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Diversity week5 class1
Diversity week5 class1
Diversity week5 class1
Diversity week5 class1
Diversity week5 class1
Diversity week5 class1
Diversity week5 class1
Diversity week5 class1
Diversity week5 class1
Diversity week5 class1
Diversity week5 class1
Diversity week5 class1
Diversity week5 class1
Diversity week5 class1
Diversity week5 class1
Diversity week5 class1
Diversity week5 class1
Diversity week5 class1
Diversity week5 class1
Diversity week5 class1
Diversity week5 class1
Diversity week5 class1
Diversity week5 class1
Diversity week5 class1
Diversity week5 class1
Diversity week5 class1
Diversity week5 class1
Diversity week5 class1
Diversity week5 class1
Diversity week5 class1
Diversity week5 class1
Diversity week5 class1
Diversity week5 class1
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Diversity week5 class1

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  • 1. Week 5: Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Instructor: Jean-Pierre Mulumba Ph. D. Section Three: Understanding Primary Aspects of Diversity: Gender, Sexual Orientation, Age, and Physical and Mental Challenges 1
  • 2. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Section Learning Objectives: Discover why so few women into leadership positions. Consider the negative aspects of masculinity. Examine the back and forth experienced by LGBTs (lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transgenders) in the workforce. Study the generational cohorts currently in the workplace. Compare well-managed diversity program to that failed. 2
  • 3. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Introduction Section III explore the relationship between primary diversity characteristics and their influence in the workplace. It analysis the workplace realities for o women (Harvey and Larsen), o men (Farough), o and LGBTs (Hunt). 3
  • 4. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Introduction It explores the dynamics of four generations in the workforce (Holtzman, Kruger, and Srock) The Best Buy: example of commitment to diversity o Through its programs for physically and mentally challenged employees, customers, and community members (D. Harvey). 4
  • 5. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Introduction The section concludes with two examples: o The Cracker Barrel case (Howard) : o And an exercise on sexual harassment (Harvey). 5
  • 6. Women in Leadership Positions: Why Aren’t They There Yet? Carol P. Harvey Assumption College & Deborah L. Larsen UniBank 6
  • 7. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Learning Objectives Identify the issues holding women back in corporate Understand the gender differences in leadership styles Examine the statistics on women’s progress Study the consequences of multiple identities (race and gender) for women of color 7
  • 8. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Introduction Despite progress, women still have far to go in terms of o Corporate, o Economic and government leadership. In the 1960s woman were segregated and lower considered. 8
  • 9. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Introduction Now more difficult for women to achieve positions of power than it is for men. o In 2010 2.6% was female CEO of the Fortune 500 companies o And 15% have them on their Board o 79% white and 21% women of color Despite being 51% of the population, o 17.2% in the U. S. House of representatives o 17% in the U. S. Senate 9
  • 10. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Introduction Gender is a socially constructed characteristic o behaviors and attitudes considered proper for males and females. Gender varies from one culture to another Many societies set up barriers o unequal access to power, property, and prestige 10
  • 11. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Introduction Many factors account for women’s lack of progress: o Horizontal segregation:  occupations predominately female,  low pay,  requiring interpersonal skills,  jobs not valued highly 11
  • 12. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Introduction o Vertical segregation in the workplace:  both genders work in the same industries but men are perceived as being more capable, skillful qualified for more upwardly mobile line positions 12
  • 13. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Introduction o Vertical segregation in the workplace:  women for less responsibility because their characteristics Passivity, nurturance, Emotional sensitivity, Less cognitive capability Fewer higher-level skills compared to men 13
  • 14. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Gender Differences in Leadership and Communication Styles Male and female leadership styles do differ Males use a more transactional o Goal directed leadership style 14
  • 15. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Gender Differences in Leadership and Communication Styles Women use more transformational o Relationship oriented leadership style. the perception of women’s communication style may be taken for weakness But, if assertive and competitive: she is “cold” or a “bitch.” 15
  • 16. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Conversational style differences Perception of men as stronger leaders: Men have conversational style o Tending to interrupt, o question in an interrogating manner, o More direct in their speech patterns. 16
  • 17. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Conversational style differences Women tend to speak in short bursts, o Add questions o Asking for support at the end of their statements, o Are more indirect Everyday communication reinforces women’s and feminine traits devaluation. o It is an honor to be “one of the guys” 17
  • 18. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World A History of Patriarchy History provides insights how a society is more male dominance. o Creates power differences o Promotes the idea of male superiority A patriarchal society identifies itself with the male values. o Men fill most political, economic, legal, religious, educational and military positions. o Women in these positions are exceptions o Male is more identified with leadership and power. 18
  • 19. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World A History of Patriarchy In patriarchal societies what is desirable or normal are associated with men. In the U. S. the double standard is alive and well in the workplace. 19
  • 20. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Women Legal Rights In early U. S. society, the second-class status of women was taken for granted. Basic rights for women came only through a prolonged struggle. In 1848, the “Declaration of Sentiments” was published to o Allow women to vote (allowed 1920) o Enter the professions, etc. 20
  • 21. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Women Legal Rights In 1963 a report documented discrimination against women. In 1964 Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibited employment discrimination based on o Sex o Race, o Religion, o Ethnicity o National origin 21
  • 22. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Inequality In Educational System Women earn more degrees at all levels than men o Women earn 57% of the bachelor’s degrees, o 60% of the master’s degrees o And 51% of the doctorates awarded in the U. S. Horizontal segregation is apparent here o Men earn 83% of bachelor’s degrees in engineering, and science o Women earn the majority of the degrees in teaching, library science, nursing etc. 22
  • 23. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Inequality In Educational System However, the lady’s discomfort in math and science programs and positions is due to o Gender bias and o Barriers at hiring and promotion practices in academia. 23
  • 24. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Gender Inequalities in Salaries Legislation: o The Equal Pays Act (1963) prohibits discrimination in salaries o The Fair Pay act (2009) permitted an employee to sue for pay discrimination 24
  • 25. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Gender Inequalities in Salaries Gender pay gap issues o Women make $0.77 for every dollar that men make o Women have lower salaries even with equal or better qualifications o Several factors may explain such differences  Women often lower paying careers than men  The marriage and children put them off of track  Women often choose jobs with flexible hours or part time positions  Discrimination issues 25
  • 26. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World The Inability to Advance: Glass Ceiling Labyrinth Hitting a glass ceiling is women’s inability to advance Organizational expectations make career progress more complicated for women Women’s Career trajectory is called a labyrinth, o Indirect uneven path o Women’s leadership style includes assertiveness with nurturing 26
  • 27. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World The Inability to Advance: Glass Ceiling Labyrinth Women need to cultivate social capital o by networking more with colleagues and o finding mentors who can help them Women confront issues: o Childcare needs o Racism o sexism and discrimination 27
  • 28. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World The Inability to Advance: Glass Ceiling Labyrinth Stereotypes: o They don’t want the top job, o They don’t want to relocate, o They don’t want to travel 28
  • 29. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World The Inability to Advance: Glass Ceiling Labyrinth They operate with multiple levels of pressure: o Pressure of the job itself, o Pioneer pressure of breaking new ground o Strain of their family obligations  Care-giving  Household responsibilities. 29
  • 30. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World The Inability to Advance: Glass Ceiling Labyrinth Unlike the white women of color have to deal with the additional difficulties o multiple social identities o Racism o sexism o Lack of mentors o Prejudice 30
  • 31. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World The Inability to Advance: Glass Ceiling Labyrinth Companies trying to promote women report the following: o Have less experience o Time constraints resulting from family obligations o Focus on their job rather than gaining a circle of influence o Women’s leadership style: often the consensus style 31
  • 32. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Lack of Women in Leadership PositionsWhat’s Holding Women Back? Lack of line experience: primary obstacle Cultural norms and values: women aren’t powerful as men Social capital issues: o o o o o o 32 Exclusion from informal networks Stereotypes Lack of mentoring Shortage of role models Commitment to family responsibilities Little accountability for top management to promote diversity
  • 33. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Conclusion Women made progress over the last twenty- five years. o Possibilities to access to all positions. o Ban of sexual behavior in the workplace o Small percentage of women entered corporate management. Concerns still exist on gender inequality o Gender inequity become more subtle Diversity is the engine that drives originality and creativeness o Gender is part of that diversity 33

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