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  • I did my topic for my SGP on Music Composition. I chose this topic because music has always fascinated me and I’ve been involved with it for awhile. When I first chose this topic, I thought It could be a breeze because I knew a lot about music but then I came to learn that there was SO much about music I had no idea about. I was just skimming the surface with my knowledge.
  • My personal relevance to music composition, well to music In general, is that I grew up with it. My aunt taught me how to play the piano when I was still very young, and I’ve just been surrounded by it my whole life, and I feel like it’s grown to be a part of me. A lot of people who know me know that I am a musician, and that I strive to be the best I can be at it. This quote “Life is like a piano… what you get out of it depends on how you play it.” means a lot to me and I feel like it really applies well because life is whatever you make it. ‘If you do well in life, then everything will be a lot better and a lot easier, which is just like the piano, in which how you play it, depends if it is great, good, or just a sign that you shouldn’t be playing piano.
  • Ok, so what is a musiccomposition. A music composition is an original piece that can be written by a composer. Anyone can write a song, but it takes certain skills to be able to understand and comprehend what you are writing. :Some skills that you would need are Notation, knowing how to read music, Music theory, understanding how everything works in music, Instrumentation, which is being able to play one to several different instruments, and orchestration, which is directing a group of musicians to playing your music, if your taking the route of an orchestral arrangement or choir or something like that.
  • The earliest form of musical compositions were found way back when around 2000 B.C in the Middle East, specifically Iraq. But like usual, the greeks stole the idea of music and made it their own because they’re mean and like to steal things, like math. Luckily, they were smart enough to write it down. This is a picture of an ancient greek tablature displaying different tones in music. Finally, Persia came around 1250 B.C and thought they were doing everything wrong because these symbols just represented notes, and not their desired rhythms. Persians also started to develop the theory behind music. Throughout the course of music’s history, so much has changed, from melodies and harmonies to rhythm and sonority, which is how you describe how well someone plays/sings a note.
  • Modern music in today’s world is very similar to European Classical Musical Notation. Modern Music uses a five-line staff, which is used to indentify pitch by putting it on a certain line. The different Clefs in music consist of Treble Clef (G Clef), Tenor Clef , Alto Clef (C Clef), and Bass Clef (F Clef). These different clefs help instruments and people know what octave they are in, which is helpful because if you’re playing a big tuba then you don’t really want to be reading in treble clef. That would be painful.
  • A note signifies not only what pitch you are to play or sing, but how long the duration of it is held for. This is very important because if everyone was just playing their notes but at different tempos, then nothing would be organized and it would sound pretty crappy. We’re going to assume all these notes are in 4/4 time. The first note is a double whole note, which would be held for 8 beats. The second note is a whole note which would be held for just 4 beats. The next note is a half note, which looks like a normal note, but is not filled in the center, this note is held for 2 beats. The next note is the most common and well known note, which is the quarter note, which is just held for 1 beat. Then we start getting into quicker and more complicated notes. This note is a eigth note, which is held for half a beat, and 2 of these notes equals one quarter note. Then we have a sixteenth note, which is held for a quarter of a beat and 4 of these fit into a quarter note. Then 32nd notes, which are a half of a quarter of a beat. It gets pretty ridiculous towards the end but then you have dreaded 64th notes. If you see these notes in your music just stop playing it and quit your class. No, but these are held for half of a half of a quarter of a beat. Then we have two notes that have been beamed together. This is just a simpler and cleaner way of writing two eight notes together. Then we have a dotted quarter, which adds half of that beat to it, so we’d hold it for 1 and a half beats.
  • Ok, so this is the treble clef, also known as the G clef. This is the highest clef out of the 3, going up to a high F without going off the scale. This clef is used by a lot of instruments that have a higher pitch, like a guitar, The right hand of a piano, Violin, soprano and alto voices, and even sometimes tenor voices. The clef looks like a pretty swirly design but it is actually made to show that it is the G clef. If you look closely the middle circle inscribes the 2nd line in the staff, which is the G note in the treble clef. This signifies that you are in the G Clef, but we’ve come to know it just as the treble clef. The lines in the treble clef go E , G, B, D, F, which most commonly is remembered by Every Good Boy Does Fine. The spaces in the Treble clef are F, A, C, E which is easy because you just remember how pretty your face is then you will know what you’re playing in the spaces. Or you can remember it goes FACE in the SPACE.
  • Next is the alto clef, also known as the C clef. This, for me, is the most strange clef to me because I’ve never had any reason to read it. I know the viola reads it, but I only play cello in the orchestra. The symbol that signifies that it is an alto clef, if you look close enough, all is the same if bent over and folded on top of eachother, so we take the center of the fold and use it as our marker. This happens to be the center line of the staff, or the C note in this Clef, which is why we call it the C clef. The tenor clef is also the C clef but I’ve never seen anyone use it, not even tenors who sing in the choir. I sadly have no sweet way to remember this because I’ve used it so seldom.
  • The last clef is the bass clef, or the F clef. This is the lowest clef in music, and instruments such as the tuba, the bassoon, the cello, the bass, the trombone, and the bass from a choir would read this. This is just to name a few. There are a lot more instruments that read it. The way we signify that it’s a bass clef is from the picture. The circled dot lands on the 4th line up, which is the F note in the bass clef. Also, the two dots are positioned around the F line, so that’s another way to remember it. A good way of remembering these notes is for the G, B, D, F, A you can think Good Boys Do Fine Always. For the spaces, I’ve always learned that A, C, E, G stands for All cars eat gas but there are plenty of other ones, like conor said, All cows eat grass.
  • The theory part of music is the study of how it works. So, instead of just playing it and knowing the note to play, it explains the point and definition behind it. I took music theory my junior year, and I’m taking AP music theory this year, and there is still so much stuff we have to cover. That’s why I chose this quote here. “Music is enough for a lifetime, but a lifetime is not enough for music.” This statement cannot be more true in my opinion because everyone listens to music, they have it all there life, and I’ve never met someone who was like “psh music? Come on I don’t need that, it’s boring.” Which is why music is enough for a lifetime, because you never rid yourself of it, no matter how old you are. But a lifetime is not enough for music because there is so much to learn that you just wouldn’t be able to do it in your lifetime.
  • Pitch is basically the lowness or highness of a sound, with you singing one solid, steady note for a certain period of time. Perfect pitch is when someone can identify and sing a note by just simply being ask to sing it. It’s arguable but it’s supposedly something you are born with and you can’t be taught. Although singers are musicians, they are in a different family due to most people not having perfect pitch. If someone is singing a Bb scale for example, they won’t know if they’re singing a C scale or not unless they’re told. That’s why perfect pitch can be annoying. They wouldn’t have to change anything unlike musicians who have to note flats or sharps at the beginning of a piece.
  • A Melody is a certain line of notes or pitch to make a line of music. This is what most people sing in their songs, from ancient hymns to Lady Gaga songs.
  • This is the sound that is slowly taking over the world of music. You might already know this but you know how everyone knows T-pain for what he does with auto-tune, but tons and I mean tons of people use auto correction when recording and even during live concerts. It became popular and was first used by the artist Cher back in 1998. Now it’s making a come back with T-Pain, Akon, Kanye West and all the current hip-hop, and rap stars. It’s this software that producers use to make their artists sound perfectly in tune. You can edit their voice after recording to make it sound however you want. This is a very controversial thing currently because so many people are against and say that if you have no talent and you can just auto tune your voice then how will other actual good musicans/singers make it? I sort of agree with this. I don’t auto tune my voice, but every now and then it is fun to mess around with in garage band and stuff like that.
  • Harmony, in my opinion, is the coolest part of music. Yes, melodies can be very pretty but to hear a harmony with it makes it so much more intense and sound. A harmony is basically a relationship between a note in the melody. You could picture it like this; if a note in the melody goes with a note in the harmony, than you can say they have a good relationship, but if it doesn’t go and sound well together, then they are on bad terms.
  • Rhythm is just how you would dictate your melody in time. A meter in music addresses time such as in a measure or bar. A drummer is a very important part of a band because they keep the rhythm in tempo, so without them the full band could all be out of sync if you have a bad guess on tempo. Rhythm goes a long with the notes and how they are written, like there duration, because the way the notes are written in the sheet music also tell you how long or short you should hold the desired note for.
  • There are different scales in music, which sort of go along with their key signature. If you have a C Major scale, chances are you are in the key of C Major. Scales are a great practice technique to get good at moving your fingers either if it’s on a guitar or any instrument. It gets your fingers stronger and quicker. In more advanced theory, like the class I’m in right now, there are things called modes, which means you could still be in the key of C Major, but start on the second note, D, instead of the C. This creates different melodic lines throughout the music.
  • Expressive qualities are sometimes the best thing in music because they are what makes the piece emotional. Dynamics are markings in the music that tell you to either play loud or soft. The fermata at the top right corner means for someone to hold out a note longer than it’s desired rhythm is written for. The repeat sign at the right is for when you end at the line, you have to go back to the beginning where the other set of dots are, making you repeat the whole measure or measures of music again.
  • A time signature tells you how many and what kind of notes per measure there are. The number on top is the number of notes per measure, and the bottom number is what kind of note. In a musical score, the time signature appears at the beginning of the piece, as a time symbol or stacked numerals. Recently, in more modern music, there are more odd time signatures like 5/8 and 7/8, which is most known for being used in the song money by Pink Floyd.
  • These are some more strange time signatures that you won’t see too often due to the fastness of the time signature. No composer chooses to write in it because he doesn’t want his musicians to not be able to play it.
  • Accidentals are what we use to change the pitch of a note, if that’s by either a half step up or down, or a whole step up or down. If you mark a flat next to a note, then it will lower the note a half step. If you take a double flat, then you are lowering the note by a whole step. Same goes for the sharp, except you’re raising them up instead of lowering them. This is needed because in the key of D major, the f and c are sharped, so if you put it at the beginning of the piece, then you won’t have to write it every time you write an f or c in your composition.
  • A key signature is a series of sharps or flats placed on the staff before the time signature letting you know which notes are to be raised or lowered in that Key. Key signatures are generally used in a score to avoid the complication of having sharp or flat symbols on every instance of certain notes. Each major and minor key has an associated key signature that sharpens or flattens the notes which are used in its scale. However, it is not uncommon for a piece to be written with a key signature that does not match its key, for example, in some Baroque pieces.
  • A key signature is a series of sharps or flats placed on the staff before the time signature letting you know which notes are to be raised or lowered in that Key. Key signatures are generally used in a score to avoid the complication of having sharp or flat symbols on every instance of certain notes. Each major and minor key has an associated key signature that sharpens or flattens the notes which are used in its scale. However, it is not uncommon for a piece to be written with a key signature that does not match its key, for example, in some Baroque pieces.
  • These are the three types of different minor scales you can have. Natural sounds pretty natural (haha), because only the 3rd is really being flattened. A harmonic minor is personally my favorite, where the 6 is lowered so it sounds really arabian or egyptian like. Melodic sounds a lot like natural to me, but the 6 is also lowered there so it’s a little different.
  • The Circle of Fifths shows the relationships among the twelve tones of the chromatic scale, their corresponding key signatures, and the associated major and minor keys. This is pretty much the musician’s guide to knowing key signatures and their relative minor. Without this, I could admit that I wouldn’t know key signatures as well.
  • Soulfege is used with singers to identify different notes in the melodic scale. Do refers to the one note, or C, which is the starting note of the same key. Re refers to the 2nd degree of that scale, or D in the case of C Major. Mi refers to the 3rd degree, and so on and so forth.
  • Schillinger was this russian guy who came to the states in the 30’s, and who thought up this idea that music might not be just what we make up in our mind and write on paper, but that there is some mathematical process behind it all. Personally, I don’t believe what he thought, but it’s very controversial. He stated that music was just made up of certain graphs and lines that when put into music notes, created a mathematical melody. His teachings were taught throughout Berklee College of Music up until the 1960’s when they decided they didn’t really see it.
  • Arrangements for the orchestra consist of usually 4 instruments, unless there are added brass to it, which in a lot of cases, there are. The 4 instruments consist of the Violin, The Viola, The Cello, which is actually called, a violincello, and a contrabass, which we call just a bass. The added brass could be any number of different things but trumpets, clarinets, flutes and stuff like that are very popular. Also, if you get your hands on a stradivarius violin, do NOT lose that thing whatever you do. You can sell those violins for over a million dollars today.
  • A composer is someone who makes music by musical notation or oral tradition. These are probably the most well known composers throughout our history, starting with bach, who is one of the oldest, compared to John Williams, who lives to this very day.
  • Chord Progressions in music are a series of chords that are played one after another. Literally every song has something like this, except when your queen and you write crazy songs with a million key changes like Bohemian Rhapsody.
  • 8notes was one of my favorite because of how they have all there lessons laid out. They are all broken down into chapters neatly and explain everything thoroughly. No doubt the best one. Also the third to last one, Essentials of music came in handy because it broke down each composers time of music and organized it by time, so I was able to establish my classical musicians from my romantic ones and such like that.
  • My conclusion after everything I learned from my project is that I will never be done learning. It sort of sucks because you can never truly be a master of it but you can be pretty close. I’ve loved it forever, ever since I was young, and I still love it to today, even more actually. I think it definitely helps people, like if they’re upset or happy, like no matter what mood you’re in there is a song that makes you feel better or that you can make a real connection to. My final conclusion is that I’ve never met anyone who has been like I hate music or no I don’t listen to music. It’s just not possible this day in age. Almost everyone has an iPod.

Transcript

  • 1. Music Composition
    Jordan Prestler
  • 2. Personal Relevance
    “Life is like a piano… what you get out of it depends on how you play it.”
  • 3. What is Music Composition?
    A piece of music that exists in musical notation that is an original piece.
  • 4. History
  • 5. Notation
    Staff
    Notes (Pitch)
    Sharps
    Flats
    Clefs
  • 6. Notes and Rests
  • 7. Treble Clef (G)
  • 8. Alto Clef (C)
  • 9. Bass Clef (F)
  • 10. Theory
    “Music is enough for a lifetime, but a lifetime is not enough for music.”
  • 11. Pitch
    (Perfect)
    (Relative)
  • 12. Melody
  • 13. AUTO-TUNE
    T-Pain Daft Punk
    Rebecca Black Say Anything
    New Found Glory GLEE
    Tim McGraw Eiffel 65
    50 Cent Jay Sean
    Akon Katy Perry
    NickiMinaj Eminem
    LL Cool J Jason Derulo
    Chris Brown Snoop Dogg
    Owl City Jay-Z
    R. Kelly Britney Spears
    Chris Cornell Billy Joel
    P. Diddy Sugarland
    T.I. Ke$ha
    Taio Cruz Timbaland
    Rascal Flatts Sean Kingston
    Chamillionaire Justin Timberlake
    Miley Cyrus Lady Gaga
    Rihanna Black Eyed Peas
    CiaraAvrilLavigne
  • 14. Harmony
    Voice Splits
  • 15. Rhythm
  • 16. Scales & Modes
  • 17. Expressive Qualities
  • 18. Time Signatures
    Common Time
    Cut Time
    Increments of 3 or 4
  • 19. More Time Signatures
  • 20. Accidentals
    Flats (Double)
    Sharps (Double)
  • 21.
  • 22. The Major Keys
    Every key has a relative minor
    The Keys:
    (C, D, E, F, G, A, B, Db, Eb, Gb, Ab, Bb
  • 23. The Minor Keys
    The Keys:
    C, D, E, F, G, A, B, Bb, Eb, Ab, C#, D#, F#, G#, A#
    Minor Scale (C Minor)
  • 24. Types of Minors
    Natural – lower 3 and 7
    Harmonic – lower 3 and 6
    Melodic – lower 3, 6, and 7
  • 25. Circle of Fifths
  • 26. Soulfége
  • 27. Schillinger System
    Idea that music compositions are based off of mathematical processes.
  • 28.
  • 29. Orchestral Arrangements
    Violin
    Viola
    Cello (Violincello)
    Bass (Contrabass)
    Added Brass
  • 30. Choir Arrangements
    Soprano
    Alto
    Tenor
    Bass
    Voice Splits
  • 31. Band Arrangements
    Piccolo
    Flute
    Trumpet
    Trombone
    Tuba
    Oboe
    Clarinet
  • 32. Composers
    Bach
    Beethoven
    Mozart
    Pachelbel
    Williams
    Chopin
    Tchaikovsky
  • 33. Progressions
    Chord Progressions
    I – vii – IV – V (most common)
    (C, Am, F, G)
    I – V – vii – IV (C, G, Am, F)
  • 34. Lyrics
    Poem in arranged format.
    (Rhyming: aabb, abab, abcdec.
    Format consists of Intro, Verse, Bridge, Chorus, Breakdown, Outro
  • 35. Class Activity
  • 36. Application
  • 37. Works Cited
    Students. "Music History." Web. <http://library.thinkquest.org/15413/history/music-history.htm>.
    Caldwell, Ann, Jeffrey Earnest, and Lynn Gullickson. "Types of Compositions for Use in Music." Web. <http://library.thinkquest.org/15413/history/music-history.htm>.
    Fry, James, and Christopher Bartlette. "Types of Compositions for Use in Music." Music Composition Resource. Web. <http://www.und.edu/dept/mcr/>.
    Belkin, Alan. "Types of Compositions for Use in Music." Music Composition Resource. Web. <https://www.webdepot.umontreal.ca/Usagers/belkina/MonDepotPublic/bk/index.html>.
    Rowy. "How to Write Music. (Music Composition)." How to Write Music. Music Compositions and Theory. Web. 05 May 2011. <http://composer.rowy.net/>.
    Adams, Ricci. "Music Theory on 8notes.com." Free Sheet Music on 8notes.com. Ricci Adams. Web. 13 Apr. 2011. <http://www.8notes.com/theory/>.
    Sherrane, Robert. "Music History 102." Ipl2: Information You Can Trust. Robert Sherrane. Web. 04 Apr. 2011. <http://www.ipl.org/div/mushist/>.
    W.W. Norton. "Essentials of Music." Essentials of Music. Sony Music Entertainment. Web. 08 Mar. 2011. <http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/>.
    Piper, Carla. "Music History Timeline." Soundpiper Music: Music for Children, Teachers and Parents. Web. 08 Mar. 2011. <http://www.soundpiper.com/mln/musichistory.htm>.
    Nevue, David. "Advice for Pianists: How to Compose Piano Music." David Nevue - Solo Piano Music - Pianist and Composer. Web. 16 Feb. 2011. <http://www.davidnevue.com/pianoadvice2.htm>.
  • 38. Conclusion
    Never know everything
    Helps
    Nobody Hates IT!