Ever Evolving Ebooks SANLiC 2013
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  • Librarian role: work with vendors to ensure e-rererence content is discoverable, if we are to continue to spend money on it
  • Both publishers & discovery tool providersNot just google– how would we look up a definition usiing a library based tool?
  • What about finding whole books?
  • If your IP range is registered with OCLC, and researchers click Find in a library
  • They get the OCLC worldcat portal, if they find the right link….
  • They’ll end up in the catalog, and find a print book and 2 ebook versions availalbe
  • Once they’ve found it is it usable?
  • Given that half of of the ebooks in the marketplace are only available from 1 vendor,You’ll need to use them all to maximize availabilityYou’ll need to pick favorites for the other half
  • In 2011 Ebsco launched its own large academic subscription optionThe first competitor for ebrary’s Academic Complete subscription collection
  • From Aggregator provided source filesEbraryAC = Ebrary Academic CompleteEbscoES = Ebsco Ebook Subscription collection
  • Publication dates of subscribed collections mirror the full collectionsEbsco has many more books from the 80s & 90sWhen we take a closer look at the most recent decade…
  • Ebrary has a small percentage more from the first half of the decadeAnd things seem to be evening out for the most recent five yearsThere appear to be signs of a bit more differentiation for 2010 and 11 as the number of books in common is a lower proportion of the wholeAnd as expected there is about a year and a half lag before ebooks are added to these collections
  • The data presented on this slide argue STRONGLY for subscribing to BOTH collections, given the differentiation presented in the previous slidesInstead of a 10 or 20 year period of subscription matching the purchase price, it would take 300(!) years of subscription costs to own the same contentFurthermore and perhaps equally important(!) books in the subscribed collections have unlimited simultaneous use, while purchased books from these two vendors are limited to a single simultaneous user (unless a premium is paid for each book)
  • *In all subsequent slides user books from user selected collections are in blue, and those from preselected collections are in green*Overall Average number of uses per year in general quite high ≈ 6 per year *Average number of post-purchase uses per year is significantly greater for user-selected ebooks (2x as high) *Even though the total number of books (n) in the user selected set is greater, this has no effect on the result—these are PER BOOK averages, so each book in the user selected collection is used an average of 8.6x per year, andeach book the preselected collection is used an average of 4.3x per year*This result rejects the hypothesis rejects the hypothesis that users will select ebooks will be used less than pre-selected ebooks
  • *Pattern of greater use for user-selected books is consistent across all 5 libraries: 4 of 5 are significantly different based on non-overlapping 95% confidencec intervals*degree of difference varies from 1.75x to 4.5x
  • *This figure shows for the number of unique users per ebook per year for the overall user selected and preselected collections*The average user-selected ebook was used by a significantly greater number of different users per year (about 2x as many)*These data allow us to result rejects the hypothesis that users select books that are only of interest to themselves
  • *Here we see that pattern of wider use of user-selected ebooks is also consistent across the 5 libraries, with the same 4 libraries showingsignificantly wider useThe degree of this effect varies from 1.75x to 3.3 times more unique users per book per year in user-selected collections
  • *Print book collections are often assessed by the percentage of their books with 0 checkouts*Here we report the percentage of books with zero use in discrete collections formed under both acquisition models*In every case more than 90% of the books had been used at least once, and in 4 out of 5 libraries, fewer books went unused in the user driven collections*On average there were about 6x as many unused books in the pre-selected collections
  • DRM as a necessary evil
  • To take the opposing point of view

Transcript

  • 1. Ever Evolving EbooksSANLiC Keynote 2013-05Jason Price, PhDInterim Director, Claremont Colleges LibraryE-resource Consultant, Statewide Calif Electronic LibConsortium
  • 2. My BackgroundResearcher & Teacher 1994-2003Ecology & Evolution PhDMasters in Library ScienceLibrary & consortium 2004-2013Claremont Colleges Library – 7500 FTEStatewide California Electronic Library Consortium100 private academic & research institutionsE-resource Analyst / ConsultantFMI/Papers & Slideshttp://visualcv.com/lpq4t1s
  • 3. Panorama of Ever EvolvingEbooksDiscoverabilityE-book Platform CharacteristicsAcquisition Model highlightsImpact on scholarly communicationDigital rights management (DRM)ILL & Consortial SharingOne potential vision of the future
  • 4. Preferred formats for scholarlymonograph use (2013 Claremont LocalIthaka Faculty Survey)
  • 5. Portrait of Discoverability:Ebooks exist in a maze with many deadendshttp://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/492940
  • 6. 2013 Claremont Local Ithaka Faculty Survey:Where do you start your academic research?
  • 7. Claremont Colleges Libraryhttp://claremont.summon.serialssolutions.com/ Try itout!A Google alternative?What’s missing?Discoverytool…
  • 8. Claremont Colleges LibraryDefinitions!E-Reference…
  • 9. Does the library have them? Yes, but you have to go to a silo…E-reference Silos…
  • 10. Discovery: Librarian Role 1Work with vendors to ensure e-reference content isdiscoverable (if we are to continue to spend moneyon it)
  • 11. Knownitemsearch…Chapter link –Freely AvailableLink to purchasebook frompublisherLink to Googlebooks previewLinks topurchase bookfrom Amazon
  • 12. Another known itemsearch…
  • 13. Claremont Colleges LibraryNo ebook?!?
  • 14. Claremont Colleges Library
  • 15. Discovery within a book… and from a book(?)Claremont Colleges Library
  • 16. The (e)book accessmaze…XXXX???X
  • 17. Discovery: Librarian Role 2Ebook usability is not just about aggregator andpublisher platforms…They’ve got to find the book first!Can’t continue to depend (solely on the OPAC)Libraries & Librarians need to invest in simplifying theebook maze that confronts researchersEliminate dead endsReduce redundant linksEncourage through instruction until it works well enoughthat they can do it on their own
  • 18. Portrait of future ebookdiscoverability?http://www.flickr.com/photos/tojosan/181248771/
  • 19. General Platform characteristicsAspect Publisher AggregatorSimultaneous use (+) Common (-) VariesChapter PDF download (+) Easy/Unrestricted (-) Difficult/RestrictedBook PDF Download (-) Not possible (-) Only w/ DRMsoftwareDiscoverability (-) Limited from outside (-) Limited from outsideContentarchive/portability(-) Limited (-) Very limitedFull text search (-) Limited (+) SophisticatedInterface sophistication (-) Lower (+) HigherTitle by title purchasing (-) Unavailable / Difficult (+) ‘Seamless’Content coverage (-) Narrow but growing (+) Broad but patchy
  • 20. ‘Portrait’ of Platform Coverage, then &nowhttp://goo.gl/aFPUX
  • 21. Key aggregator platformcharacteristicsCharacteristic EBL Ebrary EbscoMyILibraryUnlimited Download ofpurchased book chaptersN N N NAffordable simultaneous use Y N N NHas subscribed collection N Y Y NDemand Driven Acquisition Y Y Y YShort term lease program Y Y ? ?
  • 22. Librarian role: aggregatorplatformsCreate sophisticated title by title platform purchasingpreferences for your libraryBased on digital rights restrictionsPublisher before AggregatorBased on simultaneous useEBL* before Ebrary, Ebsco, or MyILibraryBased on critical mass through subscribed collectionsEbrary and Ebsco before EBL* or MyILibraryFMI: Platform Choice: Policies & Perspectiveshttp://dx.doi.org/10.5703/1288284314947
  • 23. Portrait of 5 acquisition model dimensionsPlatform: Aggregator vs. PublisherSelection type: Library selected vs. Agent profiled vs.PDA vs. Publisher collectionUnit: Individual vs. Fixed package vs. Variable packageDuration of access: Ownership vs. Annual Lease vs.Short Term Lease vs. Chapter Pay PerViewSimultaneous users: One, Three, Unlimited, Non-Linear Lendinghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:4dSphere.jpg
  • 24. Acquisition model highlights(1)The case foraggregator subscription collections
  • 25. Subscription cost less than a penny on thedollar per year!Subscribable Ebrary Ebooks = 77,482purchase price 51,960,186 R (single-user price)± 30 R/FTE… so for 15000 fte = 450000 R/year% of list price per year = 0.87% (multi-user price)Years to buy = 100+ years!Ebsco subscription pricing is similar…If you are investing in aggregator ebooks, you should seriouslyconsider acquiring both subscription packages, and avoidbuying individual books that are (or will be!) available bysubscription…
  • 26. Acquisition model highlights(2)The case for demand driven acquisitionEBASS 25 PDA purchasing model video 1:405 Mixed-model librariesDesignTest variables: Purchase type & LibraryResponse variables:Uses per yearUnique users per yearBooks owned more than 6 monthsInferential stats: Negative binomial regression (not shown),ANOVAPrice & McDonald 2011 http://goo.gl/RIuKt
  • 27. Librarian Acquired
  • 28. User-selected collections havefewer unused titles1.7%10.0%3.5%9.7%4.2%5.9%2.5%2.0%0.3%6.3%0.0%2.0%4.0%6.0%8.0%10.0%12.0%USER PRE USER PRE USER PRE USER PRE USER PREA B E I K%ofbooksunusedLibrary and Purchase (Selection) Type
  • 29. Acquisition modelhighlights (3)PDA through evidence based selectionEBASS 25 PDA purchasing model video 6:50All the advantages of PDA on the (DRM free)publisher platform
  • 30. Librarian Role: Letresearchers drive thecollection!
  • 31. The dark side of PDAFor publishers & thereby for authorsDisrupts predictability of book sales formerlysupported by autoship approval plans (whichmake little sense in a PDA world)Increases perceived risk of publishing a bookFeeds the scholarly monograph crisis byincreasing the likelihood of publishing a book thatwon’t sellIncreases the potential threat to universitypresses
  • 32. http://readersbillofrights.info
  • 33. The course adopted bookdilemmaThe need to preserve income from course adopted booksdrives simultaneous use restrictionsFor university presses≥50% of income comes from ≤10% of the booksPublishers hold back this content from ebooksubscription collections (even their own) and won’t sellunlimited access to these titlesIf University presses are to relax these limitations, they’llneed a better model for paying for course adoption
  • 34. Scholarly Communication: The biggerperspectiveFor while much of the concern today over the monographhas to do with the economic consequences for universitypresses, it is what the monograph means for scholarshipthat surely matters. The monograph provides researcherswith the finest of stages for sustained andcomprehensive—sometimes exhaustive and definitive—acts of scholarly inquiry. A monograph is what it means towork out an argument in full, to marshal all the relevantevidence, to provide a complete account ofconsequences and implications, as well ascounter-arguments and criticisms. It might well seem—torisk a little hyperbole—that if the current academicclimate fails to encourage scholars and researchers toturn to this particular device for thinking through a subjectin full, it reduces the extent and coherence of what wehttp://dx.doi.org/10.3998/3336451.0012.103
  • 35. More bluntly, from CliffordLynchJust because the existing scholarly publishing systemhas served the academy fairly well in the past does notmean that it has an intrinsic right to continue to exist inperpetuity. It should not, and must not, become a barrierto our aspirations and our innovations. If the day hascome when the scholarly publishing system impedesscholarship, teaching, and learning it should—indeedmust—be replaced by a new and more responsivesystem.”Lynch 2006. ARL: a bimonthly report 248 October.http://www.arl.org/bm~doc/arlbr248sixpoints.pdf
  • 36. Ebook ILL – 2 campsOwnership – just in caseSee ebook ILL as a crucialpart of future of ebook accessPrefer that libraries serve ascontent providersInherently supportsimultaneous use restrictionsThe Occam’s reader effortAccess – just in timeSuggest that publishertransaction fees canreplace ILL for ebooksshift ILL labor costs to paypublisher transaction feesAllows for reduction insimultaneous userestrictions, necessary fortrue ILLEbrary’s initiative
  • 37. Librarian’s role: Increase ILL requestsophisticationI believe that the immediate future shouldsupport both modelsWhen single chapters are needed, publisher payper view access is optimalWhen the whole book is needed we will still needto support some form of whole book accessFor efficiency and cost savings: our ILL requestmechanisms will need to increase insophistication
  • 38. Consortial SharingShared Collection modelBased on preservation of current revenuePrice for consortia wide ownership is based onthe average number of books purchased from thepublisher by all members of the consortiumCan be for Consortial PDA, Fixed collections, etc.Could help to reduce need for ILL, but requiresmajor budget sharing
  • 39. One vision of the futureMaintaining our core role: Preservation of the scholarlyrecordEbook access is highly demand driven, ownership islimited to those who can afford itFor content with appropriate rights, print on demand isa popular supplement to ebook accessRegional repositories allow sharing of print books on aNetflix DVD model, some copies are non-circulating forpreservation sake
  • 40. There and Back again
  • 41. Questions?http://visualcv.com/lpq4t1s