Mus 100 4 barq instr

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  • Baroque Keyboard instruments Organ: used at church and home Harpsichord: strings are plucked by quills, cannot sustain tones Clavichord: metal levers exert pressure on strings
  • Baroque Concerto Basic elements of Baroque: contrast and unity Concerto : from the Latin concertare (“to contend with”) Instrumental form based on the opposition of different forces
  • 26. The Baroque Suite and Other Instrumental Forms Suite : a group of dances, usually in the same key, in binary form ( A-A-B-B ) Standard dances in a suite: Allemande : German dance, quadruple meter, moderate tempo Courante : French dance in triple meter at moderate tempo Sarabande : stately Spanish dance in triple meter Gigue (jig) : English dance in a lively 6/8 or 6/4 Other optional dances: minuet, gavotte, bourrée, passepied Repeated sections in binary form were ornamented when played for second time Noted composers of suites: Arcangelo Corelli, J. S. Bach, Georg Philipp Telemann, François Couperin, Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre, George Frideric Handel
  • Handel and the Orchestral Suite Two notable suites by Handel Water Music Music for the Royal Fireworks
  • D-major Suite Opens with fanfare-like theme in trumpets Answered by horns and strings Followed by lively hornpipe (dance)
  • Keyboard forms: Two basic types (1) Based on harmony with strong element of improvisation Prelude : short introductory piece based on improvisation Chorale prelude : embellished chorale tune, introductory (2) Stricter forms based on counterpoint Fugue
  • Mus 100 4 barq instr

    1. 1. Baroque Instrumental Music <ul><li>Orchestral Music </li></ul><ul><li>Early Baroque orchestras consisted mostly of strings with a few wind instruments for added color. </li></ul>
    2. 2. Instrumental Music of the Baroque Vivaldi Handel J.S. Bach
    3. 3. Baroque Keyboard Instruments <ul><li>Organ </li></ul><ul><li>Harpsichord </li></ul><ul><li>Clavichord </li></ul>harpsichord
    4. 5. Baroque Instrumental Music <ul><li>Keyboard music began to replace the lute in popularity. </li></ul><ul><li>Virtually every home had a harpsichord in it. </li></ul>
    5. 6. Pipe Organ <ul><li>The pipe organ was well suited to the Late Baroque, highly dramatic and polyphonic instrumental style. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamics could be changed abruptly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly polyphonic music was easier to achieve with multiple manuals (keyboards). </li></ul></ul>
    6. 7. Baroque Concerto <ul><li>Contrast and unity </li></ul><ul><li>Latin concertare (“to contend with”) </li></ul><ul><li>Opposition of different forces </li></ul>Two Types of Concerto Solo Concerto Concerto Grosso
    7. 8. Baroque Instrumental Music <ul><li>A Baroque Concerto Grosso is a multi-movement piece for orchestra and one or more solo instruments. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a musical conversation between two groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parts of a concerto grosso </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concertino – the smaller or solo group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ripieno – the larger orchestra group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is also sometimes called Tutti </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 9. Antonio Vivaldi – one of the most prolific composers of Baroque concertos.
    9. 10. “ Spring” from Vivaldi’s Four Seasons <ul><li>Terraced Dynamics – A way of changing dynamics by adding or subtracting the number of instruments in an ensemble. </li></ul><ul><li>Ritornello – a section of the music that always returns with the same music. </li></ul>
    10. 11. “Spring” from The Four Seasons <ul><li>Sonnet that prefaced this movement: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Spring has come, and the birds greet it with happy songs, and at the same time the streams run softly murmuring to the breathing of the gentle breezes. Then the sky being cloaked in black, thunder and lightning come and have their way; after the storm has quieted, the little birds turn again to their harmonious song.” </li></ul>
    11. 12. The Baroque Suite <ul><li>Suite: Instrumental music based on dance forms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allemande </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Courante </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sarabande </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gigue (jig) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other optional dances: minuet, gavotte, bourrée, passepied </li></ul>
    12. 13. <ul><li>Movements </li></ul><ul><li>Individual sections of a larger piece of music </li></ul><ul><li>French Suite, No. 1, D minor BWV 812 Johann Sebastian Bach </li></ul><ul><li>Allemande </li></ul><ul><li>Courante </li></ul><ul><li>Sarabande </li></ul><ul><li>Menuet </li></ul><ul><li>Gigue </li></ul>
    13. 14. Handel and the Orchestral Suite Two notable suites by Handel <ul><li>Water Music </li></ul><ul><li>Music for the Royal Fireworks </li></ul><ul><li>Royal party on the Thames River in London, July 17, 1717 </li></ul>
    14. 15. Water Music , Suite in D major, II <ul><li>D-major Suite </li></ul><ul><li>Opens with fanfare-like theme in trumpets </li></ul><ul><li>Answered by horns and strings </li></ul><ul><li>Followed by lively hornpipe (dance) </li></ul>
    15. 16. Keyboard forms <ul><li>Two basic types </li></ul><ul><li>Based on harmony with a strong element of improvisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prelude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chorale prelude </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(2) Stricter forms based on Counterpoint (polyphonic formula) </li></ul><ul><li>Fugue </li></ul>
    16. 17. Genres of Baroque keyboard music <ul><li>Prelude – a brief piece that may be an independent composition or an introduction to another piece or set of pieces. </li></ul><ul><li>A prelude and fugue were a common pair in the Baroque era. </li></ul>
    17. 18. Fugue <ul><li>A polyphonic (counterpoint) composition with 2 or more independent melodic lines (or voices). </li></ul><ul><li>The parts of a fugue consist of an exposition (opening) where the principle theme is introduced, and episodes where material may be developed. </li></ul>
    18. 19. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) <ul><li>His keyboard music is considered the standard that all keyboard players must learn and study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Well Tempered Clavier books I & II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two sets of preludes and fugues in all 12 major and 12 minor keys </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive collection of organ music </li></ul></ul>
    19. 20. J.S. Bach’s Prelude and fugue in C minor, from The Well-Tempered Clavier <ul><li>Prelude – improvisatory, free form </li></ul><ul><li>Fugue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 voices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disjunct theme </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Page 174 </li></ul>

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