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Brian's "Approaches to Lighting" Lecture
 

Brian's "Approaches to Lighting" Lecture

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This lecture was given in Baylor University's Production Methods One course on 10/18/06 and 10/20/06.

This lecture was given in Baylor University's Production Methods One course on 10/18/06 and 10/20/06.

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    Brian's "Approaches to Lighting" Lecture Brian's "Approaches to Lighting" Lecture Presentation Transcript

    • APPROACHES TO LIGHTING
      • Lighting is more than simply obtaining adequate exposure.
      • It is also ノ
    • Approaches to Lighting
      • [1] A way to direct the viewer’s eye in the frame
    • Approaches to Lighting
      • [1] ノ a way to direct the viewer’s eye in the frame
      • [2] To
      • establish
      • the
      • character
    • Approaches to Lighting
      • [3] Establish mood
    • Approaches to Lighting
      • OR The dramatic quality of the image.
    • Approaches to Lighting
      • [4] Establish time of day
    • Approaches to Lighting
      • [4] ノ e stablish time of day
    • Approaches to Lighting
      • [5] Bring out or mute certain colors
    • Approaches to Lighting
      • [6] Create a feeling of safety or danger
    • Approaches to Lighting
      • [7] Emphasize or de-emphasize depth
    • Approaches to Lighting
      • [8] Layer in planes
      • from front
      • [f.gd.]
      • to rear [bgd]
      • of the frame.
      • In other words, it
      • can help define
      • the space in 3
      • dimensions.
    • Lighting Styles
      • SOURCE LIGHTING
      • Also called
      • REALISTIC or
      • NATURAL LIGHTING
      • Bound
      • For
      • Glory
    • Lighting Styles
      • EXPRESSIONISTIC
      • Also called
      • STYLIZED LIGHTING
      • Hero
      • Realistic
      • Lighting
      • Also
      • Stylized
      • To a
      • Degree
    • Lighting Styles
      • Lighting setups must also take into account
      • --the technical limitations of the camera, lens, and recording medium [film/video, etc]
      • --the dramatic needs of the story.
    • Dramatic Need of the Story
      • Dir/Wtr Billy Wilder on Stanley Kubrick’s Barry Lyndon :
      • “ He worked like 6 months trying to find a way to photograph somebody by candlelight, not artificial light. And nobody really gives a s**t whether it is by candlelight or not. What are the jokes? What is the story?”
      • Conversations with Wilder,
      • by Cameron Crowe, p. 24
    • 3 POINT LIGHTING
      • We’ve covered what is considered “normal,” here are some additional thoughts:
      • THE KEY LIGHT
      • -- Normally told to put it 30 to 45 degrees from the camera to subject axis
      • -- Normally elevated at an angle of 30 to 45 degrees above the camera to subject axis.
    • 3 POINT LIGHTING-KEY
      • --Often want it FOCUSABLE,
      • which is why we often choose a
      • FRESNEL
      • It adjusts to flood or spot .
      • --Usually creates some shadows, which gives shape to the subject
      • --Since it’s the dominant light, it’s the one we usually get our F-stop (iris) reading from.
      • Traditional
      • Lighting
      • Setup
    •  
    • 3 POINT LIGHTING-KEY
      • LIGHT PLACEMENT-
      • HORIZONTAL PLANE
      • Front,
      • 3/4 front,
      • side,
      • 3/4 rear,
      • Back.
    • 3 POINT LIGHTING-KEY
      • Why Choose Front Position ?
      • Why Side ?
      • Typical Interview Position?
      • LIGHT PLACEMENT-VERTICAL PLANE
      • 1 Below [low angle],
      • 2 Camera level,
      • 3. Above [30-60 degrees, norm. 45 degrees]
      • 4. High [typically 60-90 degrees, the latter being called “TOP” lighting]
      • Traditional
      • Key
      • Vertical
      • 45
      • Degrees
      • Traditional
      • Key
      • Key Away
      • From
      • Camera
      • Top
      • Lighting
      • Fight Club
      • The Cooler
      • Key light vertical position changes over
      • the course of the film
    • 3 POINT LIGHTING- FILL
      • The Key Light determines shadow placement.
      • The FILL LIGHT is used to lighten [fill in] those shadows while avoiding the formation of new shadows .
      • Fill lights are almost always soft . Why?
      • For “Slow Fall-off ”
      • Fast
      • Fall-Off
      • Slow
      • Fall-Off
    • 3 POINT LIGHTING-FILL
      • FILL PLACEMENT
      • Normally told to place opposite key
      • Reality - Fills tend to be placed in one of 4 positions:
      • [1] The most common - frontal position along the camera/subject axis slightly above camera. Why?
    • 3 POINT LIGHTING-FILL
      • FILL PLACEMENT
      • [2] Same side as key -- from the key side of the camera/subject axis.
      • [3] Opposite key -- fill from the off-key side of the face, taking great care not to create a new set of shadows, particularly on the nose .
      • 2 & 3 allow for more “modeling” effect
    • 3 POINT LIGHTING-FILL
      • [4] The High Above Fill Position
      • DP Sven Nykvist
      • --Advantages-Disadvantages
    • 3 POINT LIGHTING-FILL
      • ROVING
      • Key
      • Or
      • Fill
    • 3 POINT LIGHTING-FILL
      • Roving
      • Key/Fill
      • Sometimes
      • placed
      • In the
      • Shot
    • 3 POINT LIGHTING-FILL
      • ノ r oving
      • Key/Fill
      • Sometimes
      • placed
      • In the
      • Shot
    • 3 POINT LIGHTING-FILL
      • FILL PLACEMENT and MOOD
      • HIGH KEY – BRIGHT MOOD
      • LOW KEY – DARK MOOD
      • --FILLS should never be more intense than the key
      • High Key
      • Meaning
      • High
      • Mood
    • Low Key Lighting
      • Low Key
      • Meaning
      • Dramatic
      • Mood
    • 3 Pt. Ltg - Back Light
      • Helps Outline
      • Helps Separate
    • 3 Pt. Ltg - Back Light
      • Helps Outline
      • Helps Separate
    • Back Light
      • Avoid
      • Light
      • Stand
      • In Shot
    • Back Light-Lens Flare
    • Back Light-Rim
      • Rim
      • Light
    • Back Light-Rim
      • Rim
      • Light
    • Back Light-Rim
      • Orc with a
      • Rim
    • Back Light - Kicker
      • Kicker
      • 3/4, Low angle
      • Opposite
      • The
      • Key
    • Back - Rim - Kicker
    • Kicker
      • Object
      • Or
      • Accent light;
      • also
      • sometimes
      • called a Kicker
    • Back Light-Atmosphere
      • Atmospheric Effects
      • *Trick to it?
      • Road
      • To
      • Perdition
    • Back Light-Atmosphere-Rain
      • Atmospheric Effects
      • Daredevil
    • Back Light-Atmosphere-Rain
      • Atmospheric Effects
      • Batman
      • Begins
    • Back Light Atmosphere
      • SMOKE
    • 3 POINT LIGHTING-OTHER
      • BACKGROUND LIGHT
      • Background Placement
      • Usually same as KEY
      • Background Exposure
      • High key - same as Key
      • Low Key - @ least
      • 1 stop difference
    • Background Lighting
      • TONAL VARIATIONS
    • Background Lighting
      • TONAL VARIATIONS
    • Background Lighting-Composition
      • Lighting
      • For
      • Composition
      • As well
      • As mood
    • BackgroundLighting-Shadows
      • Natural Shadow Cookie Shadow
    • 3 POINT LIGHTING-OTHER
      • BACKGROUND LIGHT
      • KEY TO CREATING SHADOW ON B.G. or any background efx
      • – Control SPILL!!!
    • 3 POINT LIGHTING-OTHER
      • EYE LIGHT
      • GOOD RULE when lighting actors
      • CHECK THE EYES
      • --for deadness caused by lack of eyelight
      • --for the opposite prob, too many reflections (many lights reflecting in their eyes).
    • Lighting - Eye Light
      • EYE POPS
    • Eye Light
      • Even
      • Hannibal
      • Gets an
      • Eye Light
    • 3 POINT LIGHTING-OTHER
      • HAIR LIGHTS - Position
      • [1] from directly overhead
      • [2] from more oblique angles (side)
      • [3] from behind the subject
      • “ CLASSIC
      • HOLLYWOOD”
      • Marlene
      • Dietrich
      • Hair
      • Light
    • 3 POINT LIGHTING-OTHER
      • PRACTICALS
      • -CLOTHES
      • -LIGHT
      • Practicals:
      • -Windows
      • -Floor Lamp
      • -Wall Sconce
      • -Desk Lamp
    • PREPARING TO LIGHT
      • Lighting, like any other part of production, requires advanced planning .
      • What are the Aesthetic Considerations to address?
    • PREPARING TO LIGHT
      • OVERALL LOOK
      • LIGHT QUALITY
      • SUBJECT LIGHTING RATIOS
      • SUBJECT/BACKGROUND RATIOS
      • COLOR EFFECTS
      • FILM/VIDEO STOCK
    • Aesthetics - Overall Look
      • Subject-Lighting Ratios
      • Kodak Subject Lighting Ratios for Stock 5246
      • http://wwwse.kodak.com/country/US/en/motion/products/negative/5246.shtml
    • Color Effect-Lab
    • Color-film stocks Traffic
    • Film/Video Stock
      • How is a stock rated?
      • How much will you need?
      • “ Shooting Ratio”?
    • PREPARING TO LIGHT
      • LOCATION SHOOTING
      • If not in a studio, careful and systematic LOCATION SCOUTING is imperative
      • Survey each location to determine ノ
    • PREPARING TO LIGHT
      • How much light it will require
      • How many lights can be mounted [on overhead beams, walls, etc]
      • How many crew members will you need (lights and handle reflectors?)
      • Where will the sun be when you are shooting?
    • PREPARING TO LIGHT
      • Survey the location for ELECTRICITY.
    • PREPARING TO LIGHT
      • How much power do you need?
      • How much is actually available there?
      • Find the breaker box and map out the power circuits
      • How many wall outlets do you have, and where are they located?
      • How many EXTENSION CABLES [STINGERS] do you need and how long do they need to be?
    • PREPARING TO LIGHT
      • Do you have a contact person?
      • Do you need to hire an Gaffer?
      • Will you need to rent a generator?
      • Will you borrow/buy power from someone nearby?
      • How will you TRANSPORT the GEAR?
    • PREPARING TO LIGHT
      • DEVELOP A CHECKLIST
      • Major items should include:
      • --Lighting instruments and spare lamps, Mounting equipment, Lighting accessories, “Stingers”, Generator, Safety gear, transportation, weather report, maps and crew contact information to disperse
    • SHOOTING OUTDOORS
      • Tend to shoot WITH Sun, meaning the Sun is AT YOUR BACK
      • MAGIC HOUR or GOLDEN TIME
    • Contrast Range
      • Image Curve
      • CONTRAST AND REDUCTION
      • [1] Adding Fill Light
      • [2] Reflectors and Flex Fills
      • [3] Large Scrim or SILK
      • [4] Shoot in the shade
      • [5] Shoot on overcast days
    • Reflectors-Flex Fills
    • Reflectors-Foam Core
    • Contrast Redux-Silk
      • 4x4
      • Silk
    • Contrast Redux-Soft Box
      • Rifa Chimera
    • SHOOTING OUTDOORS
      • CONTRAST AND REDUCTION cont’d
      • [6] Filters on the Camera
      • --ND or Neutral Density
      • --Haze and UV filters
      • --Polarizers
      • --Low contrast or soft contrast filters
      • Filters generally cause some loss in image quality
    • Neutral Density Filter
      • No filter ND Filter
    • ND Filter
      • No filter 2 Stop ND Filter
    • UV-Haze Filter
      • No Filter Tiffen Haze 2
      • No Filter Polarizer
    • Low Contrast Filter
      • NoFilter Contrast
    • SHOOTING OUTDOORS
      • MAINTAINING CONTINUITY
      • When the Sun is the primary light source, there is always the potential for lighting –induced CONTINUITY ERRORS.
      • Group similarly lit scenes together in your shooting schedule
      • Avoid shooting different sections of the same scene at different times of the day
    • NIGHT SHOOTING
      • Night for Night
      • Dusk for Night
      • Day for Night
      • Fight Club Ext.
    • Day for Night
      • Using Digieffects Software Plug-in