• It is also known as Fishbone
Analysis and Cause and Defect
• Created by Kaoru Ishikawa in 1968.
• Common uses are product design
and quality defect prevention to
identify potential factors
causing an overall effect.
• It is a question-asking technique
used to explore the cause-and-
effect relationship underlying a
• The primary goal of the technique
is to determine the root cause of a
• It is a statistical tool in decision
making that is used for selection of
a limited number of tasks that
produce significant overall effect.
• It follows the Pareto principle, the
idea that by doing 20% of work, 80%
of the advantages of doing the
entire job can be generated.
• It is also known as Decision Matrix
Analysis, Pugh Matrix Analysis and
Multi Attribute Utility Theory.
• It’s a particularly powerful where
you have a number of good
alternatives to choose from, and
many different factors to take into
• This makes it a great technique to
use in almost any important
decision where there isn’t a clear
and obvious preferred option. Being
able to use Grid Analysis means
that you can take decisions
confidently and rationally, at a
time when other people might be
struggling to make a decision.