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  1. 1. “ New Drug Target for Prion Diseases, ‘Mad Cow’” “ Gene 'Relocation' Key to Most Evolutionary Change in Bacteria” Jessica posada Hernandez Student third semester of medicine Subject: Molecular biology Professor: Lina maria Martinez. Upb 2011.
  2. 2. phy
  3. 4. <ul><li>Central dogma of genetic information is the normal function that cells use to produce proteins based on DNA for their genetic information. </li></ul><ul><li>Prion is one of the exception of the central dogma, they are proteins that has infectious capacity; the gene relocation is the manipulation of the DNA in bacteria by managing antibiotic . </li></ul>INTRODUCTION
  4. 5. <ul><li>Prions are infectious proteins. In mammals, prions reproduce by recruiting the normal, cellular isoform of the prion protein and stimulating its conversion into the desease causing isoform. The last ones are a rare group that produces fatal brainalteration that affect animals and humans. </li></ul>“ New Drug Target for Prion Diseases, !Mad Cow!”
  5. 6. <ul><li>The investigation team used simple test-tube reactions to multiply disease-associated prion proteins. The reactions were conducted in the presence or absence of plasminogen. They also found that the natural replication of the prions was stimulated by plasminogen in animal cells. </li></ul>“ New Drug Target for Prion Diseases, !Mad Cow!”
  6. 7. <ul><li>Plasminogen or profibrinolisina1 is a glycoprotein synthesized by the liver, present in plasma as the inactive precursor of an enzyme called protease plasmin. It is the principal component of the fibrinolytic system of the body in dissolving blood clots Crane and other eukaryotic organisms. </li></ul>“ New Drug Target for Prion Diseases, !Mad Cow!”
  7. 8. <ul><li>&quot;Since prion diseases can lay undetected for decades, delaying the ability of the disease-associated prion protein to replicate by targeting the cofactor of the process could be a monumental implication for treatment.&quot; </li></ul>“ New Drug Target for Prion Diseases, !Mad Cow!”
  8. 9. <ul><li>the discovery of protein that speeds up the process of prion replication is very important because it will be easier to find a correct and specific treatment to the patient and help it with the desease and when the diagnosis is early we can prevent death. </li></ul>Personal Comment
  9. 10. <ul><li>Microbes live and thrive in incredibly diverse and harsh conditions, from boiling or freezing water to the human immune system. This remarkable adaptability results from their ability to quickly modify their repertoire of protein functions by gaining, losing and modifying their genes. </li></ul>“ Gene !Relocation! Key to Most Evolutionary Changein bacteria”
  10. 11. <ul><li>Microbes were known to modify genes to expand their repertoire of protein families in two ways: via duplication processes followed by slow functional specialization, in the same way as large multicellular organisms like us, and by acquiring different genes directly from other microbes. </li></ul>“ Gene !Relocation! Key to Most Evolutionary Changein bacteria”
  11. 12. <ul><li>The study shows that gene family expansion can indeed follow both routes, but unlike in large multicellular organisms, it predominantly takes place by horizontal transfer. </li></ul>“ Gene !Relocation! Key to Most Evolutionary Changein bacteria”
  12. 13. <ul><li>The latter process, known as horizontal gene transfer, is notoriously conspicuous in the spread of antibiotic resistance, turning some bacteria into drug-resistant 'superbugs' such as MRSA (methicillin-resistant  Staphylococcus aureus ), a serious public health concern. </li></ul>“ Gene !Relocation! Key to Most Evolutionary Changein bacteria”
  13. 14. <ul><li>This scientific advance may be a breakthrough for bacterial evolution but at the sametime a huge threat to humanity because when these organisms attack the body it will be harder to combat and eliminate it as not to cause adverse damage </li></ul>Personal Comment
  14. 15. <ul><li>The importance of knowing that  plasminogen  is the protein of  the body that helps  prion to replicate   is very useful because then we can know that specific treatment that the patient should have to avoid complications of the disease and make the intervention fast and effective. </li></ul>Medical Utility
  15. 16. <ul><li>Gene “relocation” is more a cientific advance that medicinal and the reason is that if the microorganisms obtain the capacity of resistance to antibiotics it means that  it will be more difficult to battle the infection by antibiotics and the patient life can be in dangeour. </li></ul>Medical Utility
  16. 17. <ul><li>Knowing the Following pri-on replication process, it makes it possible to know whichspecific antibiotic should be used to attac in the active site of the protein. </li></ul>Medical Utility
  17. 18. <ul><li>Relocation gene in bacteria is of great importance because it can indicate in the future that manipulation could be done in humans and  improve genetic alterations from the gestation. </li></ul>Medical Utility
  18. 19. Bibliography -science daily.  New Drug Target for Prion Diseases, 'Mad Cow'(sitio en internet). disponible en:  http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/01/110110103838.htm . consultado: Jan 11, 2011. -science saily.  Gene 'Relocation' Key to Most Evolutionary Change in Bacteria (sitio en internet). disponible en :  http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/01/110127205845.htm . consultado: Jan 30, 2011 -Pruiser Stanley; Prion biology and deseases; second edicion; USA; editorial cold spring Harbor laboratory press; page: 3; year 2004 -Martínez Lina, Vargas Natalia, Toro Andres, Pamplona Ana, Quevedo Esteban; Biología molecular; sexta edición; medellin; editorial Universidad Potificia Bolivariana; pages: 70-73; año 2011
  19. 20. THANKS