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Brian Elliott's "Camera Basics" Lecture
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Brian Elliott's "Camera Basics" Lecture

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This lecture was given in Baylor University's Production Methods One course on 10/2/06 and 10/4/06.

This lecture was given in Baylor University's Production Methods One course on 10/2/06 and 10/4/06.

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    Brian Elliott's "Camera Basics" Lecture Brian Elliott's "Camera Basics" Lecture Presentation Transcript

    • CAMERA BASICS
    • The Camera
      • NTSC
      • -Lines
      • -FPS
      • -Fields
      • PAL
      • SECAM
    • The Camera
      • Film - FPS
      • Persistence of Vision
    • The Camera - Scanning
      • PROGRESSIVE INTERLACE
    • The Camera
      • Standard HD Progressive Scan Camera often called 720P
      • Or 1280 x 720 P
      • 1280 PIXELS PER Line x 720 PROGRESSIVE scan lines PER frame
    • The Camera
      • Standard HD Interlace is often called 1080i
      • Or 1920 x 1080
      • 1920 PIXELS Per Line x 1080 interlaced scan lines per frame.
    • The Camera
    • The Camera
    • The Camera System
      • The Video Signal
      • Transducer: Optical > to Electric > back to Optical
    • The Camera Imaging Device
      • Lens forms image on CCD
      • Most Prof’l cams have 3 (RGB) As Film Cam forms image on film
    • The Camera Imaging Device
      • CCD “target area” has 100,000s up to Millions of PIXELS.
      • A pixel detects differences in image brightness, changes it into electric voltages and outputs it. TV Receiver reverses the process.
    • Optical Element - The Lens
      • Prime or “Fixed Focus” Variable or Zoom
    • Optical Element - The Lens
      • MACRO TABLE TOP LENS
    • Optical Element - The Lens
      • DIGITAL ZOOM LENS
      • Software magnifies or “blows up” a portion of original image. Lower quality
    • Optical Element - The Lens
      • FOCAL LENGTH
      • 300mm lens 35mm lens
    • Optical Element - The Lens
      • RANGES OF FOCAL LENGTH
    • Optical Element - The Lens
      • RANGES OF FOCAL LENGTH
    • Optical Element - The Lens
      • RANGES OF FOCAL LENGTH
    • Optical Element - The Lens
      • RANGES OF FOCAL LENGTH
    • Optical Element - The Lens
      • RANGES OF FOCAL LENGTH
    • Optical Element - The Lens
      • RANGES OF FOCAL LENGTH
    • Optical Element - The Lens
      • Setting Exposure
      • Light Meters
      • Incident
      • Reflective
    • Optical Element - The Lens
      • Aperture or Iris (diaphragm) and F-STOPS
      • 1 1.4 ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
    • Optical Element - The Lens
      • Aperture or Iris (diaphragm) and F-STOPS
      • 1 1.4 2 2.8 4 5.6 8 11 16 22
    • Optical Element - The Lens
      • Overexposure
      • “ hot”
      • Underexposure
    • Optical Element - The Lens
      • Auto Iris Problem
    • Color Temperature
      • Primary - RGB
      • 2ndary - CYM
    • Color Temperature
      • 3 Primary Colors = 3 CCDs: RED, GREEN, BLUE, COMBINED
    • Color Temperature
      • Human Eye: Approximate Color Consistency
    • Color Temperature
      • Sunlight’s Varying Color Temperature
      • Time of day, Amt. Of Haze, Geographic Locale
    • Color Temperature
      • Video - Degrees Kelvin
      • Outdoors - 5600K Indoors - 3200K
      • Indoor Lights we use are usually Incandescent or Tungsten Light
    • Color Temperature
      • Film - Utilizes Different Film Stocks
    • Color Temperature
      • Film - Utilizes Different Film Stocks
    • Color Temperature
      • Before 85 After 85
      • Film - Also uses Compensation Filters
      • 85 (amber) Using Indoor (tungsten) film with Outdoor sources (sun, HMI Lights, etc.)
    • Color Temperature
      • Before 80A and After 80A
      • Film - Also uses Compensation Filters
      • 80A (blue) Using Daylight film with Tungsten (indoor) sources
    • Color Temperature
      • Film - ND or NEUTRAL DENSITY FILTERS
    • Color Temperature
      • Video Cams use a Filter Wheel - with 3200, 5600, and ND settings
    • Color Temperature
      • With Video Cams we also WHITE BALANCE
    • Color Temperature
      • *We can also CHEAT white balance.
      • WB on BLUE, image is a more red color.
      • WB on YELLOW, image is more blue.
    • Color Balancing Multiple Cameras
      • CCU’s - Camera Control Units
      • -controls a cameras Iris, Pedestal [black level], colors, etc.
    • DEPTH OF FIELD
      • 1/3, 2/3 RULE
    • DEPTH OF FIELD
      • Focal Length and
      • F-STOP impacts DOF
    • DEPTH OF FIELD
      • Manipulating DOF allows for
      • Selective Focus
    • DEPTH OF FIELD
      • Selective Focus
      • Tells
      • Us
      • Where to Look
      • And
      • What’s
      • Important
    • DEPTH OF FIELD
      • Follow Focus
    • DEPTH OF FIELD
      • Macro Focus
    • DEPTH OF FIELD
      • RACK FOCUS
    • DEPTH OF FIELD
      • AUTO FOCUS PROB
    • DEPTH OF FIELD
      • Director’s
      • Viewfinder
    • Aspect Ratio
      • NTSC: 4 x 3 HDTV: 16 x 9
    • Aspect Ratio
      • Sometimes we phrase it -- “2.35”
      • What does that mean? 2.35 : 1
    • Aspect Ratio
      • NTSC HDTV
      • 4 x 3 = 1.33:1 16x9 = 1.78:1
    • Aspect Ratio
      • US Standard 35mm Film is 1.85:1
      • Europe Standard Film is 1.66:1
    • Aspect Ratio
      • Some films use widescreen 35mm Film
      • 2.35:1
    • Aspect Ratio
      • 35mm Hard Matte 35mm Soft Matte
      • How do they get it wider? By manipulating the frame itself.
    • Aspect Ratio
      • 35mm Hard Matte 35mm Anamorphic
      • Anamorphic vertically stretches image, then when plays back, looks normal (if system setup correctly)
    • Aspect Ratio
      • Anamorphic of a 1.85 image: [a] Non-Anamorphic (letterbox),
      • [b] Vertically Stretched, [c] Viewed correctly
    • Aspect Ratio
      • Anamorphic of a 2.35 image: [a] Non-Anamorphic (letterbox),
      • [b] Vertically Stretched, [c] Viewed correctly
    • Aspect Ratio
      • 35mm Hard Matte Super 35
      • SUPER 35
      • Notice the Audio Tracks are missing
    • Aspect Ratio
      • Making Widescreen fit your NTSC TV
      • [1] PAN AND SCAN
      • Problems: Changes Aesthetic and Cuts 43% of screen at all times.
    • Aspect Ratio
      • [1] PAN AND SCAN - Changes the Aesthetic
    • Aspect Ratio
      • Cuts 43% - Pan and Scan vs. Letterbox
    • Aspect Ratio
      • Making Widescreen fit your NTSC TV
      • [2] LETTERBOX
      • Problems: Black bars means we loose scan lines. Uses only 272 of 480 active lines.
    • Aspect Ratio
      • Anamorphic Letterbox
      • Anamorph process better, 33% more lines than letterbox
    • Camera Shutter
      • SHUTTER SPEED
      • Film: Amt of time film is exposed to light
      • Video: Amt of time that the light-induced charge is allowed to electronically build
    • Camera Shutter
    • Camera Shutter
      • Faster Shutter Speeds Require MORE light!
      • CCD Shutter Speed Corresponding f-stop
      • Normal 16
      • 1/100 11
      • 1/250 8
      • 1/500 5.6
      • 1/,1000 4
      • 1/2000 2.8
      • 1/4000 2
    • Camera Shutter
      • Shutter also allows for the creation of STROBE
    • Camera Mounts
      • Studio Pedestals
    • Camera Mounts
      • “ Sticks”, Fluid Head, Hi-Hat, Bean bags
    • Specialty Camera Setups
      • Robotic
      • Cameras
    • Specialty Camera Setups
      • “ Follow Me”
      • Camera
      • Mount
    • Specialty Camera Setups
      • Camera
      • Jibs
    • Specialty Camera Setups
      • Camera
      • Crane & Jib
    • Specialty Camera Setups
      • Steadicam
    • Specialty Camera Setups
      • Dollies
      • And
      • Track
    • Specialty Camera Setups
      • Copter Cams
    • Specialty Camera Setups
      • Shuttle Cam
    • Specialty Camera Setups
      • Rad Cam
    • CAMERA BASICS