Mindset “drives every aspect of our lives, from work to sports, from relationships to parenting.” (Dweck, 2006). It affects :What we pay attention to (and don’t)What we retrieve from memoryThe way you process relevant informationDecision Making Self-efficacy Openness to learningResponses to authority/leader figuresLeadership is always situated within an environmental context and leaders must be trained to understand and address strategic themes emanating from that context. It requires mental agility.We are asking more workers to shift to self authoring minds and more leaders to move to transforming minds. The self authoring mind would create a direction – align and have the courage to hold steadfast toward that view. The transforming mind would be able to do all of that but would be able to step outside – evaluate and re-authorMental complexity can make a complex world more or less manageable (Keagan & Kelley, p. 24Cognitive development is progressive and sequential
Intellectual skills. Three intellectual skills are particularly important (Sternberg, 1985): (a) the synthetic skill to see problems in new ways and to escape the bounds of conventional thinking, (b) the analytic skill to recognize which of one’s ideas are worth pursuing and which are not, and (c) the practical–contextual skill to know how to persuade others of—to sell other people on—the value of one’s ideas. The confluence of these three skills is also important. Analytic skills used in the absence of the other two skills results in powerful critical, but not creative, thinking. importance of certain personality attributes for creative functioning. These attributes include, but are not limited to, willingness to overcome obstacles, willingness to take sensible risks, willingness to tolerate ambiguity, and self-efficacy.Synthetic skill used in the absence of the other two skills results in new ideas that are not subjected to the scrutiny required to improve them and make them work. Practical–contextual skill in the absence of the other two skills may result in societal acceptance of ideas not than simpler ones.Creativity and simply thinking in novel ways are facilitated when people are willing to put in up-front time to think in new ways. We found that better thinkers tend to spend relatively more time than do poorer reasoners in global, up-front metacomponential planning when they solve difficult, novel-reasoning problems. Poorer reasoners, conversely, tend to spend relatively more time in local planning (Sternberg, 1981). Presumably, the better thinkers recognize that it is better to invest more time up front so as to be able to process a problem more efficiently later on.hand, one needs to know enough about a field to move it forward. One cannot move beyond where a field is if one does not know where it is. On the other hand, knowledge about a field can result in a closed and entrenched perspective, resulting in a person’s not moving beyond the way inwhich he or she has seen problems in the past. Knowledge thus can help, or it can hinder creativity.importance of certain personality attributes for creative functioning. These attributes include, but are not limited to, willingness toovercome obstacles, willingness to take sensible risks, willingness to tolerate ambiguity, and self-efficacy. In particular, buying low and selling high typically means defying the crowd, so that one has to be willing to stand up to conventions if one wants to think and act in creative ways Motivation. Intrinsic, task-focused motivation is also essential to creativity. The research of Amabile (1983) and others has shown the importance of such motivation for creative work and has suggested that people rarely do truly creative work in an area unless they really love what they are doing and focus on the work rather than the potential rewards Environment. Finally, one needs an environment that is supportive and rewarding of creative ideas. One could have all of the internal resources needed to think creatively, but without some environmental support (such as a forum for proposing those ideas), Sternberg et al., 1999). Motivating this work was the belief that the systems in most schools strongly tend to favor children with strengths in memory and analyticalabilities.
Good morning, My purpose today is not to talk about Strategic Leadership the concept. My purpose is to talk about how we can use the tools of strategic leaders to train and develop our leaders to be prepared for today and tomorrow. I start with “WHY”
continuous (innovations that are more of the same and head in the same directiondiscontinuous (innovations that are different from the past and go in a different direction)Efficiency and adaptabilityEffective organizations—those that enjoy sustained competitive edge—display two specific characteristics simultaneously: efficiency and adaptability (Mott, 1972). Efficiency allows an organization to implement and follow well-structured, stable routines for delivering its ‘‘product’’ (goods and services) in higher quantities and higher quality and at lower cost than those of its competitors. The efficient organization also reacts quickly to unexpected turns of events, allowing it to maintain its routines with minimal disruption. In yesterday’s relatively stable world, organizations were able to concentrate on efficiency alone. However, in a changing world, mastering the routine is no longer enough. Adaptability allows an effective organization to master the process of changing its routines deliberately and continually. It entails deliberate discontent—discovering new problems to solve, finding new things to do, and adopting new technologies and methods before anyone else. Adaptability requires looking outside the organization, anticipating new opportunities and problems, trends, technologies, ideas, and methods to improve or change its routines. In today’s effective organizations, leaders induce not only efficiency but also adaptability for sustained competitive edge.
Ford Motor Company from 10,000 cars manufactured in 1908 to 472,350 cars in 1915 to 933,720 cars in 1920.
Creative thinking is defined in the dictionary of the American Psychological Association (Vanderbos, 2006) as mental processes leading to a new invention, solution, or synthesis in any area Creative ideas are both novel and valuable - original and useful ideas (Amabile, 1996; West, 2002). innovation refers to the use of a new idea or method, whereas invention refers more directly to the creation of the idea or method itself.Innovation refers to the successful implementation of creative ideas or a capacity to improve existing products and/or processes which produce value to the organization is more than just having a creative idea. It requires selling the idea inside and outside the organization. By reorganizing available knowledge, facts, and information Strategic thinking is about thinking centered on ends, strategies, and tactics. It is only meaningful in a context. The greater the capacity to use strategic thinking skills; the greater the ability to make consequential decisions about ends, strategies, and tactics. Great strategic thinkers have a systems perspective, are intent driven, creative, intuitive, integrative, and analytical
The future is catching all of us. At least we can make sure that it catches us with our eyes and our minds wind open.Kegan & LaheyCompetitive commitments (unconscious clinging to competing agendas) create immunity to change. They are not weaknesses = they are self protection. Rooted in assumptions of self and world around us. Competing assumptions try to keep our world in tact.Sisyphean (endlessly futile – can’t be completed) tasks – rolling a bolder up the hill only to see it roll back down
This nested framework demonstrates how mental models that are aligned with the dominant paradigm. This alignment reinforces and sustains the paradigm. As educators conform to the requirements of the paradigm and mental models they develop mindsets (attitudes) about the value and effectiveness of the paradigm and the related mental models. The mindsets influence choice of behavioral strategies; that is, their attitudes toward the paradigm and mental models help them to devise strategies for how to do their work. As they implement their strategies, observable behavior is manifested. Successful behaviors are rewarded, which, in turn, reinforces the mindsets, mental models, and the paradigm. This interconnectedness and reciprocal reinforcement is unavoidable and powerful.Mental ModelsThe concept of mental models was first proposed by Craik (1943). He said, “…the mind constructs ‘small-scale models’ of reality that it uses to anticipate events, to reason, and to underlie explanation” (cited in Johnson-Laird, Girotto, & Legrenzi, 1998, Introduction, para. 1). Johnson-Laird (1983) is one of the foremost authorities of mental model theory. He believed that people construct cognitive representations of what they learn and what they think they know. He called these representations “mental models.” Senge (1990) described mental models as “…deeply ingrained assumptions, generalizations, or even pictures or images that influence how we understand the world and how we take action” (p. 8).
We need a mind that is capable of understanding and rapidly adapting to changes in our environment. Unfortunately, as AE says, ““We can't solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them.”This nested framework demonstrates how mental models that are aligned with the dominant paradigm. This alignment reinforces and sustains the paradigm. As educators conform to the requirements of the paradigm and mental models they develop mindsets (attitudes) about the value and effectiveness of the paradigm and the related mental models. The mindsets influence choice of behavioral strategies; that is, their attitudes toward the paradigm and mental models help them to devise strategies for how to do their work. As they implement their strategies, observable behavior is manifested. Successful behaviors are rewarded, which, in turn, reinforces the mindsets, mental models, and the paradigm. This interconnectedness and reciprocal reinforcement is unavoidable and powerful.Mental ModelsThe concept of mental models was first proposed by Craik (1943). He said, “…the mind constructs ‘small-scale models’ of reality that it uses to anticipate events, to reason, and to underlie explanation” (cited in Johnson-Laird, Girotto, & Legrenzi, 1998, Introduction, para. 1). Johnson-Laird (1983) is one of the foremost authorities of mental model theory. He believed that people construct cognitive representations of what they learn and what they think they know. He called these representations “mental models.” Senge (1990) described mental models as “…deeply ingrained assumptions, generalizations, or even pictures or images that influence how we understand the world and how we take action” (p. 8).Our minds are habitual, pattern recognition machines.
SLers develop four core competencies to run this system.SLers can see the invisible ties that link individuals together and to the organization.
Curiosity is the driver of creativity.The 5 Whys is a questions-asking method used to explore the cause/effect relationships underlying a particular problem, with the goal of determining a root cause of a defect or problemThe following example demonstrates the basic process:The vehicle will not start. (the problem)Why? - The battery is dead. (first why)Why? - The alternator is not functioning. (second why)Why? - The alternator belt has broken. (third why)Why? - The alternator belt was well beyond its useful service life and not replaced. (fourth why)Why? - The vehicle was not maintained according to the recommended service schedule. (fifth why, a root cause)Why? - Replacement parts are not available because of the extreme age of the vehicle. (sixth why, optional footnote)Start maintaining the vehicle according to the recommended service schedule. (possible 5th Why solution)Purchase a different vehicle that is maintainable. (possible 6th Why solution)The questioning for this example could be taken further to a sixth, seventh, or higher level: the "five" in 5 Whys is not gospel, but five iterations of asking why is generally sufficient to get to a root cause. The key is to encourage the trouble-shooter to avoid assumptions and logic traps and instead trace the chain of causality in direct increments from the effect through any layers of abstraction to a root cause that still has some connection to the original problem. Note that in this example the fifth why suggests a broken process or an alterable behaviour, which is typical of reaching the root-cause level.It is interesting to note that the last answer points to a process. This is one of the most important aspects in the 5 Why approach - the real root cause should point toward a process that is not working well or does not exist. Untrained facilitators will often observe that answers seem to point towards classical answers such as not enough time, not enough investments, or not enough manpower. These answers may sometimes be true but in most cases they lead to answers out of our control. Therefore, instead of asking the question why?, ask why did the process fail?A key phrase to keep in mind in any 5 Why exercise is "people do not fail, processes do".The technique was originally developed by Sakichi Toyoda and was used within the Toyota Motor Corporation during the evolution of its manufacturing methodologies. It is a critical component of problem-solving training, delivered as part of the induction into the Toyota Production System. The architect of the Toyota Production System, TaiichiOhno, described the 5 Whys method as "the basis of Toyota's scientific approach . . . by repeating why five times, the nature of the problem as well as its solution becomes clear." The tool has seen widespread use beyond Toyota, and is now used within Kaizen, lean manufacturing, and Six Sigma.While the 5 Whys is a powerful tool for engineers or technically-savvy individuals to help get to the true causes of problems, it has been criticized by Teruyuki Minoura, former managing director of global purchasing for Toyota, as being too basic a tool to analyze root causes to the depth that is needed to ensure that they are fixed. Reasons for this criticism include:Tendency for investigators to stop at symptoms rather than going on to lower-level root causes.Inability to go beyond the investigator's current knowledge - cannot find causes that they do not already know.Lack of support to help the investigator ask the right "why" questions.Results are not repeatable - different people using 5 Whys come up with different causes for the same problem.Tendency to isolate a single root cause, whereas each question could elicit many different root causes.These can be significant problems when the method is applied through deduction only. On-the-spot verification of the answer to the current "why" question before proceeding to the next is recommended to avoid these issues.
Thinking to find truths Thinking to create valueFlexibility is an essential feature of leaders who think strategically. Flexibility is not about changing the goals, it is about abandoning fixed ideas, it is about thinking of array of possible solutions, never thought of before and all the while retaining constancy of purposeWhat makes something strategic? Think #strategic thinking, strategic conversations, strategic listening, working in a strategic way, or the statement of strategic intent!!! Here is what it means!#Learning is a characteristic feature of leaders who are strategic thinkers. They not only learn from their own experience, they also have the ability to draw analogy from others experience. Strategy defined Strategic thinking is a cognitive activity but is meaningful only in a context Reframers – scanners - Leaders are people who, singularly or with others, establish direction and then mobilize people, capture resources, and create an adaptive learning culture to move toward it.The basic elements of strategic leadership have not changed much – what is needed is -According to recent research, the essence of strategic leadership lies in the ability to learn (absorptive capacity), the ability to change (adaptive capacity), and managerial wisdom (Boal & Hooijberg, 2000) or the right combination of intelligence, creativity and wisdom (Sternberg, 2003). These elements are often highlighted in organizational transformations when the managers, trying to create meaning and purpose for the organizations, may need to revitalize or even significantly change the business model on which the whole organizational effort is based, to take advantage of emerging strategic opportunities and threats, and to monitor and balance the needs of different stakeholders (Storey, 2005). The absorptive capacity enables leaders to actively searched for information and new ideas outside the direct environments of the organizations through discussions with the managers of other firms and by meeting existing and potential customers. the adaptive capacity may closely relate to a person‘s ability to learn, since learning Thus, the basis for successful absorption and adaptation is largely in openness to new things. Managerial wisdom include the ability to understand social actors and their relationships (also known as social intelligence), the ability to perceive variation in the environment, and the ability to take the right action at the right time. Serlachius‘s ability to construct and maintain social and professional networks is one.
Synthesis Works best under conditions of Uncertainty - where data doesn’t exist – create it -Analysis Works best under conditions of Certainty – uses data that existsEmploying cognitive ambidexterity leads to cognitive complexity which leads to a greater ability to understand your sandbox. This practice is characterized by switching flexibly back and forth between "prediction" and "creation" approaches to thought and action. The prediction approach, which is based on analysis using existing information, works best under conditions of certainty and low levels of perceived uncertainty. Note how Poss used the prediction approach as he analyzed available operational and financial data on trash truck fuel consumption. The creation approach, on the other hand, involves taking action to generate data that did not exist previously or that are inaccessible. In situations where data wasn't available, Poss generated data himself by creating conversations and prototypes to guide his next steps.Long term UncertainDivergentIncomplete Beyond linearDisrupting alignmentSo why don’t we think this way? Why don’t organisations take a long term view.Short termLogical Convergent Pragmatic Deductive CreatingAlignmentWhereas strategic planning is about putting things together, implementation, monitoring and reporting. It requires a different mindset. Strategic thinking needs a particular mindset and capacity to move beyond the linear – it needs open minds, and you have to be comfortable working with ambiguity.Long term UncertainDivergentIncomplete Beyond linearDisrupting alignmentSo why don’t we think this way? Why don’t organisations take a long term view.Short termLogicalConvergentPragmaticDeductiveCreatingAlignmentWhereas strategic planning is about putting things together, implementation, monitoring and reporting. It requires a different mindset. Strategic thinking needs a particular mindset and capacity to move beyond the linear – it needs open minds, and you have to be comfortable working with ambiguity.
Agility is the capability to switch from a strategic mindset -“Why and What” - to a tactical mindset -“How and When” - in a rapid and iterative processes. Agility enables leaders to understand the prevailing worldviews driving their context, and helps them identify and use design tactics that work under postmodern condition
A strategic mindset requires that you are able to think through Synthesis as well as Analysis; Nonlinearly as well as Linearly; Abstractly as well as Concretely.SLerscreate #strategy in the form of a statement of strategic intent to align, integrate, and develop coherence around a common, focused direction.SL Theory - The Statement of Intent is your #strategy; it describes your path to the future. SLers use the Strategic Thinking Protocol to develop and set their strategy. Try it!. It will move you from good to great!strategic thinking enables the leader to recognize interdependencies, interrelationships and patterns, and make consequential decisions using both powers of analysis and intuition.Individuals with strategic thinking skills have the ability :To apply information and concepts to practice. To see the organization as a whole. To understand how various parts of the organization relate to and affect eachother.To diagnose, analyze, and synthesize. To discern meaning in and to establish relationships among events and bits of information that at first glance would appear to be discrete and unrelated.
Start at the top – how far down do you still see the Birds?Now Start at the Bottom how far up do you still see the Fish?
Start at the top – how far down do you still see the Birds?Now Start at the Bottom how far up do you still see the Fish?
Curiosity, Creativity, and Innovation: the American Mindset • John Pisapia, Professor Leadership Studies Florida Atlantic University firstname.lastname@example.org Fulbright Scholar Chinese University of Hong Kong email@example.com Seminar: United International College March 29, 2012 – Zhuhai, P.R. China 1
Overview Target #1: Develop an understanding of the mindset manyAmericans hold, why it needs to change, and the mindset we need to develop. Theme 1: The Traditional American Mindset The Power of Mindset Theme 2: Why does it need to Change? The Nature of Change Power of the Curve The Pyramids of Change Theme 3: What is the Mindset we Need? Agility of the Mind: A Way of Thinking（思維的靈活性—思維） Developing The Strategic Mindset Systems thinking, Reframing, Reflection（系統思考、轉換思維、反思） 3/28/2012 The Strategic Leader Network 2
Awareness Test Mindset Reset Your Thinking and See the Future Mindset is the way you think aboutthings. The schemas – , i.e. cognitive filters,mental models, and assumptions held byindividuals or groups which creates an outlookthat causes them to act in a certain way. Pisapia & Glick-Cuenot (2010) 3
Culture Programs the Mind & effects how people think • Individualism refers to the • Power distance refers to the identity of self as based either social stratification within a solely on the individual or on society such that higher status the individual as part of a individuals and groups are group or a collective. accorded more power and authority by those of lower • Masculinity refers to a status society’s preference for • Uncertainty avoidance refers competition and outcomes to a society’s fear of unknown (masculine values) as opposed or ambiguous situations. to cooperation and process • long term orientation refers (feminine values). to a willingness to withhold gratification.Source: Hofstede (1980); GLOBE (2004) 3/28/2012 The Strategic Leader Network 4
Characteristics of the American Mindset• Independence, freedom of spirit, an unwillingness to be bound by the rules of society,• Self reliance,• imagination, intuition, inquisitive,• intrinsic motivation,• risk taking,• a wide range of interests,• high levels of activity/energy, and• a sense of humor. The Strategic Leader Network 5
Curiosity, Creativity and InnovationWhy do we need to change the way we think?
WHY ?Every few hundred years in western historythere occurs a sharp transformation. Wecross... a divide. Within a few short decadessociety rearranges itself, its world view; itsbasic values; its social and political structure;its arts; its key institutions. Fifty years later,there appears a new world...we are currentlyliving through such a transformation.Drucker, 1993: p 1 You don’t have to change
Why do we need to think Differently?The Power of the Curve 3/28/2012 The Strategic Leader Network 8
EXAMPLE:Exploitation – Exploration –Disruptive Innovation 2000 Xbox 2005 Xbox 360 Exploitation Disruptive Innovation 2006 Wii Exploration Adapted from McCarthy, I.P., Lawrence, T.B., Wixted, B., and Gordon, B. 2010. A Multidimensional conceptualization of environmental velocity. Academy of9 Management Review, 35(4), 604-626
Why do we need to Think Differently?The Power of the Curve Disruptive Innovation 3/28/2012 The Strategic Leader Network 10
The Lessons of the CurveLesson #1 The Leadership LessonOld maps do not work! Disruptive change and globalization are challenging the legitimacy of legacy command and control models of leadership.These NEW conditions reward leaders who: Practice from analytic and integrative mindsets, Recognize new trends coming from their environment, Connect with the minds and spirit of followers. 3/28/2012 The Strategic Leader Network 11
WHAT KIND OF CHANGE IS THIS? 1927 1917 1907 3/28/2012 The Strategic Leader Network 13
Lesson # 33/28/2012 The Strategic Leader Network 14
The Mind we need! Unfortunately, “We cant solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them.” Creative ideas are both novel and valuable “Think Differently” The innovative mind takes the creative idea and successfully implements it 15
Awareness TestWhat is Stopping Us from Developing the Mindset we need? The Strategic Leader Network 16
Here is what is Stopping Us from Thinking Strategically? The Strategic Leader Network 17
SL STARTS WITH CULTIVATING YOURSELFCompetency 1: : SLers possess an Agile mind.They use strategic thinking skills - systemsthinking - reflection - reframing - which enablethem to think strategically. These skills make itpossible to recognize patterns, make sense outof seemingly unrelated information. They usethem to switch from a strategic mindset -“Whyand What” - to a tactical mindset -“How andWhen” - in a rapid and iterative processes whenappropriate. 3/28/2012 The Strategic Leader Network 20
Be Flexible The one who would be in constant happiness must frequently change." – ConfuciusOr, as the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge said,. . .”we need qualities of the mind in whichthe poetic spirit is coupled with a logicalapproach.” Androgyny 3/28/2012 The Strategic Leader Network 22
Its not that easy - You are right it’s a bit more complicated3/28/2012 The Strategic Leader Network (SLN) 24
Its not that easy - Just how do I do this? You need to have the ability to think in a strategic Way3/28/2012 The Strategic Leader Network (SLN) 25
AT ITS CORE, THINKING IN A STRATEGIC WAY REQUIRES LEADERS WITH . . .The ability to:1. Make and execute: CONSEQUENTIALDECISIONS about : ENDS, STRATEGIES , and TACTICS2. Think strategically and execute change effectively with a profound appreciation for stability. 3/28/2012 The Strategic Leader Network 26
Agility is enhanced when you can switch from “Whyand What” – to “How and When” - in a rapid and iterativeprocesses. Strategic Synthesis Tactical - Analysis
Learn–. Search for information through reading and using. Spot andseize new ideas and game- changing opportunities that canshape the organizations competitive advantage. Be curious. Change– Open to New Ideas. See the organization as a whole andunderstand how various parts of the organization relate to andaffect each other. Be Flexible Sense– Perceive variation in the environment, social relationships,readiness to change, take the right action at the right time.Discern meaning among events and bits of information that atfirst glance would appear to be isolated. Be Wise.
WHat?A strategic mindset requires that you are able to think through:Synthesis as well as Analysis; Nonlinearly as well as Linearly; Abstractly as well as Concretly; Creatively as well as Critically. 29
That is ok in Theory but REALLY just HOWdo I do this in real life?
Exercise Your Mental Muscles! The Strategic Leader Network 31
The Strategic Thinking Skills Reasoning Forward Critical Holistic Analytical Synthesis Solutions Strategic ConvergentEvaluative DivergentDeductive Creative Tactical Integrative Pragmatic Intuitive Practical Future Inductive Linear The Strategic Leader Network Non Linear 32
The Strategic Thinking Skills Systems ThinkingSystems thinking refers to theability to think holistically,defining the entire problem byextracting patterns in theinformation one collects beforebreaking the problem into parts The Strategic Leader Network 33
Agility Systems Thinking Helicopter Thinking The Strategic Leader Network 34
The Strategic Thinking Skills Reframing Reframing refers to leaders’ ability to switchattention across multiple perspectives,frames, mental models, and paradigms inorder to generate new insights and optionsfor actions.Takeaway: It enables SLers to sort throughproblems and opportunities, to see problemsin ways that allow them to map out different
The Strategic Thinking Skills ReflectingReflection refers to leaders’ ability to weavelogical and rational thinking together withexperiential thinking through perceptions,experience, and information to make judgmentsas to what has happenedTakeaway: it enables SLers to create intuitiveprinciples that guide what is happening in thepresent and their future actions. The Strategic Leader Network 37
OK - Let’s Identify your STQ Profile and develop your learning plan
Want More? firstname.lastname@example.org • Pisapia, J. (2009). The strategic Leader: New tactics for a globalizing world. Charlotte: NC. Information Age Publishing • Join one of SLNs Global Learning Communities!3/28/2012 The Strategic Leader Network 40
Selected Books and Articles• Strategic Leadership• Pisapia, J. & Ellington, L. (under contract). The Strategic Leader: An experiential approach. Charlotte: Information Age Publishers• Pisapia, J. (2009). The strategic leader: New tactics for a globalizing world. Charlotte: Information Age Publishers. [2010- Washington Post List – 5 best leadership books]• Pisapia, J. (2006). A New direction for leadership. (Education Policy Studies Series No. 61). Hong Kong: The Faculty of Education and the Hong Kong Institute of Educational Research. (Monograph) – cited in Scopus• Pisapia, J. (2012). Finding the future and making it happen. In S. Verma (Ed). Towards the next orbit. New Delhi: Sage Publishers.• Pisapia, J. (2006). Mastering change in a globalized world. In P. Singh, J. Bhatnagar, & A. Bhandarker (Eds). Future of work: Mastering change. Chapter 19, pp. 303-327. New Delhi: Excel Books. IBSN: 81-7446-302-2. 41
Selected Books and Articles• Strategic Thinking Pang, N.S. & Pisapia, J. (2012). The Strategic Thinking skills of Hong Kong School Leaders: Usage and Effectiveness. Educational Management Administration and Leadership. [19% acceptance rate]• Pisapia, J. & Robinson, D. J. (2010, March). Transforming the academy: Strategic thinking and/or strategic planning. Paper presented at the American Institute of Higher Education Conference, Williamsburg, VA.,• Pisapia J. Y Robinson, D. (2011). Transforming the Academy Part 2: Vision integration in Higher education institutions. Paper presented at the Strategic Management Society meeting in Miami, Florida Nov 4 , 2011• Brennan, P. (2010). Pursuing success without scandal: Exploring the relationship between transformational and Authentic Leadership. Unpublished dissertation, Minneapolis, MN: Cappella University Pisapia, J. & Glick-Cuenot, S. (2010). Strategic Thinking Skills and Undergraduate Student Academic Success: A Preliminary Report. Presented at the American Institute of Higher Education - 4th International Conference March 18, 2010, Williamsburg Virginia, USA Penney, G. (2010). The use of strategic thinking skills and technology tools by Fire Chiefs. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Florida Atlantic University. Raghavan, S., Shukla, A. & Shaid, S. (2010). Strategic thinking and its impact on performance: An upper echelons perspective. Presented at the Society of Strategic Management Finland Pisapia, J., Pang, N.S.K., Hee, T. H. Lin, Ying, & Morris, J.D. (2009). A comparison of the use of strategic thinking skills of aspiring school leaders in Hong Kong, Malaysia, Shanghai, and the United States: An exploratory study. International Journal of Educational Studies. 2(2), 48-58. Zsiga, P. (2008). Leader effectiveness from self-directed learning and strategic thinking International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management 2008 - Vol. 8, No.4 pp. 306 - 317 Pisapia, J., Reyes-Guerra, D. & Yasin, M. (2006) Strategic Thinking and Leader Success Presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Conference on Advances in Management, Lisbon Portugal, July 19-22, 2006. Pisapia, J., Reyes-Guerra, D., & Coukos-Semmel, E. (2005). Developing a Strategic Mindset: Constructing the Measures. Leadership Review, Spring 2005, Vol. 5, pp. 41-68 - cited in Scopus Pisapia, J., Coukos-Semmel, E., & Reyes-Guerra, D. (2004). Assessing the cognitive processes of leaders: Do effective leaders think differently than less effective leaders? In A. Lazaridou (Ed.), Contemporary issues on educational administration and policy (Chapter 9, pp 147-170). Athens, Greece: Athens Institute for Education and Research. ISBN: 960-88331-2-4. 42
The Test –Match the Thinking Skills to the pictures 43 The Strategic Leader Network