Grammar book final jp

Uploaded on


  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads


Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds



Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

    No notes for slide


  • 1. By: Juan Pablo Pollack
  • 2.  1. Nationalities 2. Stem Changing Verbs 3.Para 4. Pronoun Placement 5. Indirect Object Pronouns 6. Gustar 7. Affirmative/Negative Words 8. Superlatives 9. Reflexives 10. Affirmative tú Commands 11. Negative tú Commands 12. Sequencing events 13. Preterite 14.Trigger Words 15. –Car, -Gar, -Zar 16. Deber + Infinitive 17. Modal Verbs 18. Present Progressive 19. Adverbs
  • 3.  A stem change can occur in the Yo form, Tu form, El/Ella/Usted form, and Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes form. Nosotros and Vosotros do not stem change. Example using Poder, to be able to. u-ue, o-ue, e-ei, e-i. Puedo Podemos Puedes Podéis Puede Pueden
  • 4.  Para is used in the Spanish language as for is used in the English language. Ex: Yo cocino la cena para mis padres.
  • 5.  Indirect Objects are nouns that tell to whom or for whom. To determine which pronoun to use, refer to the indirect object. Le, Te, Me, Nos, Os, Les. IOP’s are placed: Before conjugated verb, attached to an infinitive, or attached to a gerrund. Example: El hombre le vende el carro a mi padre. You would choose le because it refers to mi padre which is él.
  • 6.  1. Attached to the pronoun to the infinitive. 2. Attach the pronoun to a progressive tense verb or “ing” verb. 3. Attach the pronoun to an affirmative command. 4. Place the pronoun before a conjugated verb.
  • 7.  If you want to talk about the things people like, change the form of gustar to match the singular or plural nouns for those things. Ex: Me gusta la idea, nos gusta la idea Ex: Le gustan las personas, les gustan las personas. Pronouns Me Nos Te Les Le Les
  • 8.  When talking about an indefinite or negative situation, you should use a negative or affirmative.  Alguno and Ninguno drop of the O to show masculine singular nouns. Affirmative NegativeAlgo Something Nada NothingAlguien Someone Nadie No oneAlgun/alguno Same Ningun/ninguno NoneSiempre Always Nunca NeverTambien Also Tampoco Neither/either
  • 9.  Superlatives are used to express extreme adjectives by dropping the final vowel and adding “isimo(a)”. The adjective must agree in gender and number of the noun it modifies. Ex: La comida es riquisimo. Ex: La limonada es muy refrequisimo!
  • 10.  To describe people doing something themselves, use a reflexive verb. Ex: Me lavo la cabeza. When there is not a reflexive verb, the person doing the action is not receiving the action. Me Nos Te Os Se Se
  • 11.  Affirmative commands give instructions or commands to someone. Ex: Camina en el parque! When using a pronoun with an affirmative command, the pronoun attaches to the command. Ex: Ponte otra camisa!
  • 12.  When telling someone what not to do, use a negative command. Formed by taking the form of the present tense, dropping the O, and add the opposite ending in tu form. Vengas Tengas Pongas Salgas Hagas Digas Vayas Seas
  • 13.  Primero- First Entonces- Then/Therefore Luego/Despues- Later/After Por Fin- Finally Antes de/ Despues de- Before/After Por la mañana/tarde/noche-In the morning/afternoon/night Los Lunes- On Monday
  • 14.  The preterite is in the past tense. é í Aste Iste ó Ió Amos Imos Aron Ieron Esto Es El Preterito
  • 15.  Preteito  trigger words from preterito
  • 16. Tocar Jugar ComenzarToqué Jugué ComencéTocaste Jugaste ComenzasteTocó Jugó ComenzóTocamos Jugamos ComenzaronTocaron Jugaron comenzaronVerbs that end in -gar change g to gu.Verbs that end in -car change c to qu.Verbs that end in -zar change z to c.
  • 17.  The verb deber means “should” or “ought to”. To say what people should do, conjugate deber, and use another verb in its infinitive form. Ex: Yo debo comer antes voy al tenís.
  • 18.  Modal verbs are when the first verb is conjugated, and then the verb immediately after it stays in it’s infinitive form. Ex: Yo voy comer a la cafetería. (I go eat at the cafeteria) Ex: Él debe limpiar la cocina. (He should clean the kitchen) Ex: Nosotros queremos jugar el fútbol Americano. (We want to play football)
  • 19.  When you use pronouns in the present progressive, you can put them before the conjugated verb estar, or attach it to the end of the present participle. For an –ar verb, use ando at the end. (Jugando) For an ir/er verb, use iendo at the end. (Comiendo) For Ir or a verb that has three consecutive vowels, use yendo. (Leyendo) E-I stem changing verbs have a vowel chagne in the stem.Ex: Servir----SirviendoEx: Preferir---- Prefiriendo
  • 20.  To describe how something is done, use adverbs. When an adjective ends in E, I, or Z, add-mente to the end. Ex: Frecuente----Frecuentemente Ex: Facil----Facilmente Ex: Feliz----Felizmente For adjectives ending in and A or O, add -mente to the feminine form. Ex: Rápido----Rápidamente Ex: Trabajadoro----Trabajadoramente When you use two adverbs, drop the –mente from the first one. Ex: Lenta y Traquilamente.