Demand Driven Ebook Usage
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Demand Driven Ebook Usage

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  • Library acquisitions lore contains a cautionary tale of a patron in a demand-driven environment who spent a huge chunk of the library budget on ebooks about bananas. This story and others like it have been used to perpetuate the argument that demand-driven acquisition will result in collections that don’t appeal to a broad audience or are otherwise unbalanced. Our study presents quantitative data addressing these hypotheses.
  • Conclusions from the cautionary tale: Phrase in terms of the banana story
  • *Read online - Can think of as in-library use *Download – can be thought of as a checkout *Combined these, but ignored all casual use – i.e. click in and click out never counted; Every use indicates true interest in the content : a click through saying I want to continue to view, or a copy command or a print command *The ability to eliminate casual usage (ie browsing) from EBL use data distinguishes it from all other e-resource use data that we’re aware of
  • *Length of book ownership had significant effect on number of uses and users per book *For simplicity, it was incorporated in to the response variables (i.e. uses per year, and unique users per year) *Books owned less than 6 months were ignored to avoid high use per year ratio due to a few uses in a short period of time— when the analysis was repeated with books owned at least 1 year – there was no affect on the pattern or strength of the effects
  • *In all subsequent slides user books from user selected collections are in blue, and those from preselected collections are in green *Overall Average number of uses per year in general quite high ≈ 6 per year *Average number of post-purchase uses per year is significantly greater for user-selected ebooks (2x as high) *Even though the total number of books (n) in the user selected set is greater, this has no effect on the result— these are PER BOOK averages, so each book in the user selected collection is used an average of 8.6x per year, and each book the preselected collection is used an average of 4.3x per year *This result rejects the hypothesis rejects the hypothesis that users will select ebooks will be used less than pre-selected ebooks
  • *Pattern of greater use for user-selected books is consistent across all 5 libraries: 4 of 5 are significantly different based on non-overlapping 95% confidencec intervals *degree of difference varies from 1.75x to 4.5x
  • *This figure shows for the number of unique users per ebook per year for the overall user selected and preselected collections *The average user-selected ebook was used by a significantly greater number of different users per year (about 2x as many) *These data allow us to result rejects the hypothesis that users select books that are only of interest to themselves
  • *Here we see that pattern of wider use of user-selected ebooks is also consistent across the 5 libraries, with the same 4 libraries showing significantly wider use The degree of this effect varies from 1.75x to 3.3 times more unique users per book per year in user-selected collections
  • *Print book collections are often assessed by the percentage of their books with 0 checkouts *Here we report the percentage of books with zero use in discrete collections formed under both acquisition models *In every case more than 90% of the books had been used at least once, and in 4 out of 5 libraries, fewer books went unused in the user driven collections *On average there were about 6x as many unused books in the pre-selected collections
  • *At a broad disciplinary level, 4 of 5 libraries had similar subject profiles for the collections built under the two acquisition models *For the one library (K) where the profiles appear to be different, the preselected collection seemed to over-emphasize Sci&Tech books vs their user selected collection
  • At a slightly more granular level, subject profiles of the two types of collections also appear to be similar
  • Same data in tabular form with a few additional classes included

Demand Driven Ebook Usage Demand Driven Ebook Usage Presentation Transcript

    • Beguiled by Bananas :
    • A retrospective study of the usage & breadth of patron vs. librarian acquired ebook collections
    • Jason Price & John McDonald
    • Libraries, Claremont University Consortium
    • November 5, 2009
    • (with data & discussion from
    • Kari Paulson & Alison Morin of EBL)
  • Bananas tipped the boat: a cautionary tale
    • Early patron-driven deal with a major platform
    • Assignment on economics of banana plantations
    • UC Boulder ‘bought every book with banana in the title’
    • Used by librarians & vendors(!) as evidence that user-driven selection is a bad idea
  • Patron-driven model objections: cautionary conclusions?
    • Books will be selected based on click-thrus that don’t indicate interest
    • Users will select ebooks that no one (else) is interested in
    • User selected collections will be unbalanced turkeys
  • Definitions
    • Purchase type
    • Patron selected = Demand Driven = User-selected
    • Librarian selected ≈ Library selected ≈ Pre-selected
    • Ebook usage was measured conservatively
    • Data reflects post-purchase use
      • Did not count uses that led to user-selection
    • ‘ Casual’ use eliminated
      • 1 use ≈ 1 ‘read online’ ≈ 1 ‘download’
      • read online = >10 min w/click thru OR copy OR print
    • Transaction level data
      • each use recorded separately with user anonymously but permanently identified
  • Questions we’ll address
    • Are user-selected ebooks used less often than pre-selected ebooks?
    • Do user-selected ebooks have a narrower audience?
    • Are user-selected collections less balanced?
    • Do we have anything to fear in patron-driven selection?
    • (Can we use this to build better acquisition models?)
  • Scope of the overall dataset
    • 1 Ebook Vendor – EBL (Ebook Library)
    • 11 Libraries
    • 28,327 ebooks bought from 2006 - 2009
    • 212,887 uses during that period
    • Purchase Models: User Selection, Pre-Selection, or Mixed
  • Total Books & Usage Library Model User- Selected Pre- Selected Usage by Download Usage Read Online A MIX 1131 552 6773 9888 B MIX 5246 2612 42880 38329 C USER 2198 102 0 11801 D USER 3010 48 697 15126 E MIX 4159 909 17396 25604 F PRE 0 1451 4905 3082 G PRE 31 2154 7001 4459 H USER 801 0 556 415 I MIX 305 336 3334 2568 J USER 2799 53 5 13349 K MIX 147 276 2436 2283   TOTAL   19,831 8,496 85,983 126,904
  • Total Books & Usage Library Model User- Selected Pre- Selected Usage by Download Usage Read Online A MIX 1131 552 6773 9888 B MIX 5246 2612 42880 38329 C USER 2198 102 0 11801 D USER 3010 48 697 15126 E MIX 4159 909 17396 25604 F PRE 0 1451 4905 3082 G PRE 31 2154 7001 4459 H USER 801 0 556 415 I MIX 305 336 3334 2568 J USER 2799 53 5 13349 K MIX 147 276 2436 2283   TOTAL   19,831 8,496 85,983 126,904
  • Total Books & Usage Library Model User- Selected Pre- Selected Usage by Download Usage Read Online A MIX 1131 552 6773 9888 B MIX 5246 2612 42880 38329 C USER 2198 102 0 11801 D USER 3010 48 697 15126 E MIX 4159 909 17396 25604 F PRE 0 1451 4905 3082 G PRE 31 2154 7001 4459 H USER 801 0 556 415 I MIX 305 336 3334 2568 J USER 2799 53 5 13349 K MIX 147 276 2436 2283   TOTAL   19,831 8,496 85,983 126,904
  • Total Books & Usage Library Model User- Selected Pre- Selected Usage by Download Usage Read Online A MIX 1131 552 6773 9888 B MIX 5246 2612 42880 38329 C USER 2198 102 0 11801 D USER 3010 48 697 15126 E MIX 4159 909 17396 25604 F PRE 0 1451 4905 3082 G PRE 31 2154 7001 4459 H USER 801 0 556 415 I MIX 305 336 3334 2568 J USER 2799 53 5 13349 K MIX 147 276 2436 2283   TOTAL   19,831 8,496 85,983 126,904
  • Scope of this analysis
    • 5 Mixed-model libraries only
    • Design
      • Test variables: Purchase type & Library
      • Response variables:
        • Uses per year
        • Unique users per year
    • Books owned more than 6 months
    • Inferential stats: Negative binomial regression (not shown), ANOVA
  • Question 1
    • Are user-selected ebooks used less often than pre-selected ebooks?
    • Do user-selected ebooks have a narrower audience?
    • Are user-selected collections less balanced?
  •  
  • Librarian Acquired
  • Question 2
    • Are user-selected ebooks used less often than pre-selected ebooks?
    • Do user-selected ebooks have a narrower audience?
    • Are user-selected collections less balanced?
  •  
  •  
  • User-selected collections have fewer unused titles
  • Question 3
    • Are user-selected ebooks used less often than pre-selected ebooks?
    • Do user-selected ebooks have a narrower audience?
    • Are user-selected collections less balanced?
  • User-selected collections have similar subject profiles User Pre User Pre User Pre User Pre User Pre Proportion of individual collection Library
  • User-selected collections have similar LC profiles Blue = User selected Green = Pre selected
  • User-selected collections have similar LC profiles   A B E I K lc USER PRE USER PRE USER PRE USER PRE USER PRE H 20% 20% 20% 9% 28% 7% 13% 14% 7% 5% R 14% 4% 8% 4% 10% 2% 2% 7% 3% 5% Q 7% 2% 5% 4% 7% 3% 4% 5% 8% 28% T 5% 5% 4% 3% 7% 2% 6% 3% 2% 7% L 4% 1% 4% 2% 6% 1% 1% 1% 0% 1% G 3% 2% 2% 2% 3% 0% 2% 5% 2% 3% B 2% 1% 5% 2% 4% 1% 3% 6% 4% 2%
  • Summary
    • Are user-selected ebooks used less often than pre-selected ebooks?
    • No . User-selected ebooks are used ≈2-5x more often
    • Do user-selected ebooks have a narrower audience?
    • No. User-selected ebooks are used by ≈2-3x more unique users
    • Are user-selected collections less balanced by subject?
      • No. User selected collections are similarly balanced.
  • Questions & Discussion
    • Given our results – what do we (still) have to fear from patron-driven purchasing
    • (at least in the EBL model)?
  • Thanks!
    • Jason Price [email_address]
    • John McDonald [email_address]
    • Kari Paulson [email_address]