Grammar book final jp

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  • 1. By: Juan Pablo Pollack
  • 2.  1. Nationalities 2. Stem Changing Verbs 3.Para 4. Pronoun Placement 5. Indirect Object Pronouns 6. Gustar 7. Affirmative/Negative Words 8. Superlatives 9. Reflexives 10. Affirmative tú Commands 11. Negative tú Commands 12. Sequencing events 13. Preterite 14.Trigger Words 15. –Car, -Gar, -Zar 16. Deber + Infinitive 17. Modal Verbs 18. Present Progressive 19. Adverbs
  • 3.  A stem change can occur in the Yo form, Tu form, El/Ella/Usted form, and Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes form. Nosotros and Vosotros do not stem change. Example using Poder, to be able to. u-ue, o-ue, e-ei, e-i. Puedo Podemos Puedes Podéis Puede Pueden
  • 4.  Para is used in the Spanish language as for is used in the English language. Ex: Yo cocino la cena para mis padres.
  • 5.  Indirect Objects are nouns that tell to whom or for whom. To determine which pronoun to use, refer to the indirect object. Le, Te, Me, Nos, Os, Les. IOP’s are placed: Before conjugated verb, attached to an infinitive, or attached to a gerrund. Example: El hombre le vende el carro a mi padre. You would choose le because it refers to mi padre which is él.
  • 6.  1. Attached to the pronoun to the infinitive. 2. Attach the pronoun to a progressive tense verb or “ing” verb. 3. Attach the pronoun to an affirmative command. 4. Place the pronoun before a conjugated verb.
  • 7.  If you want to talk about the things people like, change the form of gustar to match the singular or plural nouns for those things. Ex: Me gusta la idea, nos gusta la idea Ex: Le gustan las personas, les gustan las personas. Pronouns Me Nos Te Les Le Les
  • 8.  When talking about an indefinite or negative situation, you should use a negative or affirmative.  Alguno and Ninguno drop of the O to show masculine singular nouns. Affirmative NegativeAlgo Something Nada NothingAlguien Someone Nadie No oneAlgun/alguno Same Ningun/ninguno NoneSiempre Always Nunca NeverTambien Also Tampoco Neither/either
  • 9.  Superlatives are used to express extreme adjectives by dropping the final vowel and adding “isimo(a)”. The adjective must agree in gender and number of the noun it modifies. Ex: La comida es riquisimo. Ex: La limonada es muy refrequisimo!
  • 10.  To describe people doing something themselves, use a reflexive verb. Ex: Me lavo la cabeza. When there is not a reflexive verb, the person doing the action is not receiving the action. Me Nos Te Os Se Se
  • 11.  Affirmative commands give instructions or commands to someone. Ex: Camina en el parque! When using a pronoun with an affirmative command, the pronoun attaches to the command. Ex: Ponte otra camisa!
  • 12.  When telling someone what not to do, use a negative command. Formed by taking the form of the present tense, dropping the O, and add the opposite ending in tu form. Vengas Tengas Pongas Salgas Hagas Digas Vayas Seas
  • 13.  Primero- First Entonces- Then/Therefore Luego/Despues- Later/After Por Fin- Finally Antes de/ Despues de- Before/After Por la mañana/tarde/noche-In the morning/afternoon/night Los Lunes- On Monday
  • 14.  The preterite is in the past tense. é í Aste Iste ó Ió Amos Imos Aron Ieron Esto Es El Preterito
  • 15.  Preteito  trigger words from preterito
  • 16. Tocar Jugar ComenzarToqué Jugué ComencéTocaste Jugaste ComenzasteTocó Jugó ComenzóTocamos Jugamos ComenzaronTocaron Jugaron comenzaronVerbs that end in -gar change g to gu.Verbs that end in -car change c to qu.Verbs that end in -zar change z to c.
  • 17.  The verb deber means “should” or “ought to”. To say what people should do, conjugate deber, and use another verb in its infinitive form. Ex: Yo debo comer antes voy al tenís.
  • 18.  Modal verbs are when the first verb is conjugated, and then the verb immediately after it stays in it’s infinitive form. Ex: Yo voy comer a la cafetería. (I go eat at the cafeteria) Ex: Él debe limpiar la cocina. (He should clean the kitchen) Ex: Nosotros queremos jugar el fútbol Americano. (We want to play football)
  • 19.  When you use pronouns in the present progressive, you can put them before the conjugated verb estar, or attach it to the end of the present participle. For an –ar verb, use ando at the end. (Jugando) For an ir/er verb, use iendo at the end. (Comiendo) For Ir or a verb that has three consecutive vowels, use yendo. (Leyendo) E-I stem changing verbs have a vowel chagne in the stem.Ex: Servir----SirviendoEx: Preferir---- Prefiriendo
  • 20.  To describe how something is done, use adverbs. When an adjective ends in E, I, or Z, add-mente to the end. Ex: Frecuente----Frecuentemente Ex: Facil----Facilmente Ex: Feliz----Felizmente For adjectives ending in and A or O, add -mente to the feminine form. Ex: Rápido----Rápidamente Ex: Trabajadoro----Trabajadoramente When you use two adverbs, drop the –mente from the first one. Ex: Lenta y Traquilamente.