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  • At the top level things cannot get done through orders – you correct the trajectory slowly using persuasion and consensus building – building support for a common missionGreater premium on anticipation – drawing on experience and institutive understanding of a situationIf you anticipate correctly you can shape issues rather than issues shaping youMust understand new trends and themes before charting your own objectives and long term goalsReach out to the future and being proactiveDifferent from commanding troops – need to synthesizeResoruces may not be at hand – get them –Plan of action cannot be concretely programmed at presentConsideration from variety of perspectivesPrimary requirement to move upward in organizations is capacity to deal with the conceptual complexity at each successive levelProcess of cognitive development is progressive and sequential growth process that extends into adulthoodConceptual skill development is a key dimension in executive development – conceptual graspCreating organizational understanding of enviornmental complexities are at the heart of the executive’s jobDecision making is different at the levels – at lower levels – selection from among formulated alternatives based on an d advantages-disadvantages comparisonAt upper levels formulation of a workable solution to problem situations – work to develop a workable course ofa action and then manage the outcome over time so it will be successfulManagement process requires solving a substantial number of small problems along the wa
  • Good morning, My purpose today is not to talk about Strategic Leadership the concept. My purpose is to talk about how we can use the tools of strategic leaders to train and develop our leaders to be prepared for today and tomorrow. I start with “WHY”
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9X2hZe_NNcY&feature=related
  • continuous (innovations that are more of the same and head in the same directiondiscontinuous (innovations that are different from the past and go in a different direction)
  • ENVIRONMENTAL UNCERTAINTY – THOMPSONThe central core of the organization requires “technicalrationality.”Norms of rationality require that the organizationattempt to “seal-off” or protect its technical core from environmental influences.
  • Their mantra is common ends and values, and adaptable ways and means.
  • The new science requires the ability to think through synthesis as well as analysis; Nonlinearly as well as Linearly; implicitly as well as explicitly.You can strengthen your ability to think strategically by acquiring cognitive skills that enable you to collect, interpret, generate, and evaluate information and ideas that shape the ends you seek, and the strategies and tactics you use to achieve your ends.Strengthen Through Self-Evaluation - To help develop your skills in strategic thinking, you can review the results of the STQ to evaluate your current level of such skills, specifically the more qualitative elements. 3 qualitative processes – Systems Thinking – Framing and reframing, and Reflection - contribute to strategic thinking.
  • Ford Motor Company from 10,000 cars manufactured in 1908 to 472,350 cars in 1915 to 933,720 cars in 1920.
  • That leads to sustained not random success.Strategic lead­ership focuses on the creation of meaning and purpose for the organization (House & Aditya, 1997).Strategic Leadership (SL) is not a style, nor is it reserved for top echelon leaders. It is a way of thinking and way of working by managers and leaders throughout the organization. Unlike Boal’s assertion that Strategic leadership focuses on the people who have overall responsibility for the organization and includes not only the titular head of the organization but also members of what is referred to as the top management team or dominant coalition (Cyert & March,1963). Activities often associated with strategic leadership include making strategic decisions; creating and communicating a vision of the future; developing key compe­tencies and capabilities; developing organizational structures, processes, and con­trols; managing multiple constituencies; selecting and developing the next genera­tion of leaders; sustaining an effective organizational culture; and infusing ethical value systems into an organizations culture (Hickman,1998; House & Aditya,1997 Hunt,1991; Ireland & Hitt,1999; Selznick,1984; Zaccarro,1996a). Hambrick (1989) argues that strategic leadership occurs in an environment embedded in ambiguity, complexity, and informational overload. Since it is argued that the environment that surrounds organizations is becoming increasingly hyper-turbulent (Eisenhardt, 1989), we suggest that the essence of strategic leadership is the creation and mainte­nance of absorptive capacity (Cohen & Levinthal, 1990) and adaptive capacity (Black & Boal, 1996; Hambrick, 1989) coupled with managerial wisdom (Malan &Kriger, 1998).Absorptive capacity refers to the ability to learn. It involves the capacity to recognize new information, assimilate it, and apply it toward new ends. It involves processes used offensively and defensively to improve ts between the organization and its environments. It is a continuous genesis of creation and recreation where gestalts and logical structures are added or deleted from memory (Piaget, 1968). Sometimes these processes only require adjustments within an existing behavioral repertoire. It occurs at the individual and organizational level.Adaptive capacity refers to the ability to changeThe organizations ability to change requires that the leaders have cognitive and behav­ioral complexity and flexibility (Boal & Whitehead, 1992; Hooijberg et al., 1997;Zacarro, 1996a) coupled with an openness to and acceptance of change (Black & Boal, 1996).managerial wisdom combines properties of discernment and Kairos time (Bartunek & Necochea, 2000). Discernment lies at the heart of managerial wisdom (Malan & Kriger, 1998). It involves the ability to perceive variation in the environ­ment (cf. Osborn, Hunt, & Jauch, 1980) and an understanding of the social actors and their relationships. When discussed in terms of understanding others, the labelssocial intelligence or interpersonal intelligence are often used (Gardner, 1985, 1993; Sternberg,1985; Zaccaro, Gilbert, Thor, & Mumford (1991). Social awareness (e.g., empathy) and social skills (e.g., conflict management) are two key components underlying social intelligence (McCauley, 2000). Kairos time (Bartunek & Neco­chea, 2000) involves the capacity to take the right action at a critical movement. The notion of Kairos time and kairotic moments has a long tradition in both Greek philosophy and Judeo-Christian theology (Kinneavy, 1986).Upper echelon theory (Hambrick & Mason,1984), which suggests that organiza­tions are reflections of top managers cognitions and values, lead Hambrick and Finkelstein (1987) to suggest that the amount of discretion enjoyed by top managers will moderate the relationship between their strategic choices and organizational outcomes. The greater the discretion, the more impact the leaders choices will have on organizational outcomes. Discretion, in a sense, increases the capacity of the leader to make a difference, but leaders must be capable of seizing the opportunityThese SIPs are caused by changes in fundamental industry dynamics, technologies, and strategies that create opportunities for strategic leaders to develop new visions, create new strategies, and move their organizations in new directions as they traverse throughthe turbulence and uncertaintyrequires, they suggest, a capacity for strategic recognition on the part of leaders at the strategic apexActionable visions are doable. Actionable visions point to activities that people can undertake to move toward a desirable future. They meet the reality test. To meet the nal criteria of articulation, visions should use powerful imagery to crystal­lize what is wanted in the minds of followers. They suggest three contextual factorsthat will facilitate whether a vision leads to realized improvements in organizationalperformance. The three factors are environmental turbulence, resource availability,and the organizations susceptibility to changeLord and Hall (1992) suggest that leadership effectiveness may hinge more on social intelli­gence and behavioral flexibility than other factors cognitive and behavioral complexity and social intelligence form the foundation for absorptive capacity, capacity to change, and managerial wisdom.
  • Flexibility is an essential feature of leaders who think strategically. Flexibility is not about changing the goals, it is about abandoning fixed ideas, it is about thinking of array of possible solutions, never thought of before and all the while retaining constancy of purposeWhat makes something strategic? Think #strategic thinking, strategic conversations, strategic listening, working in a strategic way, or the statement of strategic intent!!! Here is what it means!#Learning is a characteristic feature of leaders who are strategic thinkers. They not only learn from their own experience, they also have the ability to draw analogy from others experience. Strategy defined Strategic thinking is a cognitive activity but is meaningful only in a context Reframers – scanners - Leaders are people who, singularly or with others, establish direction and then mobilize people, capture resources, and create an adaptive learning culture to move toward it.The basic elements of strategic leadership have not changed much – what is needed is -According to recent research, the essence of strategic leadership lies in the ability to learn (absorptive capacity), the ability to change (adaptive capacity), and managerial wisdom (Boal & Hooijberg, 2000) or the right combination of intelligence, creativity and wisdom (Sternberg, 2003). These elements are often highlighted in organizational transformations when the managers, trying to create meaning and purpose for the organizations, may need to revitalize or even significantly change the business model on which the whole organizational effort is based, to take advantage of emerging strategic opportunities and threats, and to monitor and balance the needs of different stakeholders (Storey, 2005). The absorptive capacity enables leaders to actively searched for information and new ideas outside the direct environments of the organizations through discussions with the managers of other firms and by meeting existing and potential customers. the adaptive capacity may closely relate to a person‘s ability to learn, since learning Thus, the basis for successful absorption and adaptation is largely in openness to new things. Managerial wisdom include the ability to understand social actors and their relationships (also known as social intelligence), the ability to perceive variation in the environment, and the ability to take the right action at the right time. Serlachius‘s ability to construct and maintain social and professional networks is one.
  • Flexibility is an essential feature of leaders who think strategically. Flexibility is not about changing the goals, it is about abandoning fixed ideas, it is about thinking of array of possible solutions, never thought of before and all the while retaining constancy of purposeWhat makes something strategic? Think #strategic thinking, strategic conversations, strategic listening, working in a strategic way, or the statement of strategic intent!!! Here is what it means!#Learning is a characteristic feature of leaders who are strategic thinkers. They not only learn from their own experience, they also have the ability to draw analogy from others experience. Strategy defined Strategic thinking is a cognitive activity but is meaningful only in a context Reframers – scanners - Leaders are people who, singularly or with others, establish direction and then mobilize people, capture resources, and create an adaptive learning culture to move toward it.The basic elements of strategic leadership have not changed much – what is needed is -According to recent research, the essence of strategic leadership lies in the ability to learn (absorptive capacity), the ability to change (adaptive capacity), and managerial wisdom (Boal & Hooijberg, 2000) or the right combination of intelligence, creativity and wisdom (Sternberg, 2003). These elements are often highlighted in organizational transformations when the managers, trying to create meaning and purpose for the organizations, may need to revitalize or even significantly change the business model on which the whole organizational effort is based, to take advantage of emerging strategic opportunities and threats, and to monitor and balance the needs of different stakeholders (Storey, 2005). The absorptive capacity enables leaders to actively searched for information and new ideas outside the direct environments of the organizations through discussions with the managers of other firms and by meeting existing and potential customers. the adaptive capacity may closely relate to a person‘s ability to learn, since learning Thus, the basis for successful absorption and adaptation is largely in openness to new things. Managerial wisdom include the ability to understand social actors and their relationships (also known as social intelligence), the ability to perceive variation in the environment, and the ability to take the right action at the right time. Serlachius‘s ability to construct and maintain social and professional networks is one.

Transcript

  • 1. EDA 7931 – Seminar in Executive Leadership Learning to Lead Organizations and Teams 1
  • 2. The Context of theCourse Pisapia, J. (2009). The Strategic 11/14/2011 2 Leader. Charlotte, NC: IAP
  • 3. The Context of the Course Supervisors, Managers and Executives• Lowest layer focuses on accomplishment of concrete tasks. Leadership at this level is “direct” face-to-face – direct assignment of tasks and motivation of effort toward task accomplishment. Live within a culture. Time horizons are short. Greater need for technical and interpersonal skills.• Middle layer removed from those involved with task accomplishment. Work involves facilitating task accomplishment at the direct level. Focuses on managing interdependencies, resourcing, coordination of efforts over time. Live within a culture. Time horizons are relatively short. Greater need for conceptual and interpersonal skills.• Top layer removed from managing interdependencies and focused on providing a sense of understanding and purpose to the activities of organization, building consensus, tapping resources from outside the organization, and reducing uncertainty to enable unity of effort to emerge. Add greatest value by resource allocation. Create culture. Time horizons are longer. Greater need for abstract, integrative thinking skills is essential
  • 4. OverviewTarget #1: Develop an understanding of the principles and practices of strategic leadership Theme 1: The Nature of Change  Power of the Curve  The Pyramids of Change Theme 2: New World – New Tactics  The New Tactics  The SL Philosophy Theme 3: Self Cultivation: The Keystone Skills Agility of the Mind: A Way of Thinking  Artistry of Actions: A Way of Acting Theme 4: Organizational Cultivation: The SL METHOD  A Way of Working to Find the Future and Make it Happen! 11/14/2011 The Strategic Leader Network 4
  • 5. Strategic LeadershipNew World – New Tactics Why? What? How?
  • 6. WHY ?Every few hundred years in western historythere occurs a sharp transformation. Wecross... a divide. Within a few short decadessociety rearranges itself, its world view; itsbasic values; its social and political structure;its arts; its key institutions. Fifty yearslater, there appears a new world...we arecurrently living through such a transformation.Drucker, 1993: p 1 You don’t have to change
  • 7. Why do we need to Lead Differently?The Power of the Curve 11/14/2011 The Strategic Leader Network 7
  • 8. EXAMPLE:Exploitation – Exploration –Disruptive Innovation 2000 Xbox 2005 Xbox 360 Exploitation Disruptive Innovation 2006 Wii Exploration Adapted from McCarthy, I.P., Lawrence, T.B., Wixted, B., and Gordon, B. 2010. A Multidimensional conceptualization of environmental velocity. Academy of8 Management Review, 35(4), 604-626
  • 9. Why do we need to Lead Differently?The Power of the Curve Disruptive Innovation 11/14/2011 The Strategic Leader Network 9
  • 10. UNCERTAINTY IN THE ENVIRONMENT Simple Soft drink bottlers, Personal computers, beer distributors, fashion clothing, container manuf., music industry, toy local utilities manufacturersDEGREE OFHOMOGENEITY American Airlines, Universities, hospitals, oil companies, Insurance companies electronic firms, aerospace firms Complex Stable Dynamic DEGREE OF CHANGE
  • 11. The Lessons of the CurveLesson #1 The Leadership LessonOld maps do not work! Disruptive change and globalization are challenging the legitimacy of legacy command and control models of leadership.These NEW conditions reward leaders who: Practice from analytic and integrative mindsets, Use a multi-dimensional set of leader influence actions. Connect their organizations to current major environmental themes associated with success, Connect with the minds and spirit of followers, 11/14/2011 The Strategic Leader Network 11
  • 12. Lesson # 2 New Times Require New Tactics New Science Tactics Organizational FitnessSLers lead through Minimum Specificationprinciples and Environmental scanninggenerative Flexible planningprocesses; not rules Self Managementand procedures. Generative Processes Chunking Change Edge of Chaos 12 Pisapia, J. (2009). The Strategic Leader. Charlotte: NC: IAP
  • 13. Implications of Worldviews Old Science - New Science• Organizations tend to be: • Organizations tend to be: – Built on predictability and Rationality. – Built on unpredictability and complexity. – Rigid and conforming – In disarray and disorder. – In a steady state. – In a state of becoming – Have problems which are amenable to – Have some problems which not amenable to solution. solution in current form, – Independent of environment – Interdependent with environment• Change must be managed not led. • Change must be led, not managed. – Leaders need to – Leaders need to discover the route predict, direct, manage and control and the destination through a journey. change in their organizations – Focus on becoming more adaptable in order to survive. – Develop and follow detailed maps. – Maintain a constancy of purpose. – Focus on clarity of – Begin with a small working purpose, command structures, and system, have multiple goals, strive to control processes make good enough choices, and grow – Command and control structures are by chunking. used to create predictability of – Turn whatever happens to your results. advantage. – Provide the right answers – Asking the right questions. 13 The Strategic Leader Network
  • 14. Lesson #3 The Change LessonThe Pyramids of Strategic Change Transformational Disruptive Discontinuous Directed Planned Frame Breaking Punctuated Change Revolutionary Strategic Evolutionary Frame Sustaining Continuous Change Incremental 11/14/2011 The Strategic Leader Network 14
  • 15. “Ten short years.... the one thing that we have done consistently is to change .... It may seem easier for our life to remain constant, but change, really, is the only constant. We cannot stop it and we cannot escape it. We can let it destroy us or we can embrace it. We must embrace it.” Michael Eisner Disney 1994 Annual ReportDARDEN 11/14/2011 15
  • 16. What role does Artistry play in implementing FB or FS Change?Leading Change The real distinction is between those who adapt their purposes to reality, and those who seek to mold reality in the light of their purposes. -- Henry Kissinger Or do both! --John Pisapia 11/14/2011 Pisapia, J. (2009). The Strategic Leader. Charlotte, NC: IAP 16
  • 17. WHAT KIND OF CHANGE IS THIS? 1927 1917 1907 11/14/2011 The Strategic Leader Network 17
  • 18. Will the old leadership maps serve us well in conditions of uncertainty, ambiguity and complexity.11/14/2011 Pisapia, J. (2009). The Strategic Leader. Charlotte, NC: IAP 18
  • 19. The SL What?Strategic leadership is the capability to singularly, or with others, anticipate change, and create direction, alignment, commitment and results in complex environments.11/14/2011 Pisapia, J. (2009) The Strategic Leader. 19
  • 20. Lesson #3bThe Leadership Lesson!One of the critical functions of the leader is to get the "right people on the bus, the wrong people off the bus, and the right people in the right seats on the bus." (Collins, 2001) “right bus driver to Have the build the conditions under which followers can connect the main ideas of the Statement of Intent into their minds and spirit” (Pisapia, 2009) Pisapia, J. (2009). The Strategic Leader. Charlotte, NC: IAP 20
  • 21. And, just HOW dowe do this in real life?11/14/2011 The Strategic Leader Network 21
  • 22. 11/14/2011 The Strategic Leader Network 22
  • 23. Still TooComplicated!Just what do I do?11/14/2011 The Strategic Leader Network 23
  • 24. AT ITS CORE, WORKING IN A STRATEGIC WAY REQUIRES LEADERS WITH . . .The ability to:1. Make and execute: CONSEQUENTIALDECISIONS about :  ENDS,  STRATEGIES , and  TACTICS2. Think strategically and execute change effectively with a profound appreciation for stability. 11/14/2011 The Strategic Leader Network 24
  • 25. The SL Way - Use the Leader’s wheel W O R K in astrategic way. Strategic Thinking Strategic Execution 11/14/2011 The Strategic Leader Network 25
  • 26. AT ITS CORE, WORKING IN A STRATEGIC Search for info and newREQUIRES LEADERS WITH . . . WAYThe ability to learn and change as well ideasto ideas Openness newpossessing of wisdom • Understand Socialwhich enables them to: Relationships • Perceive variation in1. Make and execute: environment, • Take the right actionCONSEQUENTIAL DECISIONS about the right time at :  ENDS,  STRATEGIES , and A Hallmark of a Strategic  TACTICS Leader2. Think strategically and execute change effectively with a profound appreciation for stability. 11/14/2011 The Strategic Leader Network 26
  • 27. Come on!Get Real! HOWdo I do thisin real life?
  • 28. “He who controls othersmay be powerful, but hewho has mastered himselfis mightier still." - Lao Tzu Pisapia, J. (2009). The Strategic 28 Leader. Charlotte: NC: IAP
  • 29. Way of Thinking and Working Learn to use the Keystone and Action competencies Keystone Competencies Action CompetenciesCompetency 1: SLers possess strategic Competency 3: SLers are able to create a shared thinking skills - systems thinking - reality and then a shared direction that reflection - reframing - which enable them results in actionable plans. When ends are not to: (a) recognize patterns, make sense out externally established, SLers establish them. of seemingly unrelated information, and When ends are know, they create the (b) switch from a strategic mindset -“Why conditions that produce results by mobilizing and What” - to a tactical mindset -“How people, establishing relationships, capturing and When” - in a rapid and iterative resources, creating coherence and crafting a processes when appropriate. responsible adaptive learning culture.Competency 2: SLers are able to create Competency 4: SLers are able to create the direction and momentum by using conditions that produce results. SLers are managing - transforming - bonding - performance AND institutional builders. When bridging - bartering – actions which enable starting up new project agree on what the them to: (a) BUILD A BIG TENT and fill it, goals and the metrics that are appropriate. and (b) ENGAGE PEOPLE in the SLers lead by example. They teach the organization’s work because they know organization’s point of view; empower, hire for that change will be fast if people are cultural and performance fit, and tie rewards engaged - slow – if not to performance. Pisapia, J. (2009). The Strategic 29 Leader. Charlotte, NC: IAP
  • 30. The Concepts that Guide the Practice of Strategic Leadership Self Cultivation Organizational Cultivation Agility Strategic Thinking Protocol Strategic Mindset Create a Shared Reality New Science Principles Generative Processes Systems Thinking Strategic Questions Reflection Strategic Conversations Reframing Create a Shared Direction Artistry Strategic Execution Protocol Transforming Concrete Clear Target Managing Track Performance Bonding Teach Organizations Point of View Bridging Make Learning a Priority Bartering Empower Hire for Cultural and Performance Fit Tie Rewards to Performance, Growth & Contribution Pisapia, J. (2009). The Strategic 11/14/2011 30 Leader. Charlotte, NC: IAP
  • 31. Are We Ready to Rock and Roll? 11/14/2011 The Strategic Leader Network 31