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Music 100 Slides No. 2

Music 100 Slides No. 2

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  • School of athens
  • Josquin: Ave Maria . . . virgo serena (Listening Guide) Renaissance motet Explores combinations of voices and textures Begins with a quotation of chant Rest of work is newly composed Contrasts sections of imitation with homorhythmic sections homorhythmic : all voices move together rhythmically Final couplet: simple texture, example of humanistic spirit
  • Palestrina: Pope Marcellus Mass, Gloria (Listening Guide) Satisfies the new strict demands of the Council of Trent Probably performed a cappella Written for six voice parts Soprano (sung by boys or male falsettists) Alto (sung by male altos or countertenors (tenors with high voices) Tenor I Tenor II Bass I Bass II Opens with a monophonic intonation Choral sections are polyphonic Text is clear and audible
  • John Farmer (c. 1570–1601) Active in 1590s in Dublin Organist and master of choirboys at Christ Church   Farmer: Fair Phyllis (Listening Guide) Cheerful mood Sectional repetitions Contrapuntal imitation Contrasting texture (homorhythmic, polyphonic) Word painting
  • Sting video
  • Early Instrumental Music Central role in art music reserved for vocal music Instrumental music mostly improvised (not notated) Performed by ensembles of soft ( bas ) or loud ( haut ) instruments Categorized by their use (indoor or outdoor)
  • Early Instrumental Music Central role in art music reserved for vocal music Instrumental music mostly improvised (not notated) Performed by ensembles of soft ( bas ) or loud ( haut ) instruments Categorized by their use (indoor or outdoor)


  • 1. Music in Society
  • 2. How does music function in society?
    • Sacred music – music for religious functions
    • Secular music – music for entertainment or nonreligious activities
  • 3. Music in Society terms
    • Style – the characteristic way an artwork is presented and its unique features
      • Jazz vs. classical
      • Rock vs. hip hop
    • Genre – specific categories of msuc
      • Opera, symphony, string quartet
    • Medium – specific performing group
      • Orchestra, chorus
  • 4. Music Style Periods
    • Medieval (Middle Ages) 476-1450
    • Renaissance 1450-1600
    • Baroque 1600-1750
    • Classical 1750-1825
    • Romantic 1825-1900
    • Twentieth Century 1901-present
  • 5. Ancient Greece, The Middle Ages, Renaissance
  • 6. Ancient Greece
    • No written music survives from ancient Greece.
    • Music was largely an oral tradition and improvised.
    • One rare example from the 2 nd century
    • “ Epitaph of Seikilos” was found carved on a tombstone.
  • 7. Pythagoras
  • 8. Ancient Greece
    • Ancient Greek instruments include the lyre and aulos
  • 9. Medieval Period
    • 500-1450
    • This historical time period has been wrongly termed the dark ages most likely due to religious wars and extensive famine and disease.
  • 10. Medieval
    • Visual art of the time lacks perspective, is flat and exudes a certain aspect of weightlessness.
  • 11.  
  • 12. Illuminated Manuscripts
  • 13.  
  • 14.  
  • 15.  
  • 16.  
  • 17. 16 th century Lament
  • 18. Medieval Music
    • The large majority of music in the Middle ages is sacred .
    • Sacred chant instructed the attendees who were mostly illiterate.
    • Although some secular music existed at the time, almost none survives today.
  • 19. The Age of Gothic Cathedrals
  • 20. Medieval Music
    • Characteristics of Medieval Music
    • Most surviving music is largely vocal.
    • Modes –Early types of scales used in the composition of Medieval church music. Modes are the predecessors to modern major and minor scales.
    • Gregorian Chant – a cappella (unaccompanied) voices singing in unison. Chant rhythms follow the flow of the text. Also called plainsong and plain chant.
  • 21. Medieval Music
    • Gregorian Chant is named after Pope Gregory I who organized the use of chant in Christian churches. He is not know as a writer of chant but as a promoter of chant.
    • Types of chant: syllabic and melismatic.
    • Syllabic chant has a note for every syllable of the text.
    • Melismatic chant has many notes for a single syllable of text.
  • 22. Syllabic Chant
  • 23. Melismatic Chant
  • 24. Medieval Music Changes
    • The Mass
    • Proper settings of the Mass – Changed
    • depending on the season, i.e., Easter,
    • Christmas.
    • Ordinary – The standard 5 sections of the Mass which can be celebrated on any day of the year.
    • Requiem Mass – Mass for a memorial. Mass for a funeral.
  • 25. Medieval Music Changes
    • The Mass
    • Ordinary – the standard 5 sections of the Mass which can be celebrated on any day of the year.
    • Kyrie – Lord have mercy upon us
    • Gloria – Glory be to God on high
    • Credo – I believe in one God
    • Sanctus – Holy, holy, holy
    • Angus Dei – Lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world
    Hint : K ing G eorge C an S ee A ngels
  • 26. Medieval Composer
    • Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179)
    • 12 th -century German Abbess
    • Visual artist, music composer, healer, alchemist.
    • Youngest of 10 children
    • Given to a monastery as a tithe at age 8.
    • Often ill and had visions at a young age.
    • Hildegard attributed all her gifts to her visions from God.
    • Cloister – a place of religious seclusion
      • Monastery – men
      • Convent - women
  • 27.  
  • 28.  
  • 29.  
  • 30.  
  • 31. Hildegard of Bingen
    • Founded 2 convents
    • Composed religious poetry with music
    • Her gifts were recognized by the Pope
    • She was allowed to preach before mixed crowds
    • Wrote one of the earliest entirely sung morality plays, Ordo Virtutum (order of the virtues).
  • 32. Medieval Music
    • Early polyphony arose in the 9 th century when monks added a line of melody parallel to the original chant.
    • This early polyphony is called organum .
    • Page 85 – an example of organum
  • 33. Medieval Secular Music
    • Few examples survive
    • Court music
      • Troubadours, trouv èves, minnesingers
    • Instrumental music was highly improvised
    • Dance music was the main genre
  • 34. Medieval Secular Music
    • French Ars Nova – New art; new developments in all aspects of music
      • A move toward secular themes
      • Ars Antiqua – Old art
    • Guillaume de Machaut (1300-1377)
      • Premier composer of Ars Nova
      • Wrote both sacred and secular music
      • Wrote in fixed poetic forms
        • Rondeau, ballade, virelai
        • Chanson – French word for song
          • Musical setting of the fixed poems
    Page 91
  • 35. Late Medieval Humanism
    • Humanism takes hold, which acknowledged human achievement.
    • People began to view themselves as more than mere vehicles for God.
    • Visual art began to depict depth and perspective and music became more expressive as well through the expansion of harmony.
  • 36. The Renaissance 1450-1600
    • Renaissance is a French word that means “rebirth”
    • It is a time of learning and the creation of art
    • It is a time when humanism rose
      • Humanism – the recognition of human achievement
  • 37. The Renaissance 1450-1600
    • All areas of culture were being explored:
      • Geographic, scientific, religious, visual arts, literature and music.
    • Secularism on the rise.
    • Art becomes appreciated for its own sake, not just a vehicle of the church.
  • 38. The Renaissance 1450-1600
    • Important Impacts on Music
    • Florence, Italy considered the heart of the Renaissance.
    • Gutenberg’s invention of movable type extremely significant during this time.
    • Protestant Reformation
    • Counter Reformation and the Council of Trent
  • 39.  
  • 40. Francesco Melzi
  • 41.  
  • 42.  
  • 43.  
  • 44.  
  • 45. Sacred Music & Women
    • In the 4 th century the Christian church adopted the teachings of Paul the Apostle “Women are to remain silent.”
    • Women were banned from music making during mixed public worship. But, cloistered environments provided women the opportunity to create and participate in music.
  • 46. The Renaissance 1450-1600
    • Similar to the Middle Ages, much of the music of the Renaissance is religious and vocal. Most often a cappella .
      • Without accompaniment
    • The predominant texture in the Renaissance is polyphony – know as the Golden Age of Polyphony.
  • 47. Renaissance Sacred Music
    • Renaissance Motet – A polyphonic, vocal piece, often religious, intended for worship.
    • Motets incorporate word painting in order to express the meaning of the text.
        • For example, using a rising melody when the text mentions heaven, or a leaping melody when the text mentions “my heart leaps up.”
  • 48. Opening
    • Renaissance motet
    • 4 voices (SATB)
    • Continuous imitation
    Josquin: Ave Maria . . . virgo serena
  • 49. Martin Luther
    • In 1517 Catholic monk and theologian Martin Luther nailed his 95 theses (or complaints) on the door of his Catholic parish, thus starting the Protestant Reformation.
      • Every aspect of worship was eventually affected, especially music
  • 50. Renaissance Sacred Music
    • Protestant Worship Music
    • Some of Martin Luther’s 95 Theses addressed music.
      • People should participate in music for worship.
      • He promoted the use of vernacular in worship music.
  • 51. The Counter-Reformation
    • The Catholic Church re-evaluated their indiscretions in what became know as the Counter-Reformation.
      • The establishment of the Council of Trent was a commission of cardinals whose job was church reform.
      • Some reformers sought to eliminate music from Catholic services entirely.
  • 52. Giovanni Palestrina
    • Giovanni Palestrina (1524-94)
    • Often given the credit for saving polyphony in the Catholic Church.
    • A student of Josquin Desprez
    • Wrote in a simplified polyphonic style with easy to sing melodies.
  • 53. How Palestrina Saved Polyphony in the Church.
    • He used straightforward harmonies rather than the highly dissonant sounds of the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance.
    • He avoided extremes in his music.
    • His Missa Papae Marcelli (Pope Marcellus Mass), pg. 106,107, depicts the essence of the Renaissance Mass.
  • 54. Palestrina: Pope Marcellus Mass, Gloria
  • 55. Renaissance Secular Music
    • Madrigal – A through-composed , polyphonic vocal piece written in the vernacular language and containing a secular theme for the text.
      • Madrigals are less formal than motets and were meant for entertainment.
      • Madrigalism is the term for expressive word painting used extensively in madrigals.
  • 56. Renaissance Secular Music
    • Madrigals
    • Began in Italy but by the late 16 th century became popular in England.
    • John Farmer (1591-1601) – writer of English madrigals
    • Fair Phyllis on page 112
  • 57. Farmer: Fair Phyllis
  • 58. Song of the Birds – Page 155
    • Close your eyes and try to imagine birds
  • 59. Renaissance Secular Music
    • Instrumental Music
    • The most popular instrument was the Lute
      • A predecessor to the guitar.
      • Difficult to play and tune.
  • 60. Early Instrumental Music Mandolin Lute Vielle
  • 61. Early Instrumental Music Dulcimer Psaltery
  • 62. Renaissance Secular Music
    • Wind Instruments
    • The Recorder
    • The predominant wind instrument of the Renaissance.
    • Comes in various sizes.
  • 63.  
  • 64. Renaissance Secular Music
    • Instrumental Ensembles were small during the Renaissance.
    • Ensembles were made up of instruments all of one family. i.e., all brass, all strings, all recorders.
    • These ensembles are called consorts .
  • 65.  
  • 66. Renaissance Secular Music
    • Women Musicians
    • Most women did not receive any formal education.
    • Noble women though, were expected to have some musical abilities as part of proper etiquette.
    • Instruments suitable for women:
      • Viol
      • Lute
      • Psaltery
      • Harp
      • Various keyboard instruments