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Brian's "Approaches to Lighting" Lecture
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Brian's "Approaches to Lighting" Lecture

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This lecture was given in Baylor University's Production Methods One course on 10/18/06 and 10/20/06.

This lecture was given in Baylor University's Production Methods One course on 10/18/06 and 10/20/06.

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  • 1. APPROACHES TO LIGHTING
  • 2.
    • Lighting is more than simply obtaining adequate exposure.
    • It is also ノ
  • 3. Approaches to Lighting
    • [1] A way to direct the viewer’s eye in the frame
  • 4. Approaches to Lighting
    • [1] ノ a way to direct the viewer’s eye in the frame
  • 5.
    • [2] To
    • establish
    • the
    • character
  • 6. Approaches to Lighting
    • [3] Establish mood
  • 7. Approaches to Lighting
    • OR The dramatic quality of the image.
  • 8. Approaches to Lighting
    • [4] Establish time of day
  • 9. Approaches to Lighting
    • [4] ノ e stablish time of day
  • 10. Approaches to Lighting
    • [5] Bring out or mute certain colors
  • 11. Approaches to Lighting
    • [6] Create a feeling of safety or danger
  • 12. Approaches to Lighting
    • [7] Emphasize or de-emphasize depth
  • 13. Approaches to Lighting
    • [8] Layer in planes
    • from front
    • [f.gd.]
    • to rear [bgd]
    • of the frame.
    • In other words, it
    • can help define
    • the space in 3
    • dimensions.
  • 14. Lighting Styles
    • SOURCE LIGHTING
    • Also called
    • REALISTIC or
    • NATURAL LIGHTING
  • 15.
    • Bound
    • For
    • Glory
  • 16. Lighting Styles
    • EXPRESSIONISTIC
    • Also called
    • STYLIZED LIGHTING
  • 17.
    • Hero
  • 18.
    • Realistic
    • Lighting
    • Also
    • Stylized
    • To a
    • Degree
  • 19. Lighting Styles
    • Lighting setups must also take into account
    • --the technical limitations of the camera, lens, and recording medium [film/video, etc]
    • --the dramatic needs of the story.
  • 20. Dramatic Need of the Story
    • Dir/Wtr Billy Wilder on Stanley Kubrick’s Barry Lyndon :
    • “ He worked like 6 months trying to find a way to photograph somebody by candlelight, not artificial light. And nobody really gives a s**t whether it is by candlelight or not. What are the jokes? What is the story?”
    • Conversations with Wilder,
    • by Cameron Crowe, p. 24
  • 21. 3 POINT LIGHTING
    • We’ve covered what is considered “normal,” here are some additional thoughts:
    • THE KEY LIGHT
    • -- Normally told to put it 30 to 45 degrees from the camera to subject axis
    • -- Normally elevated at an angle of 30 to 45 degrees above the camera to subject axis.
  • 22. 3 POINT LIGHTING-KEY
    • --Often want it FOCUSABLE,
    • which is why we often choose a
    • FRESNEL
    • It adjusts to flood or spot .
    • --Usually creates some shadows, which gives shape to the subject
    • --Since it’s the dominant light, it’s the one we usually get our F-stop (iris) reading from.
  • 23.
    • Traditional
    • Lighting
    • Setup
  • 24.  
  • 25. 3 POINT LIGHTING-KEY
    • LIGHT PLACEMENT-
    • HORIZONTAL PLANE
    • Front,
    • 3/4 front,
    • side,
    • 3/4 rear,
    • Back.
  • 26. 3 POINT LIGHTING-KEY
    • Why Choose Front Position ?
    • Why Side ?
    • Typical Interview Position?
    • LIGHT PLACEMENT-VERTICAL PLANE
    • 1 Below [low angle],
    • 2 Camera level,
    • 3. Above [30-60 degrees, norm. 45 degrees]
    • 4. High [typically 60-90 degrees, the latter being called “TOP” lighting]
  • 27.
    • Traditional
    • Key
    • Vertical
    • 45
    • Degrees
  • 28.
    • Traditional
    • Key
    • Key Away
    • From
    • Camera
  • 29.
    • Top
    • Lighting
  • 30.
    • Fight Club
  • 31.
    • The Cooler
    • Key light vertical position changes over
    • the course of the film
  • 32. 3 POINT LIGHTING- FILL
    • The Key Light determines shadow placement.
    • The FILL LIGHT is used to lighten [fill in] those shadows while avoiding the formation of new shadows .
    • Fill lights are almost always soft . Why?
    • For “Slow Fall-off ”
  • 33.
    • Fast
    • Fall-Off
  • 34.
    • Slow
    • Fall-Off
  • 35. 3 POINT LIGHTING-FILL
    • FILL PLACEMENT
    • Normally told to place opposite key
    • Reality - Fills tend to be placed in one of 4 positions:
    • [1] The most common - frontal position along the camera/subject axis slightly above camera. Why?
  • 36. 3 POINT LIGHTING-FILL
    • FILL PLACEMENT
    • [2] Same side as key -- from the key side of the camera/subject axis.
    • [3] Opposite key -- fill from the off-key side of the face, taking great care not to create a new set of shadows, particularly on the nose .
    • 2 & 3 allow for more “modeling” effect
  • 37. 3 POINT LIGHTING-FILL
    • [4] The High Above Fill Position
    • DP Sven Nykvist
    • --Advantages-Disadvantages
  • 38. 3 POINT LIGHTING-FILL
    • ROVING
    • Key
    • Or
    • Fill
  • 39. 3 POINT LIGHTING-FILL
    • Roving
    • Key/Fill
    • Sometimes
    • placed
    • In the
    • Shot
  • 40. 3 POINT LIGHTING-FILL
    • ノ r oving
    • Key/Fill
    • Sometimes
    • placed
    • In the
    • Shot
  • 41. 3 POINT LIGHTING-FILL
    • FILL PLACEMENT and MOOD
    • HIGH KEY – BRIGHT MOOD
    • LOW KEY – DARK MOOD
    • --FILLS should never be more intense than the key
  • 42.
    • High Key
    • Meaning
    • High
    • Mood
  • 43. Low Key Lighting
    • Low Key
    • Meaning
    • Dramatic
    • Mood
  • 44. 3 Pt. Ltg - Back Light
    • Helps Outline
    • Helps Separate
  • 45. 3 Pt. Ltg - Back Light
    • Helps Outline
    • Helps Separate
  • 46. Back Light
    • Avoid
    • Light
    • Stand
    • In Shot
  • 47. Back Light-Lens Flare
  • 48. Back Light-Rim
    • Rim
    • Light
  • 49. Back Light-Rim
    • Rim
    • Light
  • 50. Back Light-Rim
    • Orc with a
    • Rim
  • 51. Back Light - Kicker
    • Kicker
    • 3/4, Low angle
    • Opposite
    • The
    • Key
  • 52. Back - Rim - Kicker
  • 53. Kicker
    • Object
    • Or
    • Accent light;
    • also
    • sometimes
    • called a Kicker
  • 54. Back Light-Atmosphere
    • Atmospheric Effects
    • *Trick to it?
    • Road
    • To
    • Perdition
  • 55. Back Light-Atmosphere-Rain
    • Atmospheric Effects
    • Daredevil
  • 56. Back Light-Atmosphere-Rain
    • Atmospheric Effects
    • Batman
    • Begins
  • 57. Back Light Atmosphere
    • SMOKE
  • 58. 3 POINT LIGHTING-OTHER
    • BACKGROUND LIGHT
    • Background Placement
    • Usually same as KEY
    • Background Exposure
    • High key - same as Key
    • Low Key - @ least
    • 1 stop difference
  • 59. Background Lighting
    • TONAL VARIATIONS
  • 60. Background Lighting
    • TONAL VARIATIONS
  • 61. Background Lighting-Composition
    • Lighting
    • For
    • Composition
    • As well
    • As mood
  • 62. BackgroundLighting-Shadows
    • Natural Shadow Cookie Shadow
  • 63. 3 POINT LIGHTING-OTHER
    • BACKGROUND LIGHT
    • KEY TO CREATING SHADOW ON B.G. or any background efx
    • – Control SPILL!!!
  • 64. 3 POINT LIGHTING-OTHER
    • EYE LIGHT
    • GOOD RULE when lighting actors
    • CHECK THE EYES
    • --for deadness caused by lack of eyelight
    • --for the opposite prob, too many reflections (many lights reflecting in their eyes).
  • 65. Lighting - Eye Light
    • EYE POPS
  • 66. Eye Light
    • Even
    • Hannibal
    • Gets an
    • Eye Light
  • 67. 3 POINT LIGHTING-OTHER
    • HAIR LIGHTS - Position
    • [1] from directly overhead
    • [2] from more oblique angles (side)
    • [3] from behind the subject
  • 68.
    • “ CLASSIC
    • HOLLYWOOD”
    • Marlene
    • Dietrich
    • Hair
    • Light
  • 69. 3 POINT LIGHTING-OTHER
    • PRACTICALS
    • -CLOTHES
    • -LIGHT
  • 70.
    • Practicals:
    • -Windows
    • -Floor Lamp
    • -Wall Sconce
    • -Desk Lamp
  • 71. PREPARING TO LIGHT
    • Lighting, like any other part of production, requires advanced planning .
    • What are the Aesthetic Considerations to address?
  • 72. PREPARING TO LIGHT
    • OVERALL LOOK
    • LIGHT QUALITY
    • SUBJECT LIGHTING RATIOS
    • SUBJECT/BACKGROUND RATIOS
    • COLOR EFFECTS
    • FILM/VIDEO STOCK
  • 73. Aesthetics - Overall Look
  • 74.
    • Subject-Lighting Ratios
    • Kodak Subject Lighting Ratios for Stock 5246
    • http://wwwse.kodak.com/country/US/en/motion/products/negative/5246.shtml
  • 75. Color Effect-Lab
  • 76. Color-film stocks Traffic
  • 77. Film/Video Stock
    • How is a stock rated?
    • How much will you need?
    • “ Shooting Ratio”?
  • 78. PREPARING TO LIGHT
    • LOCATION SHOOTING
    • If not in a studio, careful and systematic LOCATION SCOUTING is imperative
    • Survey each location to determine ノ
  • 79. PREPARING TO LIGHT
    • How much light it will require
    • How many lights can be mounted [on overhead beams, walls, etc]
    • How many crew members will you need (lights and handle reflectors?)
    • Where will the sun be when you are shooting?
  • 80. PREPARING TO LIGHT
    • Survey the location for ELECTRICITY.
  • 81. PREPARING TO LIGHT
    • How much power do you need?
    • How much is actually available there?
    • Find the breaker box and map out the power circuits
    • How many wall outlets do you have, and where are they located?
    • How many EXTENSION CABLES [STINGERS] do you need and how long do they need to be?
  • 82. PREPARING TO LIGHT
    • Do you have a contact person?
    • Do you need to hire an Gaffer?
    • Will you need to rent a generator?
    • Will you borrow/buy power from someone nearby?
    • How will you TRANSPORT the GEAR?
  • 83. PREPARING TO LIGHT
    • DEVELOP A CHECKLIST
    • Major items should include:
    • --Lighting instruments and spare lamps, Mounting equipment, Lighting accessories, “Stingers”, Generator, Safety gear, transportation, weather report, maps and crew contact information to disperse
  • 84. SHOOTING OUTDOORS
    • Tend to shoot WITH Sun, meaning the Sun is AT YOUR BACK
    • MAGIC HOUR or GOLDEN TIME
  • 85. Contrast Range
    • Image Curve
  • 86.
    • CONTRAST AND REDUCTION
    • [1] Adding Fill Light
    • [2] Reflectors and Flex Fills
    • [3] Large Scrim or SILK
    • [4] Shoot in the shade
    • [5] Shoot on overcast days
  • 87. Reflectors-Flex Fills
  • 88. Reflectors-Foam Core
  • 89. Contrast Redux-Silk
    • 4x4
    • Silk
  • 90. Contrast Redux-Soft Box
    • Rifa Chimera
  • 91. SHOOTING OUTDOORS
    • CONTRAST AND REDUCTION cont’d
    • [6] Filters on the Camera
    • --ND or Neutral Density
    • --Haze and UV filters
    • --Polarizers
    • --Low contrast or soft contrast filters
    • Filters generally cause some loss in image quality
  • 92. Neutral Density Filter
    • No filter ND Filter
  • 93. ND Filter
    • No filter 2 Stop ND Filter
  • 94. UV-Haze Filter
    • No Filter Tiffen Haze 2
  • 95.
    • No Filter Polarizer
  • 96. Low Contrast Filter
    • NoFilter Contrast
  • 97. SHOOTING OUTDOORS
    • MAINTAINING CONTINUITY
    • When the Sun is the primary light source, there is always the potential for lighting –induced CONTINUITY ERRORS.
    • Group similarly lit scenes together in your shooting schedule
    • Avoid shooting different sections of the same scene at different times of the day
  • 98. NIGHT SHOOTING
    • Night for Night
    • Dusk for Night
    • Day for Night
    • Fight Club Ext.
  • 99. Day for Night
    • Using Digieffects Software Plug-in