The Basic Communication Models John Pisapia www.Johnpisapia.com
Why? Communication is important in so many ways: it helps keep relationships good, it helps keep misunderstandings from occurring; it helps everyone to know what is expected of them, and much more.
At the elementary school where I did my student teaching there was no communication. People didn't know when assemblies were; they didn't know about schedules, they didn't know about program changes. Frequently they got information about things going on in the county from teachers at other schools. The morale at this school was awful. Things were always chaotic. Misunderstandings about expectations were a constant problem.
At the school where I currently teach, we have weekly staff meetings, a weekly newsletter to the parents from the school, newsletters from the principal to the staff, morning and afternoon announcements, and more. Everyone knows what's going on: from the parents, to the students, to the staff. As a result of this constant flow of information, we have very few misunderstandings; we get along very well, and everyone knows what is expected of them. When I become a principal, I want to have the same good communication with my staff, parents, and students.
In Class “
Think of an incident that was caused by a failure to communicate
Write down some notes on the incident
Share it with the class after the next slide
Communication means that a message not only was sent, but also received, and responded to in a way which indicates that it was understood What? Theory - The Basic Model: Sender Meaning Message Barriers Channels Barriers Receiver Meaning Message Adapted from Shannon and Weaver (1949) as depicted by Pisapia (2009)
Another Way of looking at the basic model! Theory – THE TRANSACTIONAL COMMUNICATION MODEL Communicator A’s Field of Experience Communicator B’s Field of Experience Shared Field of Experience NOISE COMMUNICATION OVER TIME Symbolic Interactions over Time T 1 T n Adapted from Wood (1997) as reprinted by Osland, Kolb, Rubin, & Turner (2007)
Key Concept THE ARC OF DISTORTION What A Intends to Communicate Arc of Distortion A Sender B Receiver What A Communicates but Does not Intend Adapted from Osland, Kolb, Rubin & Turner (2007) www.thestrategicleader.org
Key concepts: BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION
Prejudgment of the sender and the intended message as it is received
Differences in perception
Receiving conflicting messages (disorganization)
Different communication needs of the receiver versus the sender
Lack of subject knowledge
Lack of clarity (technological)
Individual differences in encoding and decoding (based upon individual field of experience)
Misinterpretation of nonverbal communication
Lack of feedback and clarification
Poor listening skills
Aggressiveness or non-assertiveness
Culture: high or low context (e.g. silence), direct versus indirect communication style, and self-enhancement versus self-effacement
(Osland, Kolb, Rubin, & Turner, 2007)
Gain self-awareness by getting feedback to reflect and make a change.
Get involved with activities and people who do not know or care what our so-called credentials are to help gain needed perspective and humility.
Self-diagnose and self-correct arrogance and defensiveness.
Use an understanding responding style.
Acknowledge and validate others (don’t kill the messenger).
Communicate assertively, not aggressively or non-assertively.
Use I statements when possible.
Refrain from in-group talk and gossip.
Avoid talking about ourselves too much.
Avoid excessive criticism and undeserved praise.
Avoid language that offends or demeans people.
Be aware of nonverbal clues.
Adapt our communication style: code-switch (cultural, not situational).
Use active listening.
Send messages others understand, receive and interpret messages, monitor organizational communications, and proactively seek out communications.
Develop trust to avoid distortion trust by action and word.
Know our audience.
Use the appropriate channels.
Use written communication and email judiciously.
Include effective communication skills in hiring process criteria.
Provide communication training to all employees.
Set communication norms to alleviate misunderstandings.
Perform a strategic communications audit.
Blair, R. (1989). Introduction to professional communication . Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
Osland, J. S., Kolb, D. A., Rubin, I. M., & Turner, M. E. (2007). Organizational behavior: An experiential approach (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
Pisapia, J. (2009). Communication . Working paper.
Van Maanen, J. (1991). The smile factory: Work at Disneyland. In Reframing Organizational Culture . Edited by Peter Frost, Larry Moore, Meryl Louis, Craig Lundberg, and Joanne Martin, pp. 58-76 Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.