Diversity week11 class1

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Diversity week11 class1

  1. 1. Week 11: Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Instructor: Jean-Pierre Mulumba Ph. D. Section Five: Managing Diversity: Ethical, Legal, Communication, and Marketing Issues 1
  2. 2. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Section Learning Objectives: Learn ethical and legal implications of diversity management. Examine the differences between Canadian and U. S. diversity laws. Explore communication issues in today’s diverse workplace. Analyze the impact of diversity on consumer behavior. 2
  3. 3. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Introduction The Section V analyzes diversity from three perspectives: o the ethical o legal o And economic. First, a theoretical discussion: diversity is the “right thing to do” (McNett). 3
  4. 4. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Introduction Second, the organizations legal perspective in the United States (Allard) and in Canada (Mentzer). Third, the implications of diverse workforce o The need for understanding and improving communication o The need to change marketing strategies and media messages (Allard). 4
  5. 5. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Introduction The section closes with a capstone exercise (Allard) o Review of the Legal Points of Law seen in the text o A case illustrating a poorly managed diversity:  The legal consequences, and  The missed marketing opportunities (DeWitt). 5
  6. 6. THE ETHICS OF WORKPLACE DIVERSITY Jeanne McNett Assumption College 6
  7. 7. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Learning Objectives  To examine diversity as an ethnical process  To explain and apply ethical theories to diversity 7
  8. 8. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Introduction  Why should we do the right thing in business environment?  The answer is: because such actions are good for business results?  The answers ha economic and ethical background  Then, valuing diversity is:  Valuing, respecting and appreciating the differences that make people unique  A frame of mind; not a result 8
  9. 9. Economic Arguments For Diversity Managing in a Diverse and Changing World  They are based on a connection made between diversity and desired business outcomes.  Wide spectrum of customers.  This market-driven argument is increasingly due to globalization.  Globalization shows that business is all about relationships.  Diversity broadens span of communication abilities 9  across cultures, and long-lasting relationships
  10. 10. Economic Arguments For Diversity Managing in a Diverse and Changing World  Diverse workforce is nontraditional  Non-traditional workforce tends toward increased creativity  Applications of resources-based theory of the firm  The assumption that innovation comes from the 10 center is a dying vestige  Adaptation to the emerging markets is important source of innovation.”  The firm is a bundle of resources poised to take advantage on the external environment.  If diverse the resources will be more difficult to imitate
  11. 11. Economic Arguments For Diversity Managing in a Diverse and Changing World  Economic/pragmatic approach differs from ethical approach   The only social responsibility of business: use its resources to increase its profits  An ethical approach consider judgments about  right and wrong  good and bad  what ought to be in our world 11
  12. 12. Economic Arguments For Diversity Managing in a Diverse and Changing World  Another difference is about the judgment criteria.  In economic business arguments, the criteria go to the business results.  Making a decision look at the economic business results of a decision. In contrast,  Ethically-based decisions are judged sometimes by the reasoning examination of the decision’s outcomes. 12
  13. 13. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Categories of Ethical Theories 13
  14. 14. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Introduction 14
  15. 15. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Introduction 15
  16. 16. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Introduction Many factors account for women’s lack of progress: o Horizontal segregation:  occupations predominately female,  low pay,  requiring interpersonal skills,  jobs not valued highly 16
  17. 17. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Introduction o Vertical segregation in the workplace:  both genders work in the same industries but men are perceived as being more capable, skillful qualified for more upwardly mobile line positions 17
  18. 18. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Introduction o Vertical segregation in the workplace:  women for less responsibility because their characteristics Passivity, nurturance, Emotional sensitivity, Less cognitive capability Fewer higher-level skills compared to men 18
  19. 19. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Gender Differences in Leadership and Communication Styles Male and female leadership styles do differ Males use a more transactional o Goal directed leadership style 19
  20. 20. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Gender Differences in Leadership and Communication Styles Women use more transformational o Relationship oriented leadership style. the perception of women’s communication style may be taken for weakness But, if assertive and competitive: she is “cold” or a “bitch.” 20
  21. 21. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Conversational style differences Perception of men as stronger leaders: Men have conversational style o Tending to interrupt, o question in an interrogating manner, o More direct in their speech patterns. 21
  22. 22. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Conversational style differences Women tend to speak in short bursts, o Add questions o Asking for support at the end of their statements, o Are more indirect Everyday communication reinforces women’s and feminine traits devaluation. o It is an honor to be “one of the guys” 22
  23. 23. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World A History of Patriarchy History provides insights how a society is more male dominance. o Creates power differences o Promotes the idea of male superiority A patriarchal society identifies itself with the male values. o Men fill most political, economic, legal, religious, educational and military positions. o Women in these positions are exceptions o Male is more identified with leadership and power. 23
  24. 24. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World A History of Patriarchy In patriarchal societies what is desirable or normal are associated with men. In the U. S. the double standard is alive and well in the workplace. 24
  25. 25. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Women Legal Rights In early U. S. society, the second-class status of women was taken for granted. Basic rights for women came only through a prolonged struggle. In 1848, the “Declaration of Sentiments” was published to o Allow women to vote (allowed 1920) o Enter the professions, etc. 25
  26. 26. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Women Legal Rights In 1963 a report documented discrimination against women. In 1964 Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibited employment discrimination based on o Sex o Race, o Religion, o Ethnicity o National origin 26
  27. 27. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Inequality In Educational System Women earn more degrees at all levels than men o Women earn 57% of the bachelor’s degrees, o 60% of the master’s degrees o And 51% of the doctorates awarded in the U. S. Horizontal segregation is apparent here o Men earn 83% of bachelor’s degrees in engineering, and science o Women earn the majority of the degrees in teaching, library science, nursing etc. 27
  28. 28. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Inequality In Educational System However, the lady’s discomfort in math and science programs and positions is due to o Gender bias and o Barriers at hiring and promotion practices in academia. 28
  29. 29. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Gender Inequalities in Salaries Legislation: o The Equal Pays Act (1963) prohibits discrimination in salaries o The Fair Pay act (2009) permitted an employee to sue for pay discrimination 29
  30. 30. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Gender Inequalities in Salaries Gender pay gap issues o Women make $0.77 for every dollar that men make o Women have lower salaries even with equal or better qualifications o Several factors may explain such differences  Women often lower paying careers than men  The marriage and children put them off of track  Women often choose jobs with flexible hours or part time positions  Discrimination issues 30
  31. 31. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World The Inability to Advance: Glass Ceiling Labyrinth Hitting a glass ceiling is women’s inability to advance Organizational expectations make career progress more complicated for women Women’s Career trajectory is called a labyrinth, o Indirect uneven path o Women’s leadership style includes assertiveness with nurturing 31
  32. 32. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World The Inability to Advance: Glass Ceiling Labyrinth Women need to cultivate social capital o by networking more with colleagues and o finding mentors who can help them Women confront issues: o Childcare needs o Racism o sexism and discrimination 32
  33. 33. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World The Inability to Advance: Glass Ceiling Labyrinth Stereotypes: o They don’t want the top job, o They don’t want to relocate, o They don’t want to travel 33
  34. 34. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World The Inability to Advance: Glass Ceiling Labyrinth They operate with multiple levels of pressure: o Pressure of the job itself, o Pioneer pressure of breaking new ground o Strain of their family obligations  Care-giving  Household responsibilities. 34
  35. 35. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World The Inability to Advance: Glass Ceiling Labyrinth Unlike the white women of color have to deal with the additional difficulties o multiple social identities o Racism o sexism o Lack of mentors o Prejudice 35
  36. 36. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World The Inability to Advance: Glass Ceiling Labyrinth Companies trying to promote women report the following: o Have less experience o Time constraints resulting from family obligations o Focus on their job rather than gaining a circle of influence o Women’s leadership style: often the consensus style 36
  37. 37. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Lack of Women in Leadership PositionsWhat’s Holding Women Back? Lack of line experience: primary obstacle Cultural norms and values: women aren’t powerful as men Social capital issues: o o o o o o 37 Exclusion from informal networks Stereotypes Lack of mentoring Shortage of role models Commitment to family responsibilities Little accountability for top management to promote diversity
  38. 38. Managing in a Diverse and Changing World Conclusion Women made progress over the last twenty- five years. o Possibilities to access to all positions. o Ban of sexual behavior in the workplace o Small percentage of women entered corporate management. Concerns still exist on gender inequality o Gender inequity become more subtle Diversity is the engine that drives originality and creativeness o Gender is part of that diversity 38

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