Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
Machine to Machine White Paper
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Machine to Machine White Paper

  • 2,615 views
Published

White paper from Juniper Networks about Machine to Machine markets

White paper from Juniper Networks about Machine to Machine markets

Published in Technology , Business
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
2,615
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2

Actions

Shares
Downloads
296
Comments
0
Likes
1

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. WHITE PAPERMACHINE-TO-MACHINE (M2M)—THE RISE OF THE MACHINESCopyright © 2011, Juniper Networks, Inc. 1
  • 2. WHITE PAPER - Machine-to-Machine (M2M)—The Rise of the Machines Table of Contents Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Opportunities for New Business Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 M2M Network Architecture Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Present-Day Networks and M2M Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 M2M Standards Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ETSI and M2M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3GPP and M2M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3GPP M2M Communication Scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 About Juniper Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Table of Figures Figure 1: Infonetics Research M2M connections forecast (2009–2014) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Figure 2: Revenue per vertical. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Figure 3: Inverting the pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Figure 4: MNO and partnership model co-operation for M2M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Figure 5: ETSI M2M network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Figure 6: ETSI use case technical reports reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Figure 7: ETSI TS 102 690 system architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Figure 8: Stage 3 for ETSI M2M Release 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Figure 9: Overall 3GPP high-level M2M architecture approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Figure 10: 3GPP M2M communication, scenario 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Figure 11: 3GPP M2M communication, scenario 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Figure 12: 3GPP M2M communication, scenario 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 List of Tables Table 1: 3GPP Machine-Type Communication Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Table 2: High-Level Domains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Table 3: Differences Between H2H and M2M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Table 4: Standards, Specification Descriptions and References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Table 5: ETSI M2M Network Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Table 6: Major Components of 3GPP M2M Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Copyright © 2011, Juniper Networks, Inc.
  • 3. WHITE PAPER - Machine-to-Machine (M2M)—The Rise of the Machines Executive Summary This paper presents a high- level view of a rekindled market for Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications. M2M communication can be agnostic to the access technologies and will uses a broad range of fixed and wireless technologies (cellular, Wi-Fi, wireline, DSL, satellite or even serial with gateways). Several key requirements emerge as the industry adopts the M2M applications toward the Internet of things. Juniper’s portfolio of mobility solutions, such as Juniper Networks® MobileNext, Junos® Pulse for security, Junos Space for management and Junos SDK position the company for leadership in this market: • Mobile Broadband Gateway (MBG) and Mobile Control Gateway (MCG) address scaling aspect for M2M endpoints. • Junos Pulse for security expertise helps prevent man-in-the-middle attacks by examining the option of providing embedded lightweight Junos Pulse for M2M. • Junos SDK provides an open API and facilitates third-party development and integration tailored to M2M/MTC. This paper focuses on cellular M2M/MTC communications and describes current considerations by key standard organizations directly looking into the technical challenges and network enhancements required to address these opportunities. It is directed to the field force involved with mobile wireless service providers. Through this educational paper, network administrators are introduced to the growing market need for cellular M2M infrastructure enhancements and application services. Introduction Although cellular M2M communication has existed for some time now, it has been a challenging and niche market. • Existing M2M solutions are fragmented and usually are dedicated to a specific single application: • There are many different incumbent and legacy technical solutions that lack standard homogenization. • There is a need for new revenue models to address generally small volumes of traffic from M2M applications. According to several market research firms, this market is on an upward path as the M2M market is projected to grow exponentially in the coming years. Personal communication has evolved from traditional phone calls to today’s modern text messaging using Short Message Service (SMS) or multimedia content through Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS). Cellular M2M communications for 2G/3G use similar types of mechanisms to send short data bursts of information to report residential utility meter readings, locations for telemetry applications and also for remote upgrades/activations of machines such as parking meters. Concurrently, advances in wireless technologies, wider availability of application services and the upcoming demands created by regulatory and policy initiatives for some verticals such as utilities/smart grid—the EU recently issued a mandate on Smart Metering (M/441) to the European Standards Development Organizations (SDOs) and the United States National Broadband Plan (March 2010)—prompted the industry (M2M modem vendors, operators, standards, application providers) to take a second look at this overall segment. The M2M ecosystem is developing and opening the doors for tremendous opportunities beyond the “traditional M2M market segment.” Figure 1 shows the predictions by Infonetics Research for M2M connections. Embedded mobile M2M connections are forecast to reach 428 million by 2014 450 Connections in Millions 0 2009 2014 © Infonetics Research, Embedded Mobile M2M Modem Market Outlook, Oct. 2010 Figure 1: Infonetics Research M2M connections forecast (2009–2014)Copyright © 2011, Juniper Networks, Inc. 3
  • 4. WHITE PAPER - Machine-to-Machine (M2M)—The Rise of the Machines Furthermore, Harbor Research projects M2M to reach 390 million connections by 2014. Although the projections are slightly different from each market research firm, it is undeniable that the M2M market is significantly growing. Other markets verticals—besides utilities/smart grid/energy/telemetry—include transportation and logistics, security/ surveillance, healthcare, retail/vending, consumers, and miscellaneous (including environment, education and military). As depicted in Figure 2, Harbor Research shows its revenue projections per vertical. Exhibit: Value-Added Application Services by Venue $350,000 $300,000 $250,000 Security/Infrastructure Healthcare Millions $200,000 IT/Networks Transportation $150,000 Retail Buildings $100,000 Energy Industrial $50,000 $0 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Source: Harbor Research, Inc. Figure 2: Revenue per vertical Some of those verticals such as smart metering and healthcare are gaining popularity and are in early deployment stages. They already contribute at changing the economics and user experience perception. For example, gas and electric utility companies can reduce their costs by discontinuing meter readings by their prescribed employees. eHealth can offer an improved patient experience for those who have limited mobility or remote access by providing vital sign status through networked monitoring equipment associated with the patient’s identification. There are many different MTC applications with distinct characteristics. As such, every optimization feature put forward is not suitable for all MTC applications. In other words, there is not a unique set of requirements that can be applied to all MTC applications. Network operators must be able to differentiate between their MTC devices to provide MTC features on a per- subscription basis. Subscriber database information as well as Policy and Charging Rules Function (PCRF) will play a key role in this.4 Copyright © 2011, Juniper Networks, Inc.
  • 5. WHITE PAPER - Machine-to-Machine (M2M)—The Rise of the Machines Table 1 presents a non-exhaustive list of machine-type communication applications (3GPP TR 22.368). Table 1: 3GPP Machine-Type Communication Applications SERVICE AREA MTC APPLICATIONS Security Surveillance systems Backup for landline Control of physical access Tracking, Tracing Fleet management Order management Pay as you drive Asset tracking Navigation Traffic Information Road tolling Road traffic optimization/steering Payment Point of sales Vending machines Gaming machines Health Monitoring vital signs Supporting the aged or handicapped Web access telemedicine points Remote diagnostics Remote Maintenance/Control Sensors Lighting Pumps Valves Elevator control Vending machine control Vehicle diagnostics Metering Power Gas Water Heating Grid control Industrial metering Consumer Devices Digital photo frame Digital camera e-book Table 2 lists ETSI’s high-level domains with associated examples of possible industry use cases. Table 2: High-Level Domains DOMAINS EXAMPLE Security Surveillance application, alarms, tracking (object/person). Transportation Fleet management, emission control, toll payment, road safety. Healthcare Related to eHealth, personal well-being and security. Smart Energy Measurement, provisioning/billing of utilities, metering. Supply/Provisioning Freight supply and distribution monitoring, vending machines. City Automation Public lighting, waste management. Future Many more new domains to be developed. Opportunities for New Business Models M2M provides low Average Return Per Device (ARPD) but at the same time offers low churn (if any), making it possible for operators and executives to design lucrative business models that offer services as the industry shows converging signs that this market segment can emerge as a serious and significant opportunity.Copyright © 2011, Juniper Networks, Inc. 5
  • 6. WHITE PAPER - Machine-to-Machine (M2M)—The Rise of the Machines The current marketplace is extremely fragmented, with many small, vertical and specific niche applications. Efforts are underway to bring some level of normalization in the direction of moving away from the current siloed landscape to a more horizontal integrated approach. Occasionally, some in the industry refer to this as “inverting the pipes and going to mass market applications,” as shown in Figure 3. Existing Proprietary Applications Share Common Infrastructure, Vertical Applications Environments, and Network Elements Business Business Business Business Business Business Application 1 Application 2 Application 3 Application 1 Application 2 Application 3 Application Infrastructure Existing Existing Existing Network Infrastructure Mobile Mobile Mobile Infrastructure Infrastructure Infrastructure CONVERGED NETWORK (IP and Mobile Infrastructure) SIM based SIM based SIM based Dedicated Dedicated Dedicated Services Services Services Gateway Concentrators M2M M2M M2M Device Device Device Figure 3: Inverting the pipe Currently, until new business models develop, mobile network operators have traditionally teamed with partners in an attempt to benefit from the M2M market segment. Figure 4 (following chart) shows what several operators have accomplished with partnership models. THE REVENUE OPPORTUNITY FOR MOBILE CONNECTED DEVICES IN SATURATED MARKETS New business unit “Telenor Objects” and co-operation TELIT TELENOR withTelit and Volvo for in-car SIM card VOLVO Echelon and T-Mobile alliance to reduce the cost of a secure CELEVOKE T-MOBILE smart grid network for utilities; also co-operation with Celevoke to sell wholesale data services to M2M clients ECHELON Co-operation with OnStar/GM, also Verizon Wireless and Qualcomm QUALCOMM VERIZON WIRELESS announce joint venture to provide advanced M2M solutions (nPhase) ONSTAR BY GM Emerging devices business unit launched in October 2008; AT&T combined platform with Jasper Wireless JASPER WIRELESS “Orange M2M Connect” platform; strategic partnerships with WAVECOM Wavecom, Alcatel, and Cinterion, Orange (France and Spain) are ORANGE co-operating with Securitas Direct to use wireless GSM network CINTERION for more advanced surveillance solutions SECURITAS DIRECT New M2M platform July 2009, Vodafone Spain also co-operates VODAFONE with Securitas Direct SECURITAS DIRECT TELEFONICA Telefonica’s Smart M2M platform in co-operation with Telit TELIT Source: Northstream white paper, February 2010 Figure 4: MNO and partnership model co-operation for M2M6 Copyright © 2011, Juniper Networks, Inc.
  • 7. WHITE PAPER - Machine-to-Machine (M2M)—The Rise of the Machines M2M Network Architecture Considerations This section discusses M2M network architecture considerations both in terms of suitability of existing wireless networks in supporting M2M applications as well as new architectural enhancements as proposed by standards bodies, such as 3GPP, to efficiently support M2M applications. Present-Day Networks and M2M Challenges The current mobile networks (3GPP/2) primarily are designed for human-to-human (H2H) communications—voice call (SMS/MMS) and server-to-human (downloading/streaming). However, these technologies might not be optimal for M2M application services. M2M networks are defined as communication without or with limited human end user intervention. Note that the human end user is not typically the initiator of the input but only occasionally and optionally the recipient for the output. Table 3 summarizes the differences between H2H and M2M. Table 3: Differences Between H2H and M2M TOPICS H2H M2M Density Wireless devices’ penetration rate is increasing. There M2M outnumbers human end users by order of are a lot of us. But maybe not that much compared to magnitude. 3GPP SA1 requires solutions to cater for M2M potential. at least two orders of magnitude. Another possible reason for IPv6. Possible shortage of phone numbers. Data Volume Most of the traffic is downloaded and requires Traffic is mainly uploaded and most of it requires significant amounts of bandwidth (file, Web and small amounts of bandwidth (video surveillance video streaming). might require more). Battery We can buy a new one—we can recharge. It must be capable of auto-generating power or be self-sustaining for long periods. Delay We do have a tolerance for it even when it comes to Some applications are mainly for real-time control; voice. urgent/emergency action would have little tolerance. Security Worth comes to worth. Instinct tells us or we just Not so much here. Robust security, even know if it has been stolen. confidentiality ought to be available. New considerations are being made regarding Machine Communication Identity Module (MCIM) in Universal Integrated Circuit Card (UICC) or Trusted Environment (TRE). Revenue Good. Low ARPD. Dimensioning Normal business case. High level of endpoints connecting from time to time (can be predefined) to transmit small amounts of data. However, control network overload aspects must be considered. Value Chain Well defined. To be created/adapted for new opportunities on top of common infrastructure. Reachability Satisfying. Push/pull behavior. Might require much longer dormant period to minimize signaling on control plane. Using Table 3 as a reference, it is apparent that M2M and H2H traffic patterns are quite different and accommodations and optimizations are needed in current networks for M2M while maintaining or at least not disrupting existing H2H services.Copyright © 2011, Juniper Networks, Inc. 7
  • 8. WHITE PAPER - Machine-to-Machine (M2M)—The Rise of the Machines M2M Standards Status The European Telecommunications Standardization Institute (ETSI) and 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) are two main standard groups that have been investigating M2M’s challenges, issues, gaps, and architectures. To a lesser degree, WiMAX forum is also looking at M2M. Table 4 summarizes the two standards and associated specification descriptions and references. Table 4: Standards, Specification Descriptions and References STANDARDS SPECIFICATION DESCRIPTION SPECIFICATION REFERENCE ETSI M2M Functional Architecture ETSI TS 102 690 M2M Service Requirements ETSI TS 102 689 Smart Metering Use Cases ETSI TR 102 692 eHealth Use Cases ETSI TR 102 732 Automotive Applications Use Cases ETSI TR 102 898 City Applications Use Cases ETSI TR 102 897 M2M interfaces mIa, mId, dIa ETSI TS 102 921 3GPP SA1- M2M Study Report 3GPP TR 22.868 SA1- MTC Service Requirements 3GPP TS 22.368 SA2 - System Improvements for MTC 3GPP TR 23.888 SA3 - M2M Security Aspect for Remote Provisioning and Subscription Change 3GPP TR 33.812 SA3 - Security Aspect of MTC 3GPP TR 33.868 3GPP Study on RAN Improvements for MTC 3GPP TR 37.868 3GPP Study on GERAN Improvements for MTC 3GPP TR 43.868 ETSI and M2M In 2009, ETSI created a Technical Committee (TC) whose goal is to develop M2M standards. Release 1 planning stages are as follows: Stage 1 (requirements)—Q3 2010 • Based on several M2M use cases Stage 2 (architecture)—Q3 2011 • Key capability identified • Message flows documented • Key interfaces identified for Release 1 Stage 3 (detailed specifications) Stage 3 (protocol)—Q4 2011 • Working on three main interfaces—mId, dIa and mIa.8 Copyright © 2011, Juniper Networks, Inc.
  • 9. WHITE PAPER - Machine-to-Machine (M2M)—The Rise of the Machines Figure 5 depicts the high-level architecture concept that ETSI proposes for M2M application support. M2M Application M2M Area Network Service M2M Capabilities Gateway Client M2M CORE Application APPLICATION NETWORK M2M DEVICE DOMAIN DOMAIN DOMAIN Figure 5: ETSI M2M network Using Figure 5 as a reference, Table 5 lists and defines the major components that comprise the ETSI M2M network architecture. Table 5: ETSI M2M Network Architecture MAJOR COMPONENTS DEFINITION M2M Device Is capable of replying to requests for data contained within those devices or capable of transmitting data contained within those devices autonomously. M2M Area Network (device domain) Provides connectivity between M2M devices and M2M gateways— wireless personal area networks (WPANs), Wi-Fi, Zigbee/802.15.4, Bluetooth and RFID. M2M Gateway Uses M2M capabilities to ensure M2M devices are interworking and inter- connected to the communication network. M2M Communication Networks (network domain) Involves communications between the M2M gateways and M2M application (3G, LTE, WiMAX, WLAN, and wireline). M2M Applications Contains the middleware layer where data travels through various application services and is used by the specific business-processing engines.Copyright © 2011, Juniper Networks, Inc. 9
  • 10. WHITE PAPER - Machine-to-Machine (M2M)—The Rise of the Machines Figure 6 shows a reference to the ETSI use case technical reports, covering many types of industries from smart metering and eHealth to city automation. Source: ETSI MWC Barcelona Feb. 2011. Work Methodology TR 102 692 TR 102 732 TR 102 857 TR 102 898 TR 102 897 Smart eHealth Connected Automotive City Metering Consumer Automation PUBLISHED TS 102 689 TR 102 920 M2M Service TR 102 725 Delivery of STAGE 1 Requirements M2M Definitions M/441 Work PUBLISHED TS 102 690 M2M STAGE 2 Functional TR 102 935 TR 101 531 TR 102 167 Architecture Smart Grid Re-use of Threat Analysis and Impacts on M2M 3GPP Nodes Counter Measures by M2MSC Layer to M2M Service Layer TS 102 921 M2M Communications; STAGE 3 mia, dia, and mid interfaces Source: ETSI MWC Barcelona, February 2011 Figure 6: ETSI use case technical reports reference The M2M device domain includes: • M2M device • M2M area network • M2M gateway. The network and application domain includes: • Access network • Transport network • M2M core • M2M applications • Network management functions • M2M management functions.10 Copyright © 2011, Juniper Networks, Inc.
  • 11. WHITE PAPER - Machine-to-Machine (M2M)—The Rise of the Machines Figure 7 depicts the high-level system architecture put forward by ETSI TS 102 690. PC/Dedicated Appliance M2M Applications M2M M2M CORE Management Functions Service Capabilities M2M Capabilities CORE NETWORK (CN) (include enhancements to existing CN capabilities) M2M-specific Management Functions M2M Capabilities Network Management Functions M2M Network and ACCESS NETWORK Applications Domain Capabilities Based on existing standards TRANSPORT NETWORK 3GPP, TISPAN, IETF, etc. M2M Device Domain M2M M2M Based on existing standards Applications Applications and technologies, e.g.: DLMS, CEN, CENELEC, PLT, M2M M2M Zigbee, M-BUS, KNX, etc. Capabilities Capabilities M2M GATEWAY M2M DEVICE M2M M2M AREA Devices NETWORK Figure 7: ETSI TS 102 690 system architecture ETSI (TS 102 690) M2M service capabilities functional architecture framework is progressing to Stage 3 to define identified reference points—mId, dIa and mIa, as illustrated in Figure 8. M2M M2M Application Application Stage 3 for M2M R1 mla dla SC1 SC8 SC2 M2M Service Capabilities Routing SC7 Function SC3 SC6 SC4 SC5 mld M2M SERVICE CAPABILITIES Core network function, based on existing standards Communication Modules (3GPP, ETSI, TISPAN, IETF...) CORE CORE M2M DEVICE/ NETWORK A NETWORK B GATEWAY DOMAIN Figure 8: Stage 3 for ETSI M2M Release 1Copyright © 2011, Juniper Networks, Inc. 11
  • 12. WHITE PAPER - Machine-to-Machine (M2M)—The Rise of the Machines Service capabilities can access network core functions through existing interfaces (defined by I.E 3GPP and ETSI) and provide functions that can be shared among applications. In the following list, X represents N for networks, G for Gateway and D for Device, as previously described in Table 3. The following M2M service capabilities (SC) include: • Application Enablement (xAE) • Generic Communication (xGC) • Reachability, Addressing and Repository (xRAR) • Communication Selection (xCS) • Remote Entity Management (xREM) • SECurity (xSEC) • History and Data Retention (xHDR) • Transaction Management (xTM) • Compensation Broker (xCB) • Telco Operator Exposure (xTOE) • Interworking Proxy (xIP) mIa—Allows an application to access M2M SCs in the network and applications domain. dIa—Allows an application within an M2M device to access the different SCs in the same M2M device or in an M2M gateway. Allows an application within an M2M gateway to access the different service capabilities in the same M2M gateway. mId—Enables an M2M device or M2M gateway to access M2M SCs in the network and application domain. 3GPP and M2M In 2007, a 3GPP study item (TR-22.868) on M2M communications titled Study on Facilitating Machine to Machine Communication in 3GPP Systems was completed. This particular 3GPP study has shown potential for M2M services beyond the current “premium M2M market segment.” In 2010, 3GPP started the process of developing the study’s results into a specification phase—TS 22.368 Service Requirements for Machine-Type Communication (MTC) Stage 1 June 2010; TR 23.888 System Improvements for MTC July 2010—to address required network system improvements to support MTC. TS 22.368 defines general requirements and specific MTC features, and it generated two additional study items that focus on alternatives for using E.164 numbering for MTC and enhancements for MTC (TR 22.888). TR 23.888 identifies key issues and proposes corresponding possible solutions. 3GPP Release 10 addresses change requests related to congestion and overload control while other remaining items are deferred to later releases. TR 33.812 is a feasibility study on the security aspects of remote provisioning and change of subscription for M2M equipment. TR 33.868 focuses on the security aspect of MTC and is expected to be delayed until 3GPP Release 11 as a new work item. 3GPP Radio Access Network (RAN) and GSM Edge Radio Access Network (GERAN) groups are also active and are working on the improvements for MTC with TR 37.868 and TR 43.868.12 Copyright © 2011, Juniper Networks, Inc.
  • 13. WHITE PAPER - Machine-to-Machine (M2M)—The Rise of the Machines Figure 9 depicts the high-level 3GPP architecture (3GPP TS 23.888). MTCsms MTC Server MTC Device 3GPP 3GPP Bearer Services/ PLMN-MTC SERVER MTCu SMS/IMS IWK Function MTCi MTC Server Figure 9: Overall 3GPP high-level M2M architecture approach The MTC server can be located either inside or outside of the operator domain. Reference points MTCi and MTCsms can be part of the interworking function itself that could facilitate access to the MTC server using non-3GPP interfaces. Roaming scenarios are considered and the MTC devices would connect using MTCu from visited public land mobile Network (PLMN) to access home services. Table 6 identifies the major components of the 3GPP M2M architecture. Table 6: Major Components of 3GPP M2M Architecture COMPONENTS/TERMINOLOGY DEFINITION MTC Machine-Type Communication. MTCu Reference point providing MTC devices access to 3GPP network for transporting user traffic. MTCi Reference point for MTC server to connect 3GPP network using 3GPP bearer service. MTCsms Reference point for MTC server to connect 3GPP network using 3GPP SMS. MTC User Legal entity that uses MTC terminals (usually the contractual partner for the operator). MTC Device User equipment for MTC communicating with MTC server or device. MTC Server An entity that can communicate with MTC devices and connects to the PLMN. 3GPP M2M Communication Scenarios Three scenarios have been defined in 3GPP TS 22.368 pertaining to the communication between MTC devices and the MTC server: • Scenario 1 (Located in the operator domain) • Scenario 2 (Located outside the operator domain) • Scenario 3 (Communication directly with each other without an intermediate MTC server). Scenario 1 Scenario 1 represents MTC devices communicating with the MTC server located in the operator domain. The network operator domain offers an API on its MTC server, and the MTC user accesses the MTC server through this API. MTC User MTC Server API MTC Device OPERATOR DOMAIN Figure 10: 3GPP M2M communication, scenario 1Copyright © 2011, Juniper Networks, Inc. 13
  • 14. WHITE PAPER - Machine-to-Machine (M2M)—The Rise of the Machines Scenario 2 Scenario 2 represents MTC devices communicating with the MTC server located outside the operator domain. In this case, the network operator offers network connectivity to the MTC server outside of its domain. MTC Server/ MTC User OPERATOR DOMAIN MTC Device Figure 11: 3GPP M2M communication, scenario 2 Scenario 3 Scenario 3 represents MTC devices communicating directly with each other without an intermediate MTC server. OPERATOR DOMAIN A OPERATOR DOMAIN B MTC Device MTC Device Figure 12: 3GPP M2M communication, scenario 3 3GPP Release 10 Feature Requirements for M2M Overall, approximately 14 specific feature service requirements have been identified in 22.368 Release 10. Low Mobility • MTC devices are static, nomadic and move only within a predefined region. • There is a reduction in mobility signaling and reporting frequency. Time Controlled • Data can be sent or received only during certain predefined periods. • Signaling outside of these predefined time windows can be minimized. Time Tolerant • Data application can support delay. Packet Switched Only • Network access allows for services to be obtained, and triggering should be possible with or without a Mobile Station International Subscriber Directory Number (MSISDN). Small Data Transmissions • Most MTC devices send small amounts of data uplink. Mobile Originated Only • The network should provide mechanisms to reduce control signaling originated by MTC devices Infrequent Mobile Terminated14 Copyright © 2011, Juniper Networks, Inc.
  • 15. WHITE PAPER - Machine-to-Machine (M2M)—The Rise of the Machines MTC Monitoring • It is not intended to prevent theft. • Detection functionality of events such as unexpected behaviors and loss of connectivity is provided. • The end user is notified and predetermined action is taken. Priority Alarm Message (PAM) • There is a need for immediate attention. • It is used in case of theft, urgency or emergency. Secure Connection • MTC devices connect through a roaming operator. Location Specific Trigger • Operator stores location information and can wake up and trigger the MTC device in a particular area. Network Provided Destination for Uplink Data • The ability to transmit to a specific address is available. Infrequent Transmission • Network resources are allocated only when needed. Group Based MTC Features • It should be possible to broadcast to a specific group of devices. • Combined policy, charging, addressing and QoS for a specific group should be possible. 3GPP Release 10 will focus on the following general functionalities required to support the above-listed features: • Overload control • Addressing • Identifiers • Triggering • Remote management • Subscription control • Charging • Security. Conclusion The current mobile network is optimized for H2H traffic patterns and not necessarily for M2M. Enhancements and optimizations are needed for MTC to address issues such as scalability, IP addresses shortages and telephone numbers to protect against control network overload, to differentiate between MTC applications that have different characteristics, to help secure connectivity between M2M devices and the network as well as with the application servers, and to lower costs to align with lower ARPD for MTC. We like to talk about killer applications for wireless cellular. Many people think the next killer application is video streaming, which is estimated to represent up to 60 percent of data volume. Today, M2M might not be perceived as a killer application segment. However, even though M2M is expected to have applications predominately for low data usage (some might generate higher traffic in the case of video surveillance), the order of magnitude for M2M endpoints that will connect to the network is significant. Current forecasts indicate a large market for MTC. We have seen a first phase of fragmented, niche M2M vertical applications. Currently, a second phase is occurring, driven by regulatory and policies initiatives. A third phase is expected to follow, with the Internet of things made possible through the advent of technologies such as 6lowpan from IETF. M2M communications bring the opportunity to use mobile networks in a new way. We probably cannot foresee today whatCopyright © 2011, Juniper Networks, Inc. 15
  • 16. WHITE PAPER - Machine-to-Machine (M2M)—The Rise of the Machines impact the rise that machines might have on mobile data usage. However, it definitely opens up the possibility to create new businesses. Juniper Networks can facilitate mobile network operators to start addressing M2M segment opportunities with its MobileNext product portfolio (MobileNext Broadband Gateway, MobileNext Control Gateway)—offering unprecedented subscriber density, call setup capability and PCRF partnerships (MobileNext Policy Manager) to help translate these new business rules into profitable services. Juniper Networks is in a unique position to leverage its security expertise with Junos Pulse and Junos SDK by providing open APIs for partnership development and integration. About Juniper Networks Juniper Networks is in the business of network innovation. From devices to data centers, from consumers to cloud providers, Juniper Networks delivers the software, silicon and systems that transform the experience and economics of networking. The company serves customers and partners worldwide. Additional information can be found at www.juniper.net.Corporate and Sales Headquarters APAC Headquarters EMEA Headquarters To purchase Juniper Networks solutions,Juniper Networks, Inc. Juniper Networks (Hong Kong) Juniper Networks Ireland please contact your Juniper Networks1194 North Mathilda Avenue 26/F, Cityplaza One Airside Business Park representative at 1-866-298-6428 orSunnyvale, CA 94089 USA 1111 King’s Road Swords, County Dublin, Ireland authorized reseller.Phone: 888.JUNIPER (888.586.4737) Taikoo Shing, Hong Kong Phone: 35.31.8903.600or 408.745.2000 Phone: 852.2332.3636 EMEA Sales: 00800.4586.4737Fax: 408.745.2100 Fax: 852.2574.7803 Fax: 35.31.8903.601www.juniper.netCopyright 2011 Juniper Networks, Inc. All rights reserved. Juniper Networks, the Juniper Networks logo, Junos,NetScreen, and ScreenOS are registered trademarks of Juniper Networks, Inc. in the United States and othercountries. All other trademarks, service marks, registered marks, or registered service marks are the property oftheir respective owners. Juniper Networks assumes no responsibility for any inaccuracies in this document. JuniperNetworks reserves the right to change, modify, transfer, or otherwise revise this publication without notice.2000416-001-EN May 2011 Printed on recycled paper16 Copyright © 2011, Juniper Networks, Inc.