The Nature of Anthropology Nature/Nurture Controversy The Rulers, Plato said, must tell the people of the city “The Noble Lie”--thatthe categories of Rulers, tract, "The Republic," Plato (427 BC – ca. 347 BC) described In his best known Auxiliaries, Farmers, etc. was not due to circumstanceswithin the peoples control, upbringing, or education, but because of Auxiliaries, city whose inhabitants were organized into categories: The Rulers, Godsintervention. God, the Lie went, hadwould be chosen from the into eachelite (called Farmers, etc. The Rulers, he said, put gold, silver, and iron military person’s soul,and those metals determined where a persons stationand caring for the interest of the Guardians) because they were good at shepherding was in life was. community. The Auxiliariesargues,be Guardians in training.social structure. In The Lie is necessary, Plato would in order to keep a stable Plato’s mind, The Noblethe people of the city that’s fed to ownmasses to were found The Rulers told Lie is a religious lie that if their the children keepwith bronze orcontrol and happy the child would drop downPlato did not believe them under iron in their soul, with their situation in life. the ranks accordingly.And if apeople were smart enough to look after their own would rise up best most farmer’s child was born with gold in his soul, he and society’s to theGuardian level.few smart peoplesaid people had different metalsresttheir flock, interest. The The Rulers also of the world needed to lead the in of theblood stream,And The Noblecould notto continue. Plato said. and therefore Lie had intermarry.
The Nature of Anthropology An artifact of late 19th Century Western Civilization
The Beginning of Anthropology Weltanschauung Shift in Weltanschauung from idea that human beings are “apart from nature” to the idea that we are “a part of nature.” Just a little shift in prepositions! Charles Darwin exemplifies this shift….
The Beginning of Anthropology The Enlightenment Precursors John Locke (1632-1704) Lockes metaphor of the tabula rasa, "white paper” illustrates his idea that, without experience, no characters are written on the "tablets" of the mind; except through the "windows" of sensation and reflection, no light enters the understanding. No ideas are innate; and there is no source of new simple ideas other than George Berkeley (1685-1753) those two. idealism: nothing, including material objects, exists apart from perception; external objects are ultimately collections of ideas and sensations
The Beginning of Anthropology The Enlightenment Benjamin Franklin (1706 - 1790) Thomas Jefferson (1743 – 1826) When in the Course of human events, it becomes Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) bands necessary for one people to dissolve the political Discourses on the Sciences and the Arts (1751) to which have connected them with another, and Johannamonguponpowers ofGoethe (1749-1832) assume Wolfgang von the earth, the separate Inequality Among A Discourse the the Origin and Foundation of the Mankind (1755) - known as the Second Discourse of and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and Natures God entitle what wedecent respect to the “We see only them, a know.” opinions of mankind requires that they should declare The Social Contract (1762) the causes which impel them to the separation.
The Beginning of AnthropologyOther disciplines with similar origins: Sociology - Auguste Comte 1798-1857; Emil Durkheim (1858- 1917) Economics - Adam Smith (1723-1790); David Ricardo (1772-1823); Karl Marx (1818-1883) Psychology - Wilhelm Wündt (1832-1920; Wm. James (1842-1910)
AnthropometryPhysical Primatology Osteology Human Genetics Cultural EthnologyEthnography Linguistics Social AnthropologyArcheology Forensic Anthropology
Anthropometry One of the earliest specialties Concerned with empirical description of many aspects of the human physical height; weight; skin pigmentation; skull condition….. shape; girth; ratios of measurements, Never a good source of theory…has i.e. the Cephalic Index. been mainly descriptive…important part of modern science of ergonomics.
OsteologyTibia (shinbone) our prevention of osteoporosis Until recently provides a model osteology has Study of bone….inknowledge of to Now recognized in anthropology withillustratebeenprocess of ignored the relatively boneof and in identification development: emphasis on primates human remains. (i.e. Clyde Snow and Forensic Anthropology) Long bones such as the tibia very small andaonly At birth, human skeleton is grow the way tree There are two kinds of bone cells….essentially hard, grows…thatcells thatthe ends.one another, andsuch as partially calcified….the skull and other bones a soft, outer bone is from overlap Using data from various bones, it bonecartilaginous model, along stress the tibia consist of possible to determine with some spongy interior is a whose cells develop and degree ofto hardenhousingthings asproceeds with age. proceed confidence such for marrow. approximate lines and provide as calcification the age, sex, population group, represented. Based on skeletal material alone, positive I.D. is rare.
Primatology Study of Primates Before the 1930’s knowledge of free ranging Early studies included: primates was riddled with “sea stories.” Clarence Ray Carpenter’s studies of Howler Monkeys Horace Bingham’s studies of the Mountain Gorilla. on Barrio Colorado island in the Panama Canal Zone.These were essentially studies in comparative psychologythat employed anthropological field techniques….Thesestudies were interrupted by WWII.
PrimatologyAmong these were:After the war studies of free ranging primateswere resumed with renewed vigor. Jane Goodall’s studies of Mountain Gorillas in Dian Fossey’s studies among the Chimpanzees of the Gombe Stream Preserve in NE Tanzania. Ruwanda’s Volcanic National Park.
Human Genetics “Bokanovskys Process,’ repeated the Director, andthe students underlined the words in their littlenotebooks. One egg, one embryo, one adult-normality. But abokanovskified egg will bud, will proliferate, willdivide. From eight to ninety-six buds, and every budwill grow into a perfectly formed embryo, and everyembryo into a full-sized adult. Making ninety-sixhuman beings grow where only one grew before.” -----Brave New World Aldous Huxley wrote Brave New World in four months in 1931.
Human Geneticsaka Population Genetics (Microevolution) Species Largest set of individuals who can mate with one another with genetically viable offspring as a result.
Human Geneticsaka Population Genetics (Microevolution) Population (Mendelian population; breeding population) Set of individuals who mate with one another more often than with others.
Human GeneticsBarriers that divide species into populations: Geographic barriers Temporal barriers Psychological barriers Sociocultural barriers
Human GeneticsThe total genetic material of a population is the Gene Pool of that population.Evolution is operationally defined as changein the composition of a gene pool.
Human GeneticsProcesses that effect changes in composition of gene pools: Genetic Drift/Sewell Wright Effect (founder’s principle is related) Natural Selection (i.e. Kettelwell’s pepperback moth study) Mutation Cross breeding
Cultural Anthropology Ethnography Ethnology Social Anthropology Linguistics Forensic Anthropology Archaeology Psychological Anthropology
Ethnography (ethnos, a people+graphos, a writing) An attempt to give an accurate, objective, valid, reliable account of the way of life of a specific group of people. This is the basic descriptive level of cultural anthropology.Participant Observation is major feature. Laura Tamakoshi’s (above) work in New Guinea is another. Margaret Mead’s work with the Samoans is a good example. (Margaret Mead also worked in New Guinea.)
Ethnology (ethnos, people+logos, word) An attempt to give an accurate, objective, valid, reliable account of the way of life of a larger set of people. The Science of Culture. E.B. Tylor,A higher level of generalization…. Franz Boas Ethnologists try to find patterns of behavior that are common to the various groups under investigation. The Comparative Method is an important tool.Cultural Universals…cultural traits manifest in religion some way in all cultures under study. language kinship systems
Social AnthropologyArea of anthropology most like sociology.Differs mainly on areas of emphasis and the professional identification of the individual.
Social AnthropologySocial anthropologists have beenSociologists have been concerned concerned mainly with mainly with own society. Kinship and Descent traditional society. Be sure to use the supplemental Powerpoint presentation for more information on social anthropology topics such as kinship and descent, geneaological space, kin types and terms, etc.
Linguistics Study of Language Language is a system of vocal symbolsby means of which human beings interact interms of their culture. Be sure to use the supplemental Powerpoint presentation “05WHATDO” for more on morphemes, the 3 “S’s” of language, different specialties, etc.
Forensic AnthropologyApplication of anthropology to law. Clyde Snow, Laura Fulginiti, Gill King, Kathleen Reichs
Archaeology (Archeology) Set of techniques and methods to study material remains. Prehistoric (before writing) Historic (depends on writing) Garbage Project (U. of Arizona)
Psychological Anthropology Largely began as “Culture and Personality” Margaret Mead and Ruth Benedict Has morphed into much broader areas: Martha McClintock’s work on menstrual synchrony New think tank at UTD called antÉ….. Institute for Research in Anticipatory Systems