Mus 100 2 mid ren


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  • School of athens
  • Josquin: Ave Maria . . . virgo serena (Listening Guide) Renaissance motet Explores combinations of voices and textures Begins with a quotation of chant Rest of work is newly composed Contrasts sections of imitation with homorhythmic sections homorhythmic : all voices move together rhythmically Final couplet: simple texture, example of humanistic spirit
  • Palestrina: Pope Marcellus Mass, Gloria (Listening Guide) Satisfies the new strict demands of the Council of Trent Probably performed a cappella Written for six voice parts Soprano (sung by boys or male falsettists) Alto (sung by male altos or countertenors (tenors with high voices) Tenor I Tenor II Bass I Bass II Opens with a monophonic intonation Choral sections are polyphonic Text is clear and audible
  • John Farmer (c. 1570–1601) Active in 1590s in Dublin Organist and master of choirboys at Christ Church   Farmer: Fair Phyllis (Listening Guide) Cheerful mood Sectional repetitions Contrapuntal imitation Contrasting texture (homorhythmic, polyphonic) Word painting
  • Sting video
  • Early Instrumental Music Central role in art music reserved for vocal music Instrumental music mostly improvised (not notated) Performed by ensembles of soft ( bas ) or loud ( haut ) instruments Categorized by their use (indoor or outdoor)
  • Early Instrumental Music Central role in art music reserved for vocal music Instrumental music mostly improvised (not notated) Performed by ensembles of soft ( bas ) or loud ( haut ) instruments Categorized by their use (indoor or outdoor)
  • Mus 100 2 mid ren

    1. 1. Music in Society
    2. 2. How does music function in society? <ul><li>Sacred music – music for religious functions </li></ul><ul><li>Secular music – music for entertainment or nonreligious activities </li></ul>
    3. 3. Music in Society terms <ul><li>Style – the characteristic way an artwork is presented and its unique features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jazz vs. classical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rock vs. hip hop </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Genre – specific categories of msuc </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opera, symphony, string quartet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medium – specific performing group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orchestra, chorus </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Music Style Periods <ul><li>Medieval (Middle Ages) 476-1450 </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance 1450-1600 </li></ul><ul><li>Baroque 1600-1750 </li></ul><ul><li>Classical 1750-1825 </li></ul><ul><li>Romantic 1825-1900 </li></ul><ul><li>Twentieth Century 1901-present </li></ul>
    5. 5. Ancient Greece, The Middle Ages, Renaissance
    6. 6. Ancient Greece <ul><li>No written music survives from ancient Greece. </li></ul><ul><li>Music was largely an oral tradition and improvised. </li></ul><ul><li>One rare example from the 2 nd century </li></ul><ul><li>“ Epitaph of Seikilos” was found carved on a tombstone. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Pythagoras
    8. 8. Ancient Greece <ul><li>Ancient Greek instruments include the lyre and aulos </li></ul>
    9. 9. Medieval Period <ul><li>500-1450 </li></ul><ul><li>This historical time period has been wrongly termed the dark ages most likely due to religious wars and extensive famine and disease. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Medieval <ul><li>Visual art of the time lacks perspective, is flat and exudes a certain aspect of weightlessness. </li></ul>
    11. 12. Illuminated Manuscripts
    12. 17. 16 th century Lament
    13. 18. Medieval Music <ul><li>The large majority of music in the Middle ages is sacred . </li></ul><ul><li>Sacred chant instructed the attendees who were mostly illiterate. </li></ul><ul><li>Although some secular music existed at the time, almost none survives today. </li></ul>
    14. 19. The Age of Gothic Cathedrals
    15. 20. Medieval Music <ul><li>Characteristics of Medieval Music </li></ul><ul><li>Most surviving music is largely vocal. </li></ul><ul><li>Modes –Early types of scales used in the composition of Medieval church music. Modes are the predecessors to modern major and minor scales. </li></ul><ul><li>Gregorian Chant – a cappella (unaccompanied) voices singing in unison. Chant rhythms follow the flow of the text. Also called plainsong and plain chant. </li></ul>
    16. 21. Medieval Music <ul><li>Gregorian Chant is named after Pope Gregory I who organized the use of chant in Christian churches. He is not know as a writer of chant but as a promoter of chant. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of chant: syllabic and melismatic. </li></ul><ul><li>Syllabic chant has a note for every syllable of the text. </li></ul><ul><li>Melismatic chant has many notes for a single syllable of text. </li></ul>
    17. 22. Syllabic Chant
    18. 23. Melismatic Chant
    19. 24. Medieval Music Changes <ul><li>The Mass </li></ul><ul><li>Proper settings of the Mass – Changed </li></ul><ul><li>depending on the season, i.e., Easter, </li></ul><ul><li>Christmas. </li></ul><ul><li>Ordinary – The standard 5 sections of the Mass which can be celebrated on any day of the year. </li></ul><ul><li>Requiem Mass – Mass for a memorial. Mass for a funeral. </li></ul>
    20. 25. Medieval Music Changes <ul><li>The Mass </li></ul><ul><li>Ordinary – the standard 5 sections of the Mass which can be celebrated on any day of the year. </li></ul><ul><li>Kyrie – Lord have mercy upon us </li></ul><ul><li>Gloria – Glory be to God on high </li></ul><ul><li>Credo – I believe in one God </li></ul><ul><li>Sanctus – Holy, holy, holy </li></ul><ul><li>Angus Dei – Lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world </li></ul>Hint : K ing G eorge C an S ee A ngels
    21. 26. Medieval Composer <ul><li>Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179) </li></ul><ul><li>12 th -century German Abbess </li></ul><ul><li>Visual artist, music composer, healer, alchemist. </li></ul><ul><li>Youngest of 10 children </li></ul><ul><li>Given to a monastery as a tithe at age 8. </li></ul><ul><li>Often ill and had visions at a young age. </li></ul><ul><li>Hildegard attributed all her gifts to her visions from God. </li></ul><ul><li>Cloister – a place of religious seclusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monastery – men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convent - women </li></ul></ul>
    22. 31. Hildegard of Bingen <ul><li>Founded 2 convents </li></ul><ul><li>Composed religious poetry with music </li></ul><ul><li>Her gifts were recognized by the Pope </li></ul><ul><li>She was allowed to preach before mixed crowds </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote one of the earliest entirely sung morality plays, Ordo Virtutum (order of the virtues). </li></ul>
    23. 32. Medieval Music <ul><li>Early polyphony arose in the 9 th century when monks added a line of melody parallel to the original chant. </li></ul><ul><li>This early polyphony is called organum . </li></ul><ul><li>Page 85 – an example of organum </li></ul>
    24. 33. Medieval Secular Music <ul><li>Few examples survive </li></ul><ul><li>Court music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Troubadours, trouv èves, minnesingers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Instrumental music was highly improvised </li></ul><ul><li>Dance music was the main genre </li></ul>
    25. 34. Medieval Secular Music <ul><li>French Ars Nova – New art; new developments in all aspects of music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A move toward secular themes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ars Antiqua – Old art </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Guillaume de Machaut (1300-1377) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Premier composer of Ars Nova </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote both sacred and secular music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrote in fixed poetic forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rondeau, ballade, virelai </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chanson – French word for song </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Musical setting of the fixed poems </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Page 91
    26. 35. Late Medieval Humanism <ul><li>Humanism takes hold, which acknowledged human achievement. </li></ul><ul><li>People began to view themselves as more than mere vehicles for God. </li></ul><ul><li>Visual art began to depict depth and perspective and music became more expressive as well through the expansion of harmony. </li></ul>
    27. 36. The Renaissance 1450-1600 <ul><li>Renaissance is a French word that means “rebirth” </li></ul><ul><li>It is a time of learning and the creation of art </li></ul><ul><li>It is a time when humanism rose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humanism – the recognition of human achievement </li></ul></ul>
    28. 37. The Renaissance 1450-1600 <ul><li>All areas of culture were being explored: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic, scientific, religious, visual arts, literature and music. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secularism on the rise. </li></ul><ul><li>Art becomes appreciated for its own sake, not just a vehicle of the church. </li></ul>
    29. 38. The Renaissance 1450-1600 <ul><li>Important Impacts on Music </li></ul><ul><li>Florence, Italy considered the heart of the Renaissance. </li></ul><ul><li>Gutenberg’s invention of movable type extremely significant during this time. </li></ul><ul><li>Protestant Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>Counter Reformation and the Council of Trent </li></ul>
    30. 40. Francesco Melzi
    31. 45. Sacred Music & Women <ul><li>In the 4 th century the Christian church adopted the teachings of Paul the Apostle “Women are to remain silent.” </li></ul><ul><li>Women were banned from music making during mixed public worship. But, cloistered environments provided women the opportunity to create and participate in music. </li></ul>
    32. 46. The Renaissance 1450-1600 <ul><li>Similar to the Middle Ages, much of the music of the Renaissance is religious and vocal. Most often a cappella . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Without accompaniment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The predominant texture in the Renaissance is polyphony – know as the Golden Age of Polyphony. </li></ul>
    33. 47. Renaissance Sacred Music <ul><li>Renaissance Motet – A polyphonic, vocal piece, often religious, intended for worship. </li></ul><ul><li>Motets incorporate word painting in order to express the meaning of the text. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example, using a rising melody when the text mentions heaven, or a leaping melody when the text mentions “my heart leaps up.” </li></ul></ul></ul>
    34. 48. Opening <ul><li>Renaissance motet </li></ul><ul><li>4 voices (SATB) </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous imitation </li></ul>Josquin: Ave Maria . . . virgo serena
    35. 49. Martin Luther <ul><li>In 1517 Catholic monk and theologian Martin Luther nailed his 95 theses (or complaints) on the door of his Catholic parish, thus starting the Protestant Reformation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every aspect of worship was eventually affected, especially music </li></ul></ul>
    36. 50. Renaissance Sacred Music <ul><li>Protestant Worship Music </li></ul><ul><li>Some of Martin Luther’s 95 Theses addressed music. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People should participate in music for worship. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He promoted the use of vernacular in worship music. </li></ul></ul>
    37. 51. The Counter-Reformation <ul><li>The Catholic Church re-evaluated their indiscretions in what became know as the Counter-Reformation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The establishment of the Council of Trent was a commission of cardinals whose job was church reform. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some reformers sought to eliminate music from Catholic services entirely. </li></ul></ul>
    38. 52. Giovanni Palestrina <ul><li>Giovanni Palestrina (1524-94) </li></ul><ul><li>Often given the credit for saving polyphony in the Catholic Church. </li></ul><ul><li>A student of Josquin Desprez </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote in a simplified polyphonic style with easy to sing melodies. </li></ul>
    39. 53. How Palestrina Saved Polyphony in the Church. <ul><li>He used straightforward harmonies rather than the highly dissonant sounds of the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance. </li></ul><ul><li>He avoided extremes in his music. </li></ul><ul><li>His Missa Papae Marcelli (Pope Marcellus Mass), pg. 106,107, depicts the essence of the Renaissance Mass. </li></ul>
    40. 54. Palestrina: Pope Marcellus Mass, Gloria
    41. 55. Renaissance Secular Music <ul><li>Madrigal – A through-composed , polyphonic vocal piece written in the vernacular language and containing a secular theme for the text. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Madrigals are less formal than motets and were meant for entertainment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Madrigalism is the term for expressive word painting used extensively in madrigals. </li></ul></ul>
    42. 56. Renaissance Secular Music <ul><li>Madrigals </li></ul><ul><li>Began in Italy but by the late 16 th century became popular in England. </li></ul><ul><li>John Farmer (1591-1601) – writer of English madrigals </li></ul><ul><li>Fair Phyllis on page 112 </li></ul>
    43. 57. Farmer: Fair Phyllis
    44. 58. Song of the Birds – Page 155 <ul><li>Close your eyes and try to imagine birds </li></ul>
    45. 59. Renaissance Secular Music <ul><li>Instrumental Music </li></ul><ul><li>The most popular instrument was the Lute </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A predecessor to the guitar. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to play and tune. </li></ul></ul>
    46. 60. Early Instrumental Music Mandolin Lute Vielle
    47. 61. Early Instrumental Music Dulcimer Psaltery
    48. 62. Renaissance Secular Music <ul><li>Wind Instruments </li></ul><ul><li>The Recorder </li></ul><ul><li>The predominant wind instrument of the Renaissance. </li></ul><ul><li>Comes in various sizes. </li></ul>
    49. 64. Renaissance Secular Music <ul><li>Instrumental Ensembles were small during the Renaissance. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensembles were made up of instruments all of one family. i.e., all brass, all strings, all recorders. </li></ul><ul><li>These ensembles are called consorts . </li></ul>
    50. 66. Renaissance Secular Music <ul><li>Women Musicians </li></ul><ul><li>Most women did not receive any formal education. </li></ul><ul><li>Noble women though, were expected to have some musical abilities as part of proper etiquette. </li></ul><ul><li>Instruments suitable for women: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Viol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psaltery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Various keyboard instruments </li></ul></ul>