East & West ---Chinese - American Leadership

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  • Educational ImportanceFor students in today’s colleges and universities, the concept of strategic thinking may be somewhat new, but could be critical to their eventual academic success (Boon, 2001; Zins 2004). This point was emphasized in an American Psychological Association report suggesting that “The successful learner can create and use a repertoire of thinking and reasoning strategies to achieve complex learning goals (APA, 1993, 1997 as cited in Zins, et. al. 2004 p. 29-30).Understanding what makes students successful in academics is essential, not just for the students themselves, but for the universities which hope to retain and educate them.
  • A Strategic Mindset focused on the questions of Why & WhatThe mental capacity to learn and change, and managerial wisdom the ability to senseLearn = Search for info and new ideas Change = Openness to new ideasWisdom = Understand Social Relationships Perceive variation in environment, Take the right action at the right time,spotting and seizing game-ganging opportunities.Portfolio agility is the capacity to shift resources – cash – talent – attention quickly to out of less effective to more promising areasOperational exploiting opportunities within business model Don Bull McKinsey
  • Descriptions of the leader influence actions found in the Strategic Leadership Questionnaire See: Pisapia (2009) for full description of constructs]Managing actionsHolds us accountable for resultsEvaluates individual performanceSets time lines for our workProvides structure for my workSpecifies team goalsSpecifies individual goalsTransforming ActionsHelps us develop a shared visionPromotes conversations with us about the future and our ability to meet it,Works to create a shared vision,Promotes our commitment to our organization's long-term goals,Helps us to enhance our professional learning as a group,Aides us in shaping ideas,Helps us to enhance our professional learning as individuals,Helps us to visualize future possibilitiesBonding ActionsIs honest with usDoes the right thingCan be trusted to do the right thingHelps us try to keep promisesRespects our PrivacyMakes decisions by following policyEnsures procedures are followedStands firm on decision based on principleBridging ActionsDevelops alliances with people from outside of the organizationMaintains alliances with people of power and influenceStrengthens his/her position by gaining the allegiance of others inside the organizationUses influence to advance his/her agendaHas access to people who have influence over getting things done.Associates him/herself with individuals who have influence.Allocates resources to influence his/her purposesBartering ActionsWilling to barter to make dealsGives something in exchange for helpGives rewards when s/he is helpedPromises rewards to get what s/he wantsCompromises to craft agreements
  • Four samples were examined. Three hundred fifty school leaders participated in the study in Hong Kong, 106 school leaders in Shanghai, and 130 school leaders in the USA. The participants answered individually and anonymously.Since age which was a predictor on other studies did not contain significant variability we added Education level of parents as a potential modifier of the relationship of STs and SS
  • Finding National Culture influences the use of leader influence actions
  • Finding – Local culture influences use of strategic leader influence actionsFindingsManaging -Sig between Miami and Shang .035Transforming – Sig between Broward and Miami .000 – HK .000 and Shang .04Bonding – Broward & Miami .000 & HK .013 = HK & Broward – Miami .000 & Shang .000Bridging - Broward & HK .000 & Shang .004 = Miami & HK .000 & Shang .005 HK & all .000 = Shang & HK .000Bartering – Broward & HK .000 & Shang .004 Miami & HK.000 & shang .000 - HK & all .000 Shang & all
  • East & West ---Chinese - American Leadership

    1. 1. Influence actions of School Principals in Hong Kong, Mainland China, and the United States: A cross-cultural perspective • John Pisapia, Professor Leadership Studies Florida Atlantic University jpisapia@fau.edu Nicholas Pang, Professor Chinese University of Hong Kong nskpang@cuhk.edu.hkPaper presented at The World Education Research Association (WERA) FOCAL MEETINGPROGRAM TERA International Conference on Education (TICE) December 16-18, 2011Kaohsiung, Taiwan.The authors would like to express their gratitude to the Research Grant Council of Hong Kong forthe support of this research (RGC Ref. No.: 452710) 1
    2. 2. Problem and PurposeChina and the United States are separated by the Pacific Ocean andsocietal orientation – USA is considered individualistic – low powerdistance. China Collectivist – high power difference.Schools in these societies are organized in similar configurations.School principals hold similar positions, responsibilities and duties. Yet,they conduct their activities in different societal cultures.The purpose of this study was to learn how leadership is practiced inthese cultures. The study was framed by three questions:1. What is the level of the principals’ use of strategic leadership influence actions?2. How strong is the effect of national and local culture on the use of leader actions by school principals?3. Are some actions used more often by Chinese principals than by American principals? Pisapia & Pang (2011) 2
    3. 3. Research StreamsContext Societal Culture – How the world is perceived by a society (Hofstede (1984;2001; Triandis, 1995; Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner, 1998; the GLOBE project (House et al., 1999); Inglehart, Basáñez, and Moreno, 1998; Schwartz, 1994) Group/organizational Culture – How the world is perceived by subcultures of the society (the GLOBE project, House et al., 1999Leader Influence Actions Leadership requires horizontal leadership approaches = distributed leadership theory (Cox, Pearce, & Perry, 2003; Gronn, 2002; Pearce & Conger, 2003); Leadership requires vertical leadership approaches suggested by hierarchy = command and control behaviors. Leadership occurs in complex environments = complexity science (Goldstein, Hazy, & Lichtenstein, 2010; Lichtenshein et al., 2001; Uhl-Bien, Marion, & McKelvey, (2007); and Leadership is about the relationship of leaders and followers = relational theories (Drath, 2001, McName & Gergen, 1999; Uhl-Bien, 2006). (Den Hartog et al., 1999; Dorfman, 1996; House et al., 1997) Pisapia & Pang (2011) 3
    4. 4. Pisapia’s Strategic Leadership Frame (2009)Strategic Leaders are flexible and able to adapt to different circumstances and conditions. At times, the leader exerts this influence by using task and relationship behaviors. At other times, they use power, authority, persuasion, bargaining and incentives to influence followers. At still other times, they seek to articulate common values, direction and goal attainment. ExpectationMuch like an Artist, Leaders will apply an integrated set of leader actions to maintain stability and challenge the status quo simultaneously.
    5. 5. What the Research showed us? TRANSFORMING PBartering O Et L hI I c T I Artistry Al Bonding C A Bridging L MANAGING Pisapia & Pang (2011) 5
    6. 6. SL Influence Description Actions Actions taken to maintain consistency in order that current Managing organizational goals are accomplished efficiently and effectively. Actions taken to influence direction, actions, and opinions in order to change organizational conditions and culture so thatTransforming learning and change occur as a normal routine of the organization. Actions taken to ensure that trust is an attribute of the system and not just something developed among individuals in Bonding order that followers exhibit emotional commitment to the organizations aspirations and values. Actions are taken to develop alliances with people of power Bridging and influence from outside and inside the organization in order to gain insights, support, and resources. Actions taken to give something in exchange in order Bartering to strengthen the effectiveness of relationships and alliance building efforts. Pisapia & Pang (2011) 6
    7. 7. A Keystone HabitThe Types of Strategic Leadership Actions There are two directional actions ARTISTRY There are three maneuvering actions 7 Pisapia & Pang (2011)
    8. 8. MethodDesign Data CollectionQuantitative non-experimental Instrument: the Strategic LeadershipCriterion variables - Questionnaire (SLQ)© that measures theManaging, Transforming, Bonding, Bridging, five leader actions of Bridging, Bartering, Bonding, Managing - Transforming using 35Bartering. questions based on a 5-point Likert scale.Predictor variables – country and group Reliability: All reliability alphas > .70.Hypotheses 1 = Country would not be Validity: All instrumentation factor associated with Principal influence models exceeded 52% of the variance. actions Psychometrically validated in the USA (Reyes-Guerra 2009; Pisapia 2009), and 2. –Group would not be associated in China (Pang & Pisapia, 2010; Pisapia with Principal influence action & Pang, 2012).Sample - Data AnalysisSchool principals in MANOVA – multivariate comparisons =China– Tests were conducted at a significanceHong Kong (274)– Shanghai (109)– level of p < .o5.USAMiami (333)– Broward – (43) Pisapia & Pang (2011) 8
    9. 9. Study Participants Country % Sample 14% 6% 0% BrowardChina USA Miami 376 44% 383 HK 36% MLC Pisapia & Pang (2011) 9
    10. 10. Q#2 Ho1The use of Strategic Leadership Influence Actions arenot significantly related to National Culture. 5.00 4.50 4.00 3.50 3.00 2.50 USA China Managing 4.13 4.07 Transforming 3.91 3.93 Bonding 4.01 4.42 Bridging 3.50 3.16 Pisapia & Pang (2011) 10 Bartering 3.16 3.01
    11. 11. Q#3 Ho2 The use of Strategic Leadership Influence Actions are notsignificantly related to Group Culture. 5.00 4.50 4.00 3.50 3.00 2.50 Broward Miami HK Shanghai Managing 4.06 4.14 4.11 3.98 Transforming 4.31 3.58 3.88 4.05 Bonding 4.32 3.98 4.54 4.12 Bridging 3.45 3.50 2.91 3.76 Bartering 3.20 3.16 2.79 3.53 N 43 333 274 109 Pisapia & Pang (2011) 11
    12. 12. Study Findings Compared to other Strategic Leader Action Studies A multifaceted use of strategic leadership actions is strongly associated with self reported effectiveness (Yasin , 2006 UĞurluoĞlu 2009); effectiveness reported by others; (Reyes-Guerra, 2009); and objective measures of effectiveness (Fazzino 2012) Transforming, Political and Ethical actions were associated with more cohesive culture in schools. (Urdegar, 2007; Reyes-Guerra, 2009) Leader actions were influenced by context (Yasin , 2006, Reyes-Guerra, 2009; Pisapia & Lin, 2010; Pisapia & Pang 2012) As the leader felt the complexity of the context increasing they used more Political and Transforming actions (UĞurluoĞlu & Çelik, 2009) SLQ appears free of gender bias; but influenced by education level, disciplines studied and tenure in position (Reyes-Guerra, 2009) – organization type and leader level (Pisapia & Lin 2010). Mandated policies and programs were not effectively implemented when leaders did not use management authority in tandem with the other 4 actions. (Reyes-Guerra, 2009) Free choice policies and programs were effectively implemented with Transforming, Bonding, Bartering, and Bridging actions. (Reyes-Guerra, 2009) Pisapia & Pang (2011) 12
    13. 13. ConclusionsIt is too early to draw firm conclusions and recommendations until the data is further analyzed to determine the influence of other organizational and personal context variables such as gender, age, length of service. These data demonstrate that:  Societal and/or group culture does not influence the use of directional actions of managing and transforming.  Societal culture significantly influences the use of maneuvering actions of bonding, bridging, and bartering.  Group culture significantly influences the use of maneuvering variables of bonding, bridging and bartering. Pisapia & Pang (2011) 13
    14. 14. More Information?John Pisapia, jpisapia@fau.edu Nicholas Sun-keung Pang is the Chairman and Professor of Educational Administration andProfessor of Leadership Studies at Florida Policy at the Chinese University of Hong Kong.Atlantic University in BocaRaton, Florida, currently serves as a Fulbright He specializes in educationalScholar to China, the Adam Smith Visiting administration, management andScholar at the University of Glasgow, and leadership, as well as school effectiveness andfounder of the Strategic Leader Network. improvement. He also serves as Co-Director of the Hong Kong Centre for the Development ofDr. Pisapia brings over 23 years of Educational Leadership (HKCDEL), Leader ofmanagement experience management the School Development and Evaluation Teamexperience as a principal, state commissionerof education, University Department (SDET), Director of the Preparation forChair, and Research Director to his academic Principalship (PFP) Course and Director ofpodium and consultancies. Master of Arts Programme in School Improvement and Leadership (MASIL).His book, The Strategic Leader promising a Prof. Pang was elected the Chairman of Hongnew direction for leading in a globalized world Kong Educational Research Association for thewas published in 2009 was named as a top 5 year 1999-2001. Prof. Pang has beenbusiness books in 2010 by the WashingtonPost. publishing widely, locally and internationally, with over 160 articles in• various media. • Pisapia & Pang (2011) 14
    15. 15. Selected Books and Articles• Strategic Leadership Pisapia, J. (2009). The strategic leader: New tactics for a globalizing world. Charlotte: Information Age Publishers. [2020- Washington Post List – 5 best leadership books]• Pisapia, J. (2006). A New direction for leadership. (Education Policy Studies Series No. 61). Hong Kong: The Faculty of Education and the Hong Kong Institute of Educational Research. (Monograph) – cited in Scopus• Pisapia, J. (i2011). Finding the future and making it happen. In S. Verma (Ed). Towards the next orbit. New Delhi: Sage Publishers.• Pisapia, J. (2006). Mastering change in a globalized world. In P. Singh, J. Bhatnagar, & A. Bhandarker (Eds). Future of work: Mastering change. Chapter 19, pp. 303-327. New Delhi: Excel Books. IBSN: 81-7446-302-2.• Strategic Leader Actions Fazzino, T. (2012). Leader Influence Actions , Climate, and School performance. Unpublished dissertation. Florida Atlantic University. Boca Raton, FL.• Pisapia, J. & Lin, Y. (2011). Leader values and actions: An Exploratory study of school principals in mainland China. Frontiers of Education in China.• Ugurluglu, U., Celik, Y., & Pisapia, J. (2010). The use of strategic leader actions by hospital managers in Turkey. American Journal of Business Research. 3(1), 33-52.• Reyes-Guerra, D. (2009). The relationship of strategic leader actions and normative structures. Unpublished dissertation. Florida Atlantic University. [Nominated, AERA & College of Education Dissertations of the Year• Ugurluglu, U. (2009). Assessment of Strategic Leadership Characteristics of Hospital Managers. Unpublished dissertation. Hacettepe University, Turkey.• Pisapia, J. & Reyes-Guerra (2008). The Strategic Leader Questionnaire v1 (SLQ). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Fl. Current © 2009 v3.• Urdegar, Steven (2008) Beyond Fidelity: Relating Educational Practices And Their Determinants To Student Learning Gains, Unpublished dissertation. Florida Atlantic University. [Winner College of Education and AERA dissertation of the year competitions• Yasin, M. (2006). The use of strategic leadership actions by Deans in Malaysian and American public universities. Unpublished dissertation. Florida Atlantic University.• Pisapia & Pang (2011) 15

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