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The Leadership Participation Model
 

The Leadership Participation Model

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The Leadership Participation Model

The Leadership Participation Model

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  • Analyze intuitively as a group,
  • Studies the form and degree to which managers should involve team members in the decision making process. Assumption - The best style of Leadership is contingent to the situation Decide! Make the decision alone, then announce or “sell” Consult Individually Present the problem to group members individually, get suggestions, then you decide Consult Group Present problem to group as a whole, get suggestions, then decide Facilitate Present problem to group. Act as a facilitator and determine course of action as a group. Concurrence is objective. Delegate Allow group to make decision by themselves within prescribed limits
  • 7 questions Derived from research on problem solving and decision making Answer each question as either “H” (high) or “L” (low). Designed to filter answers to these questions down to one of the decision-making approaches, based on the model’s rules Decision Significance How significant is the decision to the success of the project or organization? Importance of Commitment How important is the team members’ commitment to the decision? Leader’s Expertise Do you (the leader) possess the knowledge or expertise related to this problem? Likelihood of Commitment If you were to make the decision on your own, what is the likelihood the team would commit itself to the decision? Group Support for Objectives To what degree does the team support the organization’s objectives Group Expertise Do team members possess the knowledge or expertise related to this problem? Team Competence Do the team members have the ability to work together in solving problems?
  • The decision matrices were designed to be implemented as computer programs How significant is the decision to the success of the project or organization? How important is the team members’ commitment to the decision? Does the leader possess the knowledge or expertise related to this problem? If the leader makes the decision, will the team commit to the decision? To what degree does the team support the organization’s objectives at stake in this project? Do team members possess the knowledge or expertise related to this problem? Do team members have the ability to work together in solving problems?
  • Analyze use the Leadership-Participation Model Let’s compare the results  Which method is best. Let’s talk! Re-evaluate your original decision using the “Leadership Participation Model” Does the model match up to your answer? If so, can you identify why? Were there assumptions made that changed the course?
  • Time-Driven Model” Emphasizes Efficiency rather than employee development Employee Development” Delegation may improve employees decision making skills More recent version – Computer model 1-5

The Leadership Participation Model The Leadership Participation Model Presentation Transcript

  • The Leadership Participation Model John Pisapia Administrative Processes
  • ACTIVITY #1 How would you deal with this situation?
    • You’re a principal of a public high school. The area superintendent asked you to provide a report on the status of the school with recommendations for a more comprehensive curriculum. Test scores have been low and there is some doubt surrounding the effectiveness of the current curriculum.
    • You plan to write a report, but at the moment you are perplexed about the approach to take. Your specialty is in management and it is clear you lack the specialized knowledge of curriculum that would greatly enhance the value of your report. Fortunately, four of your department heads are specialist in curriculum writing, and together posses a vast knowledge. Although they are all dedicated employees, they seldom agree on the best way to achieve anything when it comes to planning and curriculum strategy. While staff meetings can be argumentative, especially among these four department heads, they do eventually arrive at decisions on problems.
    • You have 6 weeks until the report is due. You’ve already begun familiarizing yourself with the intricacies of curriculum writing and have been provided by the superintendent with a specific set of constraints.
  • Why?
      • Matching leader decision style to the situation results in more effective decisions. Therefore, the goal is to maximize the frequency of successful decisions by understanding the outcome desired and then determining the best style to use.
      • What outcome is desired?
        • Decision quality - The decision is well reasoned, analytically sound and consistent with organizational goals . A) Team synergy B) Contribution of knowledge and expertise C) Support of objectives
    • Decision Implementation: People support what they help to build. A) Participant “Buy-In” B) Motivation C) Effective implementation
    • Cost of Decision Making: Use of decision making process consumes resources. A) Elapsed time B) Cost of consensus
    • Development: Developmental benefits of increased human capital. A) Subordinates practice problem solving B) Collaborative team C) Greater voice to identify with organization
    • . V. Vroom, P. Yetton & A. Jago
    www.TheStrategicLeader.org
  • Theory – The Model: What?
      • How should you involve members in the decision making process.?
  • Use Unilateral Decision Making when Use Participatory Processes when: The matter is routine The matter is unique Subordinates have marginal interest in solving problem The matter relevant to subordinates work, or scope of authority Subordinates have insufficient information or expertise You do not have sufficient information or expertise Subordinates do not share the aims of the organization Subordinates share the aims of the organization Time Requirements are short Acceptance is critical to implementation Subordinates will gain valuable skills in making important decisions There is a need to reduce conflict
  • Key Concepts - The best decision style is contingent to the situation (Vroom, 2000) How?
  • Key concepts: Factors that influence decision making
    • The leader information rule . If the quality of the decision is important and the leader does not possess enough information or expertise to solve the problem by himself/herself, then the “Decide” style is not appropriate.
    • The goal congruence rule. If the quality of the decision is important and subordinates are not likely to pursue the organizational goals in their efforts to solve the problem, then the “Facilitate” or “Delegate” styles are not appropriate.
    • The acceptance rule . If the acceptance of the decision by subordinates is critical to effective implementation and if it is not certain that an autocratic decision will be accepted, the “Decide” style is not appropriate.
    • The conflict rule . If the acceptance of the decision is critical, an autocratic decision is not certain to be accepted, and disagreement among subordinates in methods of attaining the organizational goal is likely, the methods used in solving the problem should enable those in disagreement to resolve their differences with full knowledge of the problem. Under these conditions, the “Decide” and “Consult Individually” styles are not appropriate.
    • The fairness rule. If the quality of the decision is unimportant but acceptance of the decision is critical and not certain to result from an autocratic decision, it is important that the decision process used generate the needed acceptance. Subordinates should negotiate over the fair and equitable method of resolving any differences. Under these circumstances, the “Decide” and “Consult” styles are not appropriate.
    • The acceptance priority rule. If acceptance is critical and not certain to result from an autocratic decision, and if subordinates are motivated to pursue the organizational goals represented in the problem, then methods that provide equal partnership in the decision-making process can provide greater acceptance without risking decision quality. Avoid “Decide” and “Consult” styles.
    www.thestrategicleader.org How?
  • Leadership-Participation Model Time-Driven Model
  • ACTIVITY #2 How would you deal with this situation?
    • You’re a principal of a public high school. The area superintendent asked you to provide a report on the status of the school with recommendations for a more comprehensive curriculum. Test scores have been low and there is some doubt surrounding the effectiveness of the current curriculum.
    • You plan to write a report, but at the moment you are perplexed about the approach to take. Your specialty is in management and it is clear you lack the specialized knowledge of curriculum that would greatly enhance the value of your report. Fortunately, four of your department heads are specialist in curriculum writing, and together posses a vast knowledge. Although they are all dedicated employees, they seldom agree on the best way to achieve anything when it comes to planning and curriculum strategy. While staff meetings can be argumentative, especially among these four department heads, they do eventually arrive at decisions on problems.
    • You have 6 weeks until the report is due. You’ve already begun familiarizing yourself with the intricacies of curriculum writing and have been provided by the superintendent with a specific set of constraints.
  • Take-Aways
    • Managers whose leadership behavior approximates the LPM are more likely to make effective decisions
    • In six studies, when managers used the leadership style indicated by the model, 62 % of their decisions were effective; when they did not, only 37% of their decisions were successful (OKRT, 2007).
    • In other words, all things being equal..the model is accurate
    www.thestrategicleader.org How?
  • References
    • Brown, W. & Finstuen, K. “The Use of Participation in Decision Making: A Consideration of the Vroom-Yetton and Vroom-Jago Normative Models,” Journal of Behavioral Decision Making , v6 (1993): 207-219.
    • Field, R., Read, P., & Louviere, J. “The Effect of Situation Attributes on Decision Method Choice in the Vroom-Jago Model of Participation in Decision Making,” Leadership Quarterly , 1(3), (1990): 165-176.
    • Osland, J., Kolb, D., Rubin, I., & Turner, M. Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach: Pearson/Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 8 th Edition, (2007).
    • Vroom, V. “Educating Managers for Decision Making and Leadership,” Management Decision , 41(10), (2003): 968-978.
    • Vroom, V. “ Leadership and the Decision-Making Process,” Organizational Dynamics, v28(4), (2000): 82-94.
    • Vroom, V., & Jago, A. “The Role of the Situation in Leadership,” American Psychologist, v62(1), (2007): 17-24.
    • Vroom, V.,& Jago, A. “Situation Effects and Levels of Analysis in the Study of Leader Participation,” Leadership Quarterly , 6(2), (1995): 169-181.
    • Victor Vroom~ Yale School of Management, reference http://www.decisionmakingforleaders.com
  • Pisapia & Glick-Cuenot (2010)
  • Leadership-Participation Model