
    53. 53. Timbre <ul><li>Instruments of the Orchestra </li></ul><ul><li>Instrument Families: </li></ul><ul><li>Strings </li></ul><ul><li>Brass </li></ul><ul><li>Woodwinds </li></ul><ul><li>Percussion </li></ul><ul><li>Instrument families share certain characteristics, such as how they play their instruments, i.e., bowed, plucked, blown or struck. </li></ul>
    54. 54. The World of Musical Instruments <ul><li>Aerophones – sound produced by air vibrations </li></ul><ul><li>Chordophones – sound produced with string vibrations </li></ul><ul><li>Idiophones – sound produced by the instrument itself </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bells, rattles, xylophones, and cymbals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Membranophones – sound produced from stretched membranes </li></ul>
    55. 55. String Instruments <ul><li>Orchestral Strings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Violin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viola </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cello </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Played with a bow or pizzicato </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other String Instruments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guitar, banjo, dulcimer, lute, and ukulele </li></ul></ul>
    56. 56. Additional Stringed Instruments
    57. 57. Instruments of the Orchestra <ul><li>Woodwinds </li></ul><ul><li>Piccolo, flute, oboe, English horn, clarinet and bassoon </li></ul><ul><li>Sound is produced by a column of air being blown across a hole (flute, piccolo) or into a mouthpiece containing reeds which activate the column of air (oboe, clarinet, English horn, bassoon). </li></ul>
    58. 58. Woodwind Instruments <ul><li>Piccolo </li></ul><ul><li>Flute </li></ul><ul><li>Oboe </li></ul><ul><li>English horn </li></ul><ul><li>Clarinet </li></ul><ul><li>Bassoon </li></ul><ul><li>Saxophone </li></ul>
    59. 59. Instruments of the Orchestra <ul><li>The Brass Family </li></ul><ul><li>Trumpet, trombone, French horn, tuba </li></ul><ul><li>Sound is produced by a column of air blown through a mouthpiece as a player vibrates his lips. </li></ul>
    60. 60. Brass Instruments <ul><li>Trumpet </li></ul><ul><li>Trombone </li></ul><ul><li>Horn or French horn </li></ul><ul><li>Tuba </li></ul>
    61. 61. Instruments of the Orchestra <ul><li>Percussion Instruments </li></ul><ul><li>A large category of instruments that produce sound by shaking, rubbing or striking their instruments. </li></ul><ul><li>Definite pitch such as: Timpani (kettle drums), xylophone and chimes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Play specific pitches that conform to standard music notation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indefinite pitch such as: tambourine, triangle, cymbals and drums </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sounds do not conform to standard music pitches </li></ul></ul>
    62. 62. Percussion Instruments <ul><li>Definite pitch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Timpani </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chimes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Xylophone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indefinite pitch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tambourine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triangle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cymbals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drums </li></ul></ul>
    63. 63. ©
    64. 64. Keyboard Instruments <ul><li>Instruments that produce sound by players pressing keys on a keyboard. </li></ul><ul><li>Harpsichord, piano, pipe organ </li></ul><ul><li>Harpsichord – a predecessor to a piano. Harpsichords produce sound when a player depresses a key and a small piece called a plectrum plucks one of the strings. The sound produced by a harpsichord is not able to be sustained and dies away quickly. </li></ul>
    65. 65. Harpsichord
    66. 67. Keyboard Instruments <ul><li>Piano </li></ul><ul><li>Pianos produce sound when a player depresses a key and a hammer strikes the strings. </li></ul><ul><li>Pianos are also considered percussion instruments since sound is produced through striking the strings. </li></ul><ul><li>Pianos are capable of a wide range of tones from connected and singing to bright and percussive. </li></ul>
    67. 68. Piano
    68. 69. Keyboard Instruments <ul><li>Pipe Organs – The King of Instruments </li></ul><ul><li>The oldest keyboard instrument </li></ul><ul><li>Tones are produced through wind </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pipes of various lengths are mechanically or electrically supplied with air. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organ tones are sustained for as long as the player depresses the keys. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stops allow the player to change the timbre and dynamic level of the sound. </li></ul><ul><li>Organs can have as many as 5 keyboards (manuals) to play, as well as a pedal board to play with the feet </li></ul>
    69. 70. Pipe Organ
    70. 72. Electronic Instruments <ul><li>Electronic keyboards, guitars and organs </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic synthesizer – an instrument that allows composers to produce imitative, altered or original sounds. Came into wide use in the U.S. during the late 1950s and 1960s. Digital technology allows composers to control every aspect of sound. </li></ul>
    71. 73. Electronic Music Studio <ul><li>Synthesizer </li></ul><ul><li>MIDI – the language </li></ul><ul><li>of digitized music. </li></ul><ul><li>MIDI stands for </li></ul><ul><li>“ musical instrument </li></ul><ul><li>digital interface” </li></ul><ul><li>It is a 16 bit, or hexadecimal </li></ul><ul><li>language </li></ul>
    72. 74. Electronic Instruments <ul><li>Digital technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can fine-tune sounds unlike any other method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses graphical analysis to alter sound files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mp3 files can be transported on many types of listening devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Audio Workstations (DAWs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pro Tools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cubase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ACID </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Logic (Mac) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    73. 75. Performing Groups <ul><li>Symphony Orchestra </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concert or symphonic band </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chamber music – pg 57 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less than approximately 12 players </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Choral music – vocal groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chorus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choir </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glee clubs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opera </li></ul><ul><li>Jazz </li></ul>
    74. 76. The Orchestra
    75. 77. A Choir
    76. 78. Instruments of the Orchestra <ul><li>Benjamin Britten’s Young Person’s Guide to the Orchestra Page 38 in your text. </li></ul><ul><li>Britten presents a main theme then a series of variations played by the different sections of the orchestra: woodwinds, strings, brass then percussion. </li></ul><ul><li>Sergei Prokofiev’s Peter and the Wolf . Prokofiev depicts each character of the story with a specific instrument. </li></ul>
    77. 79. Peter and the Wolf By Sergei Prokofiev